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From: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
To: akpm@linux-foundation.org, andreyknvl@google.com,
	aryabinin@virtuozzo.com, Branislav.Rankov@arm.com,
	catalin.marinas@arm.com, dvyukov@google.com, elver@google.com,
	eugenis@google.com, glider@google.com, gor@linux.ibm.com,
	kevin.brodsky@arm.com, linux-mm@kvack.org,
	mm-commits@vger.kernel.org, torvalds@linux-foundation.org,
	vincenzo.frascino@arm.com, will.deacon@arm.com
Subject: [patch 53/78] kasan: add documentation for hardware tag-based mode
Date: Fri, 18 Dec 2020 14:04:18 -0800	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20201218220418.em96prJN1%akpm@linux-foundation.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20201218140046.497484741326828e5b5d46ec@linux-foundation.org>

From: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Subject: kasan: add documentation for hardware tag-based mode

Add documentation for hardware tag-based KASAN mode and also add some
clarifications for software tag-based mode.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20ed1d387685e89fc31be068f890f070ef9fd5d5.1606161801.git.andreyknvl@google.com
Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
Reviewed-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Tested-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Branislav Rankov <Branislav.Rankov@arm.com>
Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Evgenii Stepanov <eugenis@google.com>
Cc: Kevin Brodsky <kevin.brodsky@arm.com>
Cc: Vasily Gorbik <gor@linux.ibm.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
---

 Documentation/dev-tools/kasan.rst |   84 ++++++++++++++++++++--------
 1 file changed, 61 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)

--- a/Documentation/dev-tools/kasan.rst~kasan-add-documentation-for-hardware-tag-based-mode
+++ a/Documentation/dev-tools/kasan.rst
@@ -5,12 +5,14 @@ Overview
 --------
 
 KernelAddressSANitizer (KASAN) is a dynamic memory error detector designed to
-find out-of-bound and use-after-free bugs. KASAN has two modes: generic KASAN
-(similar to userspace ASan) and software tag-based KASAN (similar to userspace
-HWASan).
-
-KASAN uses compile-time instrumentation to insert validity checks before every
-memory access, and therefore requires a compiler version that supports that.
+find out-of-bound and use-after-free bugs. KASAN has three modes:
+1. generic KASAN (similar to userspace ASan),
+2. software tag-based KASAN (similar to userspace HWASan),
+3. hardware tag-based KASAN (based on hardware memory tagging).
+
+Software KASAN modes (1 and 2) use compile-time instrumentation to insert
+validity checks before every memory access, and therefore require a compiler
+version that supports that.
 
 Generic KASAN is supported in both GCC and Clang. With GCC it requires version
 8.3.0 or later. Any supported Clang version is compatible, but detection of
@@ -19,7 +21,7 @@ out-of-bounds accesses for global variab
 Tag-based KASAN is only supported in Clang.
 
 Currently generic KASAN is supported for the x86_64, arm64, xtensa, s390 and
-riscv architectures, and tag-based KASAN is supported only for arm64.
+and riscv architectures, and tag-based KASAN modes are supported only for arm64.
 
 Usage
 -----
@@ -28,14 +30,16 @@ To enable KASAN configure kernel with::
 
 	  CONFIG_KASAN = y
 
-and choose between CONFIG_KASAN_GENERIC (to enable generic KASAN) and
-CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS (to enable software tag-based KASAN).
-
-You also need to choose between CONFIG_KASAN_OUTLINE and CONFIG_KASAN_INLINE.
-Outline and inline are compiler instrumentation types. The former produces
-smaller binary while the latter is 1.1 - 2 times faster.
+and choose between CONFIG_KASAN_GENERIC (to enable generic KASAN),
+CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS (to enable software tag-based KASAN), and
+CONFIG_KASAN_HW_TAGS (to enable hardware tag-based KASAN).
+
+For software modes, you also need to choose between CONFIG_KASAN_OUTLINE and
+CONFIG_KASAN_INLINE. Outline and inline are compiler instrumentation types.
+The former produces smaller binary while the latter is 1.1 - 2 times faster.
 
-Both KASAN modes work with both SLUB and SLAB memory allocators.
+Both software KASAN modes work with both SLUB and SLAB memory allocators,
+hardware tag-based KASAN currently only support SLUB.
 For better bug detection and nicer reporting, enable CONFIG_STACKTRACE.
 
 To augment reports with last allocation and freeing stack of the physical page,
@@ -197,17 +201,24 @@ call_rcu() and workqueue queuing.
 Software tag-based KASAN
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-Tag-based KASAN uses the Top Byte Ignore (TBI) feature of modern arm64 CPUs to
-store a pointer tag in the top byte of kernel pointers. Like generic KASAN it
-uses shadow memory to store memory tags associated with each 16-byte memory
+Software tag-based KASAN requires software memory tagging support in the form
+of HWASan-like compiler instrumentation (see HWASan documentation for details).
+
+Software tag-based KASAN is currently only implemented for arm64 architecture.
+
+Software tag-based KASAN uses the Top Byte Ignore (TBI) feature of arm64 CPUs
+to store a pointer tag in the top byte of kernel pointers. Like generic KASAN
+it uses shadow memory to store memory tags associated with each 16-byte memory
 cell (therefore it dedicates 1/16th of the kernel memory for shadow memory).
 
-On each memory allocation tag-based KASAN generates a random tag, tags the
-allocated memory with this tag, and embeds this tag into the returned pointer.
+On each memory allocation software tag-based KASAN generates a random tag, tags
+the allocated memory with this tag, and embeds this tag into the returned
+pointer.
+
 Software tag-based KASAN uses compile-time instrumentation to insert checks
 before each memory access. These checks make sure that tag of the memory that
 is being accessed is equal to tag of the pointer that is used to access this
-memory. In case of a tag mismatch tag-based KASAN prints a bug report.
+memory. In case of a tag mismatch software tag-based KASAN prints a bug report.
 
 Software tag-based KASAN also has two instrumentation modes (outline, that
 emits callbacks to check memory accesses; and inline, that performs the shadow
@@ -216,9 +227,36 @@ simply printed from the function that pe
 instrumentation a brk instruction is emitted by the compiler, and a dedicated
 brk handler is used to print bug reports.
 
-A potential expansion of this mode is a hardware tag-based mode, which would
-use hardware memory tagging support instead of compiler instrumentation and
-manual shadow memory manipulation.
+Software tag-based KASAN uses 0xFF as a match-all pointer tag (accesses through
+pointers with 0xFF pointer tag aren't checked). The value 0xFE is currently
+reserved to tag freed memory regions.
+
+Software tag-based KASAN currently only supports tagging of
+kmem_cache_alloc/kmalloc and page_alloc memory.
+
+Hardware tag-based KASAN
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Hardware tag-based KASAN is similar to the software mode in concept, but uses
+hardware memory tagging support instead of compiler instrumentation and
+shadow memory.
+
+Hardware tag-based KASAN is currently only implemented for arm64 architecture
+and based on both arm64 Memory Tagging Extension (MTE) introduced in ARMv8.5
+Instruction Set Architecture, and Top Byte Ignore (TBI).
+
+Special arm64 instructions are used to assign memory tags for each allocation.
+Same tags are assigned to pointers to those allocations. On every memory
+access, hardware makes sure that tag of the memory that is being accessed is
+equal to tag of the pointer that is used to access this memory. In case of a
+tag mismatch a fault is generated and a report is printed.
+
+Hardware tag-based KASAN uses 0xFF as a match-all pointer tag (accesses through
+pointers with 0xFF pointer tag aren't checked). The value 0xFE is currently
+reserved to tag freed memory regions.
+
+Hardware tag-based KASAN currently only supports tagging of
+kmem_cache_alloc/kmalloc and page_alloc memory.
 
 What memory accesses are sanitised by KASAN?
 --------------------------------------------
_

