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* [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 1/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim until some writeback completes if congested Mel Gorman
                   ` (7 more replies)
  0 siblings, 8 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

This series replaces the v4 version in mmotm as the changes caused
excessive conflicts. This series is also available at

git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/mel/linux.git mm-reclaimcongest-v5r4

Changelog since v4
o Costmetic changes						(neilb)
o Correct number of writeback throttled tasks			(neilb)
o Use wake_up							(neilb)

Changelog since v3
o Count writeback completions for NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN only
o Use IRQ-safe inc_node_page_state
o Remove redundant throttling

This series that removes all calls to congestion_wait
in mm/ and deletes wait_iff_congested. It's not a clever
implementation but congestion_wait has been broken for a long time
(https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/45d8b7a6-8548-65f5-cccf-9f451d4ae3d4@kernel.dk/).
Even if congestion throttling worked, it was never a great idea. While
excessive dirty/writeback pages at the tail of the LRU is one possibility
that reclaim may be slow, there is also the problem of too many pages
being isolated and reclaim failing for other reasons (elevated references,
too many pages isolated, excessive LRU contention etc).

This series replaces the "congestion" throttling with 3 different types.

o If there are too many dirty/writeback pages, sleep until a timeout
  or enough pages get cleaned
o If too many pages are isolated, sleep until enough isolated pages
  are either reclaimed or put back on the LRU
o If no progress is being made, direct reclaim tasks sleep until
  another task makes progress with acceptable efficiency.

This was initially tested with a mix of workloads that used to trigger
corner cases that no longer work. A new test case was created called
"stutterp" (pagereclaim-stutterp-noreaders in mmtests) using a freshly
created XFS filesystem. Note that it may be necessary to increase the
timeout of ssh if executing remotely as ssh itself can get throttled and
the connection may timeout.

stutterp varies the number of "worker" processes from 4 up to NR_CPUS*4
to check the impact as the number of direct reclaimers increase. It has
four types of worker.

o One "anon latency" worker creates small mappings with mmap() and times
  how long it takes to fault the mapping reading it 4K at a time
o X file writers which is fio randomly writing X files where the total
  size of the files add up to the allowed dirty_ratio. fio is allowed
  to run for a warmup period to allow some file-backed pages to
  accumulate. The duration of the warmup is based on the best-case
  linear write speed of the storage.
o Y file readers which is fio randomly reading small files
o Z anon memory hogs which continually map (100-dirty_ratio)% of
  memory
o Total estimated WSS = (100+dirty_ration) percentage of memory

X+Y+Z+1 == NR_WORKERS varying from 4 up to NR_CPUS*4

The intent is to maximise the total WSS with a mix of file and anon memory
where some anonymous memory must be swapped and there is a high likelihood
of dirty/writeback pages reaching the end of the LRU.

The test can be configured to have no background readers to stress
dirty/writeback pages. The results below are based on having zero readers.

The short summary of the results is that the series works and stalls
until some event occurs but the timeouts may need adjustment.

The test results are not broken down by patch as the series should be
treated as one block that replaces a broken throttling mechanism with a
working one.

Finally, three machines were tested but I'm reporting the worst set of
results. The other two machines had much better latencies for example.

First the results of the "anon latency" latency

stutterp
                              5.15.0-rc1             5.15.0-rc1
                                 vanilla mm-reclaimcongest-v5r4
Amean     mmap-4      31.4003 (   0.00%)   2661.0198 (-8374.52%)
Amean     mmap-7      38.1641 (   0.00%)    149.2891 (-291.18%)
Amean     mmap-12     60.0981 (   0.00%)    187.8105 (-212.51%)
Amean     mmap-21    161.2699 (   0.00%)    213.9107 ( -32.64%)
Amean     mmap-30    174.5589 (   0.00%)    377.7548 (-116.41%)
Amean     mmap-48   8106.8160 (   0.00%)   1070.5616 (  86.79%)
Stddev    mmap-4      41.3455 (   0.00%)  27573.9676 (-66591.66%)
Stddev    mmap-7      53.5556 (   0.00%)   4608.5860 (-8505.23%)
Stddev    mmap-12    171.3897 (   0.00%)   5559.4542 (-3143.75%)
Stddev    mmap-21   1506.6752 (   0.00%)   5746.2507 (-281.39%)
Stddev    mmap-30    557.5806 (   0.00%)   7678.1624 (-1277.05%)
Stddev    mmap-48  61681.5718 (   0.00%)  14507.2830 (  76.48%)
Max-90    mmap-4      31.4243 (   0.00%)     83.1457 (-164.59%)
Max-90    mmap-7      41.0410 (   0.00%)     41.0720 (  -0.08%)
Max-90    mmap-12     66.5255 (   0.00%)     53.9073 (  18.97%)
Max-90    mmap-21    146.7479 (   0.00%)    105.9540 (  27.80%)
Max-90    mmap-30    193.9513 (   0.00%)     64.3067 (  66.84%)
Max-90    mmap-48    277.9137 (   0.00%)    591.0594 (-112.68%)
Max       mmap-4    1913.8009 (   0.00%) 299623.9695 (-15555.96%)
Max       mmap-7    2423.9665 (   0.00%) 204453.1708 (-8334.65%)
Max       mmap-12   6845.6573 (   0.00%) 221090.3366 (-3129.64%)
Max       mmap-21  56278.6508 (   0.00%) 213877.3496 (-280.03%)
Max       mmap-30  19716.2990 (   0.00%) 216287.6229 (-997.00%)
Max       mmap-48 477923.9400 (   0.00%) 245414.8238 (  48.65%)

For most thread counts, the time to mmap() is unfortunately increased.
In earlier versions of the series, this was lower but a large number of
throttling events were reaching their timeout increasing the amount of
inefficient scanning of the LRU. There is no prioritisation of reclaim
tasks making progress based on each tasks rate of page allocation versus
progress of reclaim. The variance is also impacted for high worker
counts but in all cases, the differences in latency are not statistically
significant due to very large maximum outliers. Max-90 shows that 90% of
the stalls are comparable but the Max results show the massive outliers
which are increased to to stalling.

It is expected that this will be very machine dependant. Due to the
test design, reclaim is difficult so allocations stall and there are
variances depending on whether THPs can be allocated or not. The amount
of memory will affect exactly how bad the corner cases are and how often
they trigger.  The warmup period calculation is not ideal as it's based
on linear writes where as fio is randomly writing multiple files from
multiple tasks so the start state of the test is variable. For
example, these are the latencies on a single-socket machine that had
more memory

Amean     mmap-4      42.2287 (   0.00%)     49.6838 * -17.65%*
Amean     mmap-7     216.4326 (   0.00%)     47.4451 *  78.08%*
Amean     mmap-12   2412.0588 (   0.00%)     51.7497 (  97.85%)
Amean     mmap-21   5546.2548 (   0.00%)     51.8862 (  99.06%)
Amean     mmap-30   1085.3121 (   0.00%)     72.1004 (  93.36%)

The overall system CPU usage and elapsed time is as follows

                  5.15.0-rc3  5.15.0-rc3
                     vanilla mm-reclaimcongest-v5r4
Duration User        6989.03      983.42
Duration System      7308.12      799.68
Duration Elapsed     2277.67     2092.98

The patches reduce system CPU usage by 89% as the vanilla kernel is rarely
stalling.

The high-level /proc/vmstats show

                                     5.15.0-rc1     5.15.0-rc1
                                        vanilla mm-reclaimcongest-v5r2
Ops Direct pages scanned          1056608451.00   503594991.00
Ops Kswapd pages scanned           109795048.00   147289810.00
Ops Kswapd pages reclaimed          63269243.00    31036005.00
Ops Direct pages reclaimed          10803973.00     6328887.00
Ops Kswapd efficiency %                   57.62          21.07
Ops Kswapd velocity                    48204.98       57572.86
Ops Direct efficiency %                    1.02           1.26
Ops Direct velocity                   463898.83      196845.97

Kswapd scanned less pages but the detailed pattern is different. The
vanilla kernel scans slowly over time where as the patches exhibits burst
patterns of scan activity. Direct reclaim scanning is reduced by 52%
due to stalling.

The pattern for stealing pages is also slightly different. Both kernels exhibit
spikes but the vanilla kernel when reclaiming shows pages being reclaimed over
a period of time where as the patches tend to reclaim in spikes. The difference
is that vanilla is not throttling and instead scanning constantly finding some
pages over time where as the patched kernel throttles and reclaims in spikes.

Ops Percentage direct scans               90.59          77.37

For direct reclaim, vanilla scanned 90.59% of pages where as with the
patches, 77.37% were direct reclaim due to throttling

Ops Page writes by reclaim           2613590.00     1687131.00

Page writes from reclaim context are reduced.

Ops Page writes anon                 2932752.00     1917048.00

And there is less swapping.

Ops Page reclaim immediate         996248528.00   107664764.00

The number of pages encountered at the tail of the LRU tagged for immediate
reclaim but still dirty/writeback is reduced by 89%.

Ops Slabs scanned                     164284.00      153608.00

Slab scan activity is similar.

ftrace was used to gather stall activity

Vanilla
-------
      1 writeback_wait_iff_congested: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=16000
      2 writeback_wait_iff_congested: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=12000
      8 writeback_wait_iff_congested: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=8000
     29 writeback_wait_iff_congested: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=4000
  82394 writeback_wait_iff_congested: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=0

The fast majority of wait_iff_congested calls do not stall at all.
What is likely happening is that cond_resched() reschedules the task for
a short period when the BDI is not registering congestion (which it never
will in this test setup).

      1 writeback_congestion_wait: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=120000
      2 writeback_congestion_wait: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=132000
      4 writeback_congestion_wait: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=112000
    380 writeback_congestion_wait: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=108000
    778 writeback_congestion_wait: usec_timeout=100000 usec_delayed=104000

congestion_wait if called always exceeds the timeout as there is no
trigger to wake it up.

Bottom line: Vanilla will throttle but it's not effective.

Patch series
------------

Kswapd throttle activity was always due to scanning pages tagged for
immediate reclaim at the tail of the LRU

      1 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=72000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      4 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=20000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      5 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=12000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      6 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=16000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     11 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=100000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     11 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=8000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     94 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=0 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
    112 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=4000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK

The majority of events did not stall or stalled for a short period.
Roughly 16% of stalls reached the timeout before expiry. For direct
reclaim, the number of times stalled for each reason were

   6624 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED
  93246 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
  96934 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK

The most common reason to stall was due to excessive pages tagged for
immediate reclaim at the tail of the LRU followed by a failure to make
forward.  A relatively small number were due to too many pages isolated
from the LRU by parallel threads

For VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED, the breakdown of delays was
 
      9 usec_timeout=20000 usect_delayed=4000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED
     12 usec_timeout=20000 usect_delayed=16000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED
     83 usec_timeout=20000 usect_delayed=20000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED
   6520 usec_timeout=20000 usect_delayed=0 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED

Most did not stall at all. A small number reached the timeout.

For VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS, the breakdown of stalls were all over the
map

      1 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=324000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=332000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=348000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=360000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=228000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=260000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=340000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=364000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=372000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=428000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=460000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=464000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      3 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=244000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      3 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=252000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      3 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=272000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      4 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=188000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      4 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=268000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      4 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=328000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      4 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=380000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      4 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=392000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      4 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=432000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      5 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=204000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      5 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=220000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      5 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=412000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      5 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=436000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      6 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=488000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      7 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=212000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      7 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=300000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      7 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=316000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      7 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=472000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      8 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=248000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      8 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=356000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      8 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=456000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      9 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=124000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      9 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=376000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      9 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=484000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     10 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=172000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     10 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=420000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     10 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=452000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     11 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=256000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=112000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=116000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=144000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=152000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=264000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=384000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=424000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     12 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=492000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     13 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=184000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     13 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=444000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     14 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=308000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     14 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=440000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     14 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=476000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     16 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=140000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     17 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=232000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     17 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=240000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     17 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=280000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     18 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=404000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     20 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=148000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     20 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=216000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     20 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=468000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     21 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=448000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     23 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=168000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     23 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=296000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     25 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=132000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     25 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=352000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     26 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=180000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     27 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=284000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     28 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=164000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     29 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=136000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     30 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=200000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     30 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=400000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     31 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=196000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     32 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=156000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     33 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=224000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     35 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=128000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     35 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=176000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     36 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=368000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     36 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=496000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     37 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=312000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     38 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=304000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     40 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=288000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     43 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=408000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     55 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=416000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     56 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=76000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     58 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=120000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     59 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=208000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     61 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=68000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     71 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=192000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     71 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=480000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     79 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=60000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     82 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=320000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     82 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=92000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     85 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=64000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     85 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=80000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     88 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=84000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     90 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=160000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     90 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=292000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     94 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=56000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    118 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=88000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    119 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=72000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    126 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=108000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    146 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=52000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    148 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=36000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    148 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=48000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    159 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=28000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    178 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=44000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    183 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=40000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    237 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=100000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    266 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=32000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    313 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=24000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    347 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=96000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    470 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=20000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    559 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=16000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    964 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=12000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
   2001 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=104000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
   2447 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=8000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
   7888 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=4000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
  22727 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=0 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
  51305 usec_timeout=500000 usect_delayed=500000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS

The full timeout is often hit but a large number also do not stall at all.
The remainder slept a little allowing other reclaim tasks to make progress.

While this timeout could be further increased, it could also negatively
impact worst-case behaviour when there is no prioritisation of what
task should make progress.

For VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK, the breakdown was

      1 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=44000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      2 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=76000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      3 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=80000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      5 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=48000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      5 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=84000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      6 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=72000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
      7 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=88000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     11 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=56000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     12 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=64000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     16 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=92000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     24 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=68000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     28 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=32000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     30 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=60000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     30 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=96000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     32 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=52000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     42 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=40000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     77 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=28000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
     99 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=36000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
    137 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=24000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
    190 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=20000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
    339 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=16000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
    518 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=12000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
    852 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=8000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
   3359 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=4000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
   7147 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=0 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK
  83962 usec_timeout=100000 usect_delayed=100000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK

The majority hit the timeout in direct reclaim context although
a sizable number did not stall at all. This is very different to
kswapd where only a tiny percentage of stalls due to writeback
reached the timeout.

Bottom line, the throttling appears to work and the wakeup events may limit
worst case stalls. There might be some grounds for adjusting timeouts but
it's likely futile as the worst-case scenarios depend on the workload,
memory size and the speed of the storage. A better approach to improve
the series further would be to prioritise tasks based on their rate of
allocation with the caveat that it may be very expensive to track.

 include/linux/backing-dev.h      |   1 -
 include/linux/mmzone.h           |  15 +++
 include/trace/events/vmscan.h    |  38 ++++++++
 include/trace/events/writeback.h |   7 --
 mm/backing-dev.c                 |  48 ----------
 mm/compaction.c                  |  10 +-
 mm/filemap.c                     |   1 +
 mm/internal.h                    |  21 +++++
 mm/memcontrol.c                  |  10 +-
 mm/page-writeback.c              |  11 ++-
 mm/page_alloc.c                  |  26 ++----
 mm/vmscan.c                      | 151 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
 mm/vmstat.c                      |   1 +
 13 files changed, 237 insertions(+), 103 deletions(-)

-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 1/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim until some writeback completes if congested
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 2/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim and compaction when too may pages are isolated Mel Gorman
                   ` (6 subsequent siblings)
  7 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

Page reclaim throttles on wait_iff_congested under the following conditions

o kswapd is encountering pages under writeback and marked for immediate
  reclaim implying that pages are cycling through the LRU faster than
  pages can be cleaned.

o Direct reclaim will stall if all dirty pages are backed by congested
  inodes.

wait_iff_congested is almost completely broken with few exceptions. This
patch adds a new node-based workqueue and tracks the number of throttled
tasks and pages written back since throttling started. If enough pages
belonging to the node are written back then the throttled tasks will wake
early. If not, the throttled tasks sleeps until the timeout expires.

[neilb@suse.de: Uninterruptible sleep and simpler wakeups]
[hdanton@sina.com: Avoid race when reclaim starts]
[vbabka@suse.cz: vmstat irq-safe api, clarifications]
Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
---
 include/linux/backing-dev.h      |  1 -
 include/linux/mmzone.h           | 13 +++++
 include/trace/events/vmscan.h    | 34 +++++++++++++
 include/trace/events/writeback.h |  7 ---
 mm/backing-dev.c                 | 48 -------------------
 mm/filemap.c                     |  1 +
 mm/internal.h                    | 11 +++++
 mm/page_alloc.c                  |  5 ++
 mm/vmscan.c                      | 82 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
 mm/vmstat.c                      |  1 +
 10 files changed, 135 insertions(+), 68 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/backing-dev.h b/include/linux/backing-dev.h
index ac7f231b8825..9fb1f0ae273c 100644
--- a/include/linux/backing-dev.h
+++ b/include/linux/backing-dev.h
@@ -154,7 +154,6 @@ static inline int wb_congested(struct bdi_writeback *wb, int cong_bits)
 }
 
 long congestion_wait(int sync, long timeout);
-long wait_iff_congested(int sync, long timeout);
 
 static inline bool mapping_can_writeback(struct address_space *mapping)
 {
diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
index 6a1d79d84675..419304093610 100644
--- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
+++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
@@ -199,6 +199,7 @@ enum node_stat_item {
 	NR_VMSCAN_IMMEDIATE,	/* Prioritise for reclaim when writeback ends */
 	NR_DIRTIED,		/* page dirtyings since bootup */
 	NR_WRITTEN,		/* page writings since bootup */
+	NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN,	/* NR_WRITTEN while reclaim throttled */
 	NR_KERNEL_MISC_RECLAIMABLE,	/* reclaimable non-slab kernel pages */
 	NR_FOLL_PIN_ACQUIRED,	/* via: pin_user_page(), gup flag: FOLL_PIN */
 	NR_FOLL_PIN_RELEASED,	/* pages returned via unpin_user_page() */
@@ -272,6 +273,11 @@ enum lru_list {
 	NR_LRU_LISTS
 };
 
+enum vmscan_throttle_state {
+	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,
+	NR_VMSCAN_THROTTLE,
+};
+
 #define for_each_lru(lru) for (lru = 0; lru < NR_LRU_LISTS; lru++)
 
 #define for_each_evictable_lru(lru) for (lru = 0; lru <= LRU_ACTIVE_FILE; lru++)
@@ -841,6 +847,13 @@ typedef struct pglist_data {
 	int node_id;
 	wait_queue_head_t kswapd_wait;
 	wait_queue_head_t pfmemalloc_wait;
+
+	/* workqueues for throttling reclaim for different reasons. */
+	wait_queue_head_t reclaim_wait[NR_VMSCAN_THROTTLE];
+
+	atomic_t nr_writeback_throttled;/* nr of writeback-throttled tasks */
+	unsigned long nr_reclaim_start;	/* nr pages written while throttled
+					 * when throttling started. */
 	struct task_struct *kswapd;	/* Protected by
 					   mem_hotplug_begin/end() */
 	int kswapd_order;
diff --git a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
index 88faf2400ec2..c317f9fe0d17 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
@@ -27,6 +27,14 @@
 		{RECLAIM_WB_ASYNC,	"RECLAIM_WB_ASYNC"}	\
 		) : "RECLAIM_WB_NONE"
 
+#define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK)
+
+#define show_throttle_flags(flags)						\
+	(flags) ? __print_flags(flags, "|",					\
+		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK"}	\
+		) : "VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NONE"
+
+
 #define trace_reclaim_flags(file) ( \
 	(file ? RECLAIM_WB_FILE : RECLAIM_WB_ANON) | \
 	(RECLAIM_WB_ASYNC) \
@@ -454,6 +462,32 @@ DEFINE_EVENT(mm_vmscan_direct_reclaim_end_template, mm_vmscan_node_reclaim_end,
 	TP_ARGS(nr_reclaimed)
 );
 
+TRACE_EVENT(mm_vmscan_throttled,
+
+	TP_PROTO(int nid, int usec_timeout, int usec_delayed, int reason),
+
+	TP_ARGS(nid, usec_timeout, usec_delayed, reason),
+
+	TP_STRUCT__entry(
+		__field(int, nid)
+		__field(int, usec_timeout)
+		__field(int, usec_delayed)
+		__field(int, reason)
+	),
+
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__entry->nid = nid;
+		__entry->usec_timeout = usec_timeout;
+		__entry->usec_delayed = usec_delayed;
+		__entry->reason = 1U << reason;
+	),
+
+	TP_printk("nid=%d usec_timeout=%d usect_delayed=%d reason=%s",
+		__entry->nid,
+		__entry->usec_timeout,
+		__entry->usec_delayed,
+		show_throttle_flags(__entry->reason))
+);
 #endif /* _TRACE_VMSCAN_H */
 
 /* This part must be outside protection */
diff --git a/include/trace/events/writeback.h b/include/trace/events/writeback.h
index 840d1ba84cf5..3bc759b81897 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/writeback.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/writeback.h
@@ -763,13 +763,6 @@ DEFINE_EVENT(writeback_congest_waited_template, writeback_congestion_wait,
 	TP_ARGS(usec_timeout, usec_delayed)
 );
 
-DEFINE_EVENT(writeback_congest_waited_template, writeback_wait_iff_congested,
-
-	TP_PROTO(unsigned int usec_timeout, unsigned int usec_delayed),
-
-	TP_ARGS(usec_timeout, usec_delayed)
-);
-
 DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS(writeback_single_inode_template,
 
 	TP_PROTO(struct inode *inode,
diff --git a/mm/backing-dev.c b/mm/backing-dev.c
index 4a9d4e27d0d9..0ea1a105eae5 100644
--- a/mm/backing-dev.c
+++ b/mm/backing-dev.c
@@ -1041,51 +1041,3 @@ long congestion_wait(int sync, long timeout)
 	return ret;
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(congestion_wait);
-
-/**
- * wait_iff_congested - Conditionally wait for a backing_dev to become uncongested or a pgdat to complete writes
- * @sync: SYNC or ASYNC IO
- * @timeout: timeout in jiffies
- *
- * In the event of a congested backing_dev (any backing_dev) this waits
- * for up to @timeout jiffies for either a BDI to exit congestion of the
- * given @sync queue or a write to complete.
- *
- * The return value is 0 if the sleep is for the full timeout. Otherwise,
- * it is the number of jiffies that were still remaining when the function
- * returned. return_value == timeout implies the function did not sleep.
- */
-long wait_iff_congested(int sync, long timeout)
-{
-	long ret;
-	unsigned long start = jiffies;
-	DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
-	wait_queue_head_t *wqh = &congestion_wqh[sync];
-
-	/*
-	 * If there is no congestion, yield if necessary instead
-	 * of sleeping on the congestion queue
-	 */
-	if (atomic_read(&nr_wb_congested[sync]) == 0) {
-		cond_resched();
-
-		/* In case we scheduled, work out time remaining */
-		ret = timeout - (jiffies - start);
-		if (ret < 0)
-			ret = 0;
-
-		goto out;
-	}
-
-	/* Sleep until uncongested or a write happens */
-	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
-	ret = io_schedule_timeout(timeout);
-	finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
-
-out:
-	trace_writeback_wait_iff_congested(jiffies_to_usecs(timeout),
-					jiffies_to_usecs(jiffies - start));
-
-	return ret;
-}
-EXPORT_SYMBOL(wait_iff_congested);
diff --git a/mm/filemap.c b/mm/filemap.c
index dae481293b5d..59187787fbfc 100644
--- a/mm/filemap.c
+++ b/mm/filemap.c
@@ -1605,6 +1605,7 @@ void end_page_writeback(struct page *page)
 
 	smp_mb__after_atomic();
 	wake_up_page(page, PG_writeback);
+	acct_reclaim_writeback(page);
 	put_page(page);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(end_page_writeback);
diff --git a/mm/internal.h b/mm/internal.h
index cf3cb933eba3..b495e60c955d 100644
--- a/mm/internal.h
+++ b/mm/internal.h
@@ -34,6 +34,17 @@
 
 void page_writeback_init(void);
 
+void __acct_reclaim_writeback(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct page *page,
+						int nr_throttled);
+static inline void acct_reclaim_writeback(struct page *page)
+{
+	pg_data_t *pgdat = page_pgdat(page);
+	int nr_throttled = atomic_read(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled);
+
+	if (nr_throttled)
+		__acct_reclaim_writeback(pgdat, page, nr_throttled);
+}
+
 vm_fault_t do_swap_page(struct vm_fault *vmf);
 
 void free_pgtables(struct mmu_gather *tlb, struct vm_area_struct *start_vma,
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index b37435c274cf..78e538067651 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -7389,6 +7389,8 @@ static void pgdat_init_kcompactd(struct pglist_data *pgdat) {}
 
 static void __meminit pgdat_init_internals(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
 {
+	int i;
+
 	pgdat_resize_init(pgdat);
 
 	pgdat_init_split_queue(pgdat);
@@ -7397,6 +7399,9 @@ static void __meminit pgdat_init_internals(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
 	init_waitqueue_head(&pgdat->kswapd_wait);
 	init_waitqueue_head(&pgdat->pfmemalloc_wait);
 
+	for (i = 0; i < NR_VMSCAN_THROTTLE; i++)
+		init_waitqueue_head(&pgdat->reclaim_wait[i]);
+
 	pgdat_page_ext_init(pgdat);
 	lruvec_init(&pgdat->__lruvec);
 }
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 74296c2d1fed..0c1595065f49 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1006,6 +1006,64 @@ static void handle_write_error(struct address_space *mapping,
 	unlock_page(page);
 }
 
+static void
+reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
+							long timeout)
+{
+	wait_queue_head_t *wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[reason];
+	long ret;
+	DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
+
+	/*
+	 * Do not throttle IO workers, kthreads other than kswapd or
+	 * workqueues. They may be required for reclaim to make
+	 * forward progress (e.g. journalling workqueues or kthreads).
+	 */
+	if (!current_is_kswapd() &&
+	    current->flags & (PF_IO_WORKER|PF_KTHREAD))
+		return;
+
+	if (atomic_inc_return(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled) == 1) {
+		WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->nr_reclaim_start,
+			node_page_state(pgdat, NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN));
+	}
+
+	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+	ret = schedule_timeout(timeout);
+	finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
+	atomic_dec(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled);
+
+	trace_mm_vmscan_throttled(pgdat->node_id, jiffies_to_usecs(timeout),
+				jiffies_to_usecs(timeout - ret),
+				reason);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Account for pages written if tasks are throttled waiting on dirty
+ * pages to clean. If enough pages have been cleaned since throttling
+ * started then wakeup the throttled tasks.
+ */
+void __acct_reclaim_writeback(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct page *page,
+							int nr_throttled)
+{
+	unsigned long nr_written;
+
+	inc_node_page_state(page, NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN);
+
+	/*
+	 * This is an inaccurate read as the per-cpu deltas may not
+	 * be synchronised. However, given that the system is
+	 * writeback throttled, it is not worth taking the penalty
+	 * of getting an accurate count. At worst, the throttle
+	 * timeout guarantees forward progress.
+	 */
+	nr_written = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN) -
+		READ_ONCE(pgdat->nr_reclaim_start);
+
+	if (nr_written > SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX * nr_throttled)
+		wake_up(&pgdat->reclaim_wait[VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK]);
+}
+
 /* possible outcome of pageout() */
 typedef enum {
 	/* failed to write page out, page is locked */
@@ -1412,9 +1470,8 @@ static unsigned int shrink_page_list(struct list_head *page_list,
 
 		/*
 		 * The number of dirty pages determines if a node is marked
-		 * reclaim_congested which affects wait_iff_congested. kswapd
-		 * will stall and start writing pages if the tail of the LRU
-		 * is all dirty unqueued pages.
+		 * reclaim_congested. kswapd will stall and start writing
+		 * pages if the tail of the LRU is all dirty unqueued pages.
 		 */
 		page_check_dirty_writeback(page, &dirty, &writeback);
 		if (dirty || writeback)
@@ -3180,19 +3237,19 @@ static void shrink_node(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
 		 * If kswapd scans pages marked for immediate
 		 * reclaim and under writeback (nr_immediate), it
 		 * implies that pages are cycling through the LRU
-		 * faster than they are written so also forcibly stall.
+		 * faster than they are written so forcibly stall
+		 * until some pages complete writeback.
 		 */
 		if (sc->nr.immediate)
-			congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
+			reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK, HZ/10);
 	}
 
 	/*
-	 * Tag a node/memcg as congested if all the dirty pages
-	 * scanned were backed by a congested BDI and
-	 * wait_iff_congested will stall.
+	 * Tag a node/memcg as congested if all the dirty pages were marked
+	 * for writeback and immediate reclaim (counted in nr.congested).
 	 *
 	 * Legacy memcg will stall in page writeback so avoid forcibly
-	 * stalling in wait_iff_congested().
+	 * stalling in reclaim_throttle().
 	 */
 	if ((current_is_kswapd() ||
 	     (cgroup_reclaim(sc) && writeback_throttling_sane(sc))) &&
@@ -3200,15 +3257,15 @@ static void shrink_node(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
 		set_bit(LRUVEC_CONGESTED, &target_lruvec->flags);
 
 	/*
-	 * Stall direct reclaim for IO completions if underlying BDIs
-	 * and node is congested. Allow kswapd to continue until it
+	 * Stall direct reclaim for IO completions if the lruvec is
+	 * node is congested. Allow kswapd to continue until it
 	 * starts encountering unqueued dirty pages or cycling through
 	 * the LRU too quickly.
 	 */
 	if (!current_is_kswapd() && current_may_throttle() &&
 	    !sc->hibernation_mode &&
 	    test_bit(LRUVEC_CONGESTED, &target_lruvec->flags))
-		wait_iff_congested(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK, HZ/10);
 
 	if (should_continue_reclaim(pgdat, sc->nr_reclaimed - