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From: Chris Wilson <chris@chris-wilson.co.uk>
To: intel-gfx@lists.freedesktop.org
Subject: [PATCH 18/18] drm/i915: Introduce mapping of user pages into video memory (userptr) ioctl
Date: Fri, 19 Oct 2012 18:03:24 +0100	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <1350666204-8101-18-git-send-email-chris@chris-wilson.co.uk> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <1350666204-8101-1-git-send-email-chris@chris-wilson.co.uk>

By exporting the ability to map user address and inserting PTEs
representing their backing pages into the GTT, we can exploit UMA in order
to utilize normal application data as a texture source or even as a
render target (depending upon the capabilities of the chipset). This has
a number of uses, with zero-copy downloads to the GPU and efficient
readback making the intermixed streaming of CPU and GPU operations
fairly efficient. This ability has many widespread implications from
faster rendering of client-side software rasterisers (chromium),
mitigation of stalls due to read back (firefox) and to faster pipelining
of texture data (such as pixel buffer objects in GL).

v2: Compile with CONFIG_MMU_NOTIFIER

Signed-off-by: Chris Wilson <chris@chris-wilson.co.uk>
---
 drivers/gpu/drm/i915/Makefile           |    1 +
 drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_dma.c         |    1 +
 drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_drv.h         |   21 +++
 drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem.c         |    9 +-
 drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem_userptr.c |  277 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 include/drm/i915_drm.h                  |   15 ++
 6 files changed, 321 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem_userptr.c

diff --git a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/Makefile b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/Makefile
index 0f2c549..754d665 100644
--- a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/Makefile
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@ i915-y := i915_drv.o i915_dma.o i915_irq.o \
 	  i915_gem_gtt.o \
 	  i915_gem_stolen.o \
 	  i915_gem_tiling.o \
+	  i915_gem_userptr.o \
 	  i915_sysfs.o \
 	  i915_trace_points.o \
 	  intel_display.o \
diff --git a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_dma.c b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_dma.c
index 69969be..b6e284a 100644
--- a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_dma.c
+++ b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_dma.c
@@ -1899,6 +1899,7 @@ struct drm_ioctl_desc i915_ioctls[] = {
 	DRM_IOCTL_DEF_DRV(I915_GEM_CONTEXT_CREATE, i915_gem_context_create_ioctl, DRM_UNLOCKED),
 	DRM_IOCTL_DEF_DRV(I915_GEM_CONTEXT_DESTROY, i915_gem_context_destroy_ioctl, DRM_UNLOCKED),
 	DRM_IOCTL_DEF_DRV(I915_REG_READ, i915_reg_read_ioctl, DRM_UNLOCKED),
+	DRM_IOCTL_DEF_DRV(I915_GEM_USERPTR, i915_gem_userptr_ioctl, DRM_ROOT_ONLY|DRM_UNLOCKED),
 };
 
 int i915_max_ioctl = DRM_ARRAY_SIZE(i915_ioctls);
diff --git a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_drv.h b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_drv.h
index 5084b29..77c78d9 100644
--- a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_drv.h
+++ b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_drv.h
@@ -40,6 +40,7 @@
 #include <linux/backlight.h>
 #include <linux/intel-iommu.h>
 #include <linux/kref.h>
+#include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
 
 /* General customization:
  */
@@ -927,6 +928,7 @@ struct drm_i915_gem_object_ops {
 	 */
 	int (*get_pages)(struct drm_i915_gem_object *);
 	void (*put_pages)(struct drm_i915_gem_object *);
+	void (*release)(struct drm_i915_gem_object *);
 };
 
 struct drm_i915_gem_object {
@@ -1072,6 +1074,23 @@ struct drm_i915_gem_object {
 	atomic_t pending_flip;
 };
 
+struct i915_gem_userptr_object {
+	struct drm_i915_gem_object gem;
+	uintptr_t user_ptr;
+	size_t user_size;
+	int read_only;
+
+	struct mm_struct *mm;
+#if defined(CONFIG_MMU_NOTIFIER)
+	struct mmu_notifier mn;
+#endif
+};
+
+union drm_i915_gem_objects {
+	struct drm_i915_gem_object base;
+	struct i915_gem_userptr_object userptr;
+};
+
 inline static bool i915_gem_object_is_prime(struct drm_i915_gem_object *obj)
 {
 	return obj->base.import_attach != NULL;
@@ -1333,6 +1352,8 @@ int i915_gem_entervt_ioctl(struct drm_device *dev, void *data,
 			   struct drm_file *file_priv);
 int i915_gem_leavevt_ioctl(struct drm_device *dev, void *data,
 			   struct drm_file *file_priv);
+int i915_gem_userptr_ioctl(struct drm_device *dev, void *data,
+			   struct drm_file *file);
 int i915_gem_set_tiling(struct drm_device *dev, void *data,
 			struct drm_file *file_priv);
 int i915_gem_get_tiling(struct drm_device *dev, void *data,
diff --git a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem.c b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem.c
index 8183c0f..cda4dc8 100644
--- a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem.c
+++ b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem.c
@@ -2565,9 +2565,9 @@ i915_gem_object_unbind(struct drm_i915_gem_object *obj)
 	/* Avoid an unnecessary call to unbind on rebind. */
 	obj->map_and_fenceable = true;
 
+	obj->gtt_offset -= obj->gtt_space->start;
 	drm_mm_put_block(obj->gtt_space);
 	obj->gtt_space = NULL;
-	obj->gtt_offset = 0;
 
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -3083,7 +3083,7 @@ i915_gem_object_bind_to_gtt(struct drm_i915_gem_object *obj,
 	list_move_tail(&obj->gtt_list, &dev_priv->mm.bound_list);
 	list_add_tail(&obj->mm_list, &dev_priv->mm.inactive_list);
 
-	obj->gtt_offset = obj->gtt_space->start;
+	obj->gtt_offset += obj->gtt_space->start;
 
 	fenceable =
 		obj->gtt_space->size == fence_size &&
@@ -3876,6 +3876,9 @@ void i915_gem_free_object(struct drm_gem_object *gem_obj)
 	if (obj->base.import_attach)
 		drm_prime_gem_destroy(&obj->base, NULL);
 
+	if (obj->ops->release)
+		obj->ops->release(obj);
+
 	drm_gem_object_release(&obj->base);
 	i915_gem_info_remove_obj(dev_priv, obj->base.size);
 
@@ -4263,7 +4266,7 @@ i915_gem_load(struct drm_device *dev)
 
 	dev_priv->slab =
 		kmem_cache_create("i915_gem_object",
-				  sizeof(struct drm_i915_gem_object), 0,
+				  sizeof(union drm_i915_gem_objects), 0,
 				  SLAB_HWCACHE_ALIGN,
 				  NULL);
 
diff --git a/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem_userptr.c b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem_userptr.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..645290a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/gpu/drm/i915/i915_gem_userptr.c
@@ -0,0 +1,277 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright © 2012 Intel Corporation
+ *
+ * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
+ * copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),
+ * to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation
+ * the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
+ * and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
+ * Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
+ *
+ * The above copyright notice and this permission notice (including the next
+ * paragraph) shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
+ * Software.
+ *
+ * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
+ * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.  IN NO EVENT SHALL
+ * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
+ * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING
+ * FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
+ * IN THE SOFTWARE.
+ *
+ */
+
+#include "drmP.h"
+#include "drm.h"
+#include "i915_drm.h"
+#include "i915_drv.h"
+#include "i915_trace.h"
+#include "intel_drv.h"
+#include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
+#include <linux/swap.h>
+
+static struct i915_gem_userptr_object *to_userptr_object(struct drm_i915_gem_object *obj)
+{
+	return container_of(obj, struct i915_gem_userptr_object, gem);
+}
+
+#if defined(CONFIG_MMU_NOTIFIER)
+static void i915_gem_userptr_mn_release(struct mmu_notifier *mn,
+					struct mm_struct *mm)
+{
+	struct i915_gem_userptr_object *vmap;
+
+	vmap = container_of(mn, struct i915_gem_userptr_object, mn);
+	BUG_ON(vmap->mm != mm);
+	vmap->mm = NULL;
+
+	/* XXX Schedule an eventual unbind? E.g. hook into require request?
+	 * However, locking will be complicated.
+	 */
+}
+
+static const struct mmu_notifier_ops i915_gem_userptr_notifier = {
+	.release = i915_gem_userptr_mn_release,
+};
+
+static void
+i915_gem_userptr_release__mmu_notifier(struct i915_gem_userptr_object *vmap)
+{
+	if (vmap->mm) {
+		mmu_notifier_unregister(&vmap->mn, vmap->mm);
+		BUG_ON(vmap->mm);
+	}
+}
+
+static int
+i915_gem_userptr_init__mmu_notifier(struct i915_gem_userptr_object *vmap)
+{
+	vmap->mn.ops = &i915_gem_userptr_notifier;
+	return mmu_notifier_register(&vmap->mn, vmap->mm);
+}
+
+#else
+
+static void
+i915_gem_userptr_release__mmu_notifier(struct i915_gem_userptr_object *vmap)
+{
+}
+
+static int
+i915_gem_userptr_init__mmu_notifier(struct i915_gem_userptr_object *vmap)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+#endif
+
+static int
+i915_gem_userptr_get_pages(struct drm_i915_gem_object *obj)
+{
+	struct i915_gem_userptr_object *vmap = to_userptr_object(obj);
+	int num_pages = obj->base.size >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+	struct sg_table *st;
+	struct scatterlist *sg;
+	struct page **pvec;
+	int n, pinned, ret;
+
+	if (vmap->mm == NULL)
+		return -EFAULT;
+
+	if (!access_ok(vmap->read_only ? VERIFY_READ : VERIFY_WRITE,
+		       (char __user *)vmap->user_ptr, vmap->user_size))
+		return -EFAULT;
+
+	/* If userspace should engineer that these pages are replaced in
+	 * the vma between us binding this page into the GTT and completion
+	 * of rendering... Their loss. If they change the mapping of their
+	 * pages they need to create a new bo to point to the new vma.
+	 *
+	 * However, that still leaves open the possibility of the vma
+	 * being copied upon fork. Which falls under the same userspace
+	 * synchronisation issue as a regular bo, except that this time
+	 * the process may not be expecting that a particular piece of
+	 * memory is tied to the GPU.
+	 */
+
+	pvec = kmalloc(num_pages*sizeof(struct page *),
+		       GFP_KERNEL | __GFP_NOWARN | __GFP_NORETRY);
+	if (pvec == NULL) {
+		pvec = drm_malloc_ab(num_pages, sizeof(struct page *));
+		if (pvec == NULL)
+			return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	pinned = 0;
+	if (vmap->mm == current->mm)
+		pinned = __get_user_pages_fast(vmap->user_ptr, num_pages,
+					       !vmap->read_only, pvec);
+	if (pinned < num_pages) {
+		struct mm_struct *mm = vmap->mm;
+		ret = 0;
+		mutex_unlock(&obj->base.dev->struct_mutex);
+		down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
+		if (vmap->mm != NULL)
+			ret = get_user_pages(current, mm,
+					     vmap->user_ptr + (pinned << PAGE_SHIFT),
+					     num_pages - pinned,
+					     !vmap->read_only, 0,
+					     pvec + pinned,
+					     NULL);
+		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
+		mutex_lock(&obj->base.dev->struct_mutex);
+		if (ret > 0)
+			pinned += ret;
+
+		if (obj->pages || pinned < num_pages) {
+			ret = obj->pages ? 0 : -EFAULT;
+			goto cleanup_pinned;
+		}
+	}
+
+	st = kmalloc(sizeof(*st), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (st == NULL) {
+		ret = -ENOMEM;
+		goto cleanup_pinned;
+	}
+
+	if (sg_alloc_table(st, num_pages, GFP_KERNEL)) {
+		ret = -ENOMEM;
+		goto cleanup_st;
+	}
+
+	for_each_sg(st->sgl, sg, num_pages, n)
+		sg_set_page(sg, pvec[n], PAGE_SIZE, 0);
+	drm_free_large(pvec);
+
+	obj->pages = st;
+	return 0;
+
+cleanup_st:
+	kfree(st);
+cleanup_pinned:
+	release_pages(pvec, pinned, 0);
+	drm_free_large(pvec);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static void
+i915_gem_userptr_put_pages(struct drm_i915_gem_object *obj)
+{
+	struct scatterlist *sg;
+	int i;
+
+	if (obj->madv != I915_MADV_WILLNEED)
+		obj->dirty = 0;
+
+	for_each_sg(obj->pages->sgl, sg, obj->pages->nents, i) {
+		struct page *page = sg_page(sg);
+
+		if (obj->dirty)
+			set_page_dirty(page);
+
+		mark_page_accessed(page);
+		page_cache_release(page);
+	}
+	obj->dirty = 0;
+
+	sg_free_table(obj->pages);
+	kfree(obj->pages);
+}
+
+static void
+i915_gem_userptr_release(struct drm_i915_gem_object *obj)
+{
+	struct i915_gem_userptr_object *vmap = to_userptr_object(obj);
+
+	i915_gem_userptr_release__mmu_notifier(vmap);
+}
+
+static const struct drm_i915_gem_object_ops i915_gem_userptr_ops = {
+	.get_pages = i915_gem_userptr_get_pages,
+	.put_pages = i915_gem_userptr_put_pages,
+	.release = i915_gem_userptr_release,
+};
+
+/**
+ * Creates a new mm object that wraps some user memory.
+ */
+int
+i915_gem_userptr_ioctl(struct drm_device *dev, void *data, struct drm_file *file)
+{
+	struct drm_i915_private *dev_priv = dev->dev_private;
+	struct drm_i915_gem_userptr *args = data;
+	struct i915_gem_userptr_object *obj;
+	loff_t first_data_page, last_data_page;
+	int num_pages;
+	int ret;
+	u32 handle;
+
+	first_data_page = args->user_ptr / PAGE_SIZE;
+	last_data_page = (args->user_ptr + args->user_size - 1) / PAGE_SIZE;
+	num_pages = last_data_page - first_data_page + 1;
+	if (num_pages * PAGE_SIZE > dev_priv->mm.gtt_total)
+		return -E2BIG;
+
+	ret = fault_in_multipages_readable((char __user *)(uintptr_t)args->user_ptr,
+					   args->user_size);
+	if (ret)
+		return ret;
+
+	/* Allocate the new object */
+	obj = i915_gem_object_alloc(dev);
+	if (obj == NULL)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	if (drm_gem_private_object_init(dev, &obj->gem.base,
+					num_pages * PAGE_SIZE)) {
+		i915_gem_object_free(&obj->gem);
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	i915_gem_object_init(&obj->gem, &i915_gem_userptr_ops);
+	obj->gem.cache_level = I915_CACHE_LLC_MLC;
+
+	obj->gem.gtt_offset = offset_in_page(args->user_ptr);
+	obj->user_ptr = args->user_ptr;
+	obj->user_size = args->user_size;
+	obj->read_only = args->flags & I915_USERPTR_READ_ONLY;
+
+	/* And keep a pointer to the current->mm for resolving the user pages
+	 * at binding. This means that we need to hook into the mmu_notifier
+	 * in order to detect if the mmu is destroyed.
+	 */
+	obj->mm = current->mm;
+	ret = i915_gem_userptr_init__mmu_notifier(obj);
+	if (ret)
+		return ret;
+
+	ret = drm_gem_handle_create(file, &obj->gem.base, &handle);
+	/* drop reference from allocate - handle holds it now */
+	drm_gem_object_unreference(&obj->gem.base);
+	if (ret)
+		return ret;
+
+	args->handle = handle;
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/include/drm/i915_drm.h b/include/drm/i915_drm.h
index 0e6e135..4f41f8d 100644
--- a/include/drm/i915_drm.h
+++ b/include/drm/i915_drm.h
@@ -206,6 +206,7 @@ typedef struct _drm_i915_sarea {
 #define DRM_I915_GEM_SET_CACHEING	0x2f
 #define DRM_I915_GEM_GET_CACHEING	0x30
 #define DRM_I915_REG_READ		0x31
+#define DRM_I915_GEM_USERPTR		0x32
 
 #define DRM_IOCTL_I915_INIT		DRM_IOW( DRM_COMMAND_BASE + DRM_I915_INIT, drm_i915_init_t)
 #define DRM_IOCTL_I915_FLUSH		DRM_IO ( DRM_COMMAND_BASE + DRM_I915_FLUSH)
@@ -255,6 +256,7 @@ typedef struct _drm_i915_sarea {
 #define DRM_IOCTL_I915_GEM_CONTEXT_CREATE	DRM_IOWR (DRM_COMMAND_BASE + DRM_I915_GEM_CONTEXT_CREATE, struct drm_i915_gem_context_create)
 #define DRM_IOCTL_I915_GEM_CONTEXT_DESTROY	DRM_IOW (DRM_COMMAND_BASE + DRM_I915_GEM_CONTEXT_DESTROY, struct drm_i915_gem_context_destroy)
 #define DRM_IOCTL_I915_REG_READ			DRM_IOWR (DRM_COMMAND_BASE + DRM_I915_REG_READ, struct drm_i915_reg_read)
+#define DRM_IOCTL_I915_GEM_USERPTR			DRM_IOWR (DRM_COMMAND_BASE + DRM_I915_GEM_USERPTR, struct drm_i915_gem_userptr)
 
 /* Allow drivers to submit batchbuffers directly to hardware, relying
  * on the security mechanisms provided by hardware.
@@ -476,6 +478,19 @@ struct drm_i915_gem_mmap_gtt {
 	__u64 offset;
 };
 
+struct drm_i915_gem_userptr {
+	__u64 user_ptr;
+	__u32 user_size;
+	__u32 flags;
+#define I915_USERPTR_READ_ONLY 0x1
+	/**
+	 * Returned handle for the object.
+	 *
+	 * Object handles are nonzero.
+	 */
+	__u32 handle;
+};
+
 struct drm_i915_gem_set_domain {
 	/** Handle for the object */
 	__u32 handle;
-- 
1.7.10.4

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  parent reply	other threads:[~2012-10-19 17:04 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 51+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2012-10-19 17:03 [PATCH 01/18] drm: Introduce drm_mm_create_block() Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 02/18] drm/i915: Fix detection of stolen base for gen2 Chris Wilson
2012-11-01 23:51   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 03/18] drm/i915: Fix location of stolen memory register for SandyBridge+ Chris Wilson
2012-10-26 21:58   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-28  9:48     ` Chris Wilson
2012-10-28 17:52       ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-02  0:08       ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-02  8:54         ` Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 13:53           ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 04/18] drm/i915: Avoid clearing preallocated regions from the GTT Chris Wilson
2012-10-26 22:22   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 05/18] drm: Introduce an iterator over holes in the drm_mm range manager Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 13:41   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-05 15:13     ` Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 06/18] drm/i915: Delay allocation of stolen space for FBC Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 13:44   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-05 15:24     ` Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 07/18] drm/i915: Defer allocation of stolen memory for FBC until actual first use Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 15:00   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-05 15:28     ` Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 15:32       ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 08/18] drm/i915: Allow objects to be created with no backing pages, but stolen space Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 09/18] drm/i915: Differentiate between prime and stolen objects Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 10/18] drm/i915: Support readback of stolen objects upon error Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 15:41   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 11/18] drm/i915: Handle stolen objects in pwrite Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 12/18] drm/i915: Handle stolen objects for pread Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 13/18] drm/i915: Introduce i915_gem_object_create_stolen() Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 16:32   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-05 16:59     ` Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 17:34       ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 14/18] drm/i915: Allocate fbcon from stolen memory Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 15/18] drm/i915: Allocate ringbuffers " Chris Wilson
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 16/18] drm/i915: Allocate overlay registers " Chris Wilson
2012-11-05 17:39   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` [PATCH 17/18] drm/i915: Use a slab for object allocation Chris Wilson
2012-10-24 20:21   ` Paulo Zanoni
2012-11-05 17:49   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-05 20:57     ` Chris Wilson
2012-11-07 13:59       ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-05 18:07   ` Ben Widawsky
2012-11-05 18:10     ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-19 17:03 ` Chris Wilson [this message]
2012-10-22 22:21   ` [PATCH 18/18] drm/i915: Introduce mapping of user pages into video memory (userptr) ioctl Jesse Barnes
2012-10-23  7:20     ` Daniel Vetter
2012-10-23 17:50       ` Eric Anholt
2012-10-26 21:47 ` [PATCH 01/18] drm: Introduce drm_mm_create_block() Ben Widawsky
2012-10-28  9:57   ` Chris Wilson
2012-10-28 18:12     ` Ben Widawsky
2012-10-28 18:14       ` Ben Widawsky

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    --subject='Re: [PATCH 18/18] drm/i915: Introduce mapping of user pages into video memory (userptr) ioctl' \
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