  parent reply	other threads:[~2020-12-18 22:04 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 98+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-12-18 22:00 incoming Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 01/78] mm/memcg: bail early from swap accounting if memcg disabled Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 02/78] mm/memcg: warning on !memcg after readahead page charged Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 03/78] mm/memcg: remove unused definitions Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 04/78] mm, kvm: account kvm_vcpu_mmap to kmemcg Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 05/78] mm/memcontrol:rewrite mem_cgroup_page_lruvec() Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 06/78] epoll: check for events when removing a timed out thread from the wait queue Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 07/78] epoll: simplify signal handling Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 08/78] epoll: pull fatal signal checks into ep_send_events() Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 09/78] epoll: move eavail next to the list_empty_careful check Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 10/78] epoll: simplify and optimize busy loop logic Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 11/78] epoll: pull all code between fetch_events and send_event into the loop Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 12/78] epoll: replace gotos with a proper loop Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 13/78] epoll: eliminate unnecessary lock for zero timeout Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 14/78] kasan: drop unnecessary GPL text from comment headers Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 15/78] kasan: KASAN_VMALLOC depends on KASAN_GENERIC Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 16/78] kasan: group vmalloc code Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 17/78] kasan: shadow declarations only for software modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 18/78] kasan: rename (un)poison_shadow to (un)poison_range Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 19/78] kasan: rename KASAN_SHADOW_* to KASAN_GRANULE_* Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 20/78] kasan: only build init.c for software modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 21/78] kasan: split out shadow.c from common.c Andrew Morton
2020-12-19  0:28   ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19  1:13     ` Andrew Morton
2020-12-19 10:01       ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19 10:01         ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19 10:11       ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19 10:11         ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19 18:01       ` Andrey Konovalov
2020-12-19 18:01         ` Andrey Konovalov
2020-12-19 19:17       ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-19 19:17         ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-19 19:26         ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-19 19:26           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-21  9:46         ` Alexander Potapenko
2020-12-21  9:46           ` Alexander Potapenko
2020-12-21 17:41           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-21 17:41             ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-22 18:38             ` Andrew Morton
2020-12-22 12:00   ` kernel test robot
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 22/78] kasan: define KASAN_MEMORY_PER_SHADOW_PAGE Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 23/78] kasan: rename report and tags files Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 24/78] kasan: don't duplicate config dependencies Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 25/78] kasan: hide invalid free check implementation Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 26/78] kasan: decode stack frame only with KASAN_STACK_ENABLE Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 27/78] kasan, arm64: only init shadow for software modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 28/78] kasan, arm64: only use kasan_depth " Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 29/78] kasan, arm64: move initialization message Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 30/78] kasan, arm64: rename kasan_init_tags and mark as __init Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 31/78] kasan: rename addr_has_shadow to addr_has_metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 32/78] kasan: rename print_shadow_for_address to print_memory_metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 33/78] kasan: rename SHADOW layout macros to META Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 34/78] kasan: separate metadata_fetch_row for each mode Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 35/78] kasan: introduce CONFIG_KASAN_HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 36/78] arm64: enable armv8.5-a asm-arch option Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 37/78] arm64: mte: add in-kernel MTE helpers Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 38/78] arm64: mte: reset the page tag in page->flags Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 39/78] arm64: mte: add in-kernel tag fault handler Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 40/78] arm64: kasan: allow enabling in-kernel MTE Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 41/78] arm64: mte: convert gcr_user into an exclude mask Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 42/78] arm64: mte: switch GCR_EL1 in kernel entry and exit Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 43/78] kasan, mm: untag page address in free_reserved_area Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 44/78] arm64: kasan: align allocations for HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 45/78] arm64: kasan: add arch layer for memory tagging helpers Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 46/78] kasan: define KASAN_GRANULE_SIZE for HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 47/78] kasan, x86, s390: update undef CONFIG_KASAN Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 48/78] kasan, arm64: expand CONFIG_KASAN checks Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 49/78] kasan, arm64: implement HW_TAGS runtime Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 50/78] kasan, arm64: print report from tag fault handler Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 51/78] kasan, mm: reset tags when accessing metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 52/78] kasan, arm64: enable CONFIG_KASAN_HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` Andrew Morton [this message]
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 54/78] kselftest/arm64: check GCR_EL1 after context switch Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 55/78] kasan: simplify quarantine_put call site Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 56/78] kasan: rename get_alloc/free_info Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 57/78] kasan: introduce set_alloc_info Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 58/78] kasan, arm64: unpoison stack only with CONFIG_KASAN_STACK Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 59/78] kasan: allow VMAP_STACK for HW_TAGS mode Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 60/78] kasan: remove __kasan_unpoison_stack Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 61/78] kasan: inline kasan_reset_tag for tag-based modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 62/78] kasan: inline random_tag for HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 63/78] kasan: open-code kasan_unpoison_slab Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 64/78] kasan: inline (un)poison_range and check_invalid_free Andrew Morton
2020-12-22 14:02   ` kernel test robot
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 65/78] kasan: add and integrate kasan boot parameters Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 66/78] kasan, mm: check kasan_enabled in annotations Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 67/78] kasan, mm: rename kasan_poison_kfree Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 68/78] kasan: don't round_up too much Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 69/78] kasan: simplify assign_tag and set_tag calls Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 70/78] kasan: clarify comment in __kasan_kfree_large Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 71/78] kasan: sanitize objects when metadata doesn't fit Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 72/78] kasan, mm: allow cache merging with no metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 73/78] kasan: update documentation Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 74/78] mm/Kconfig: fix spelling mistake "whats" -> "what's" Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 75/78] epoll: convert internal api to timespec64 Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 76/78] epoll: add syscall epoll_pwait2 Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 77/78] epoll: wire up " Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 78/78] selftests/filesystems: expand epoll with epoll_pwait2 Andrew Morton

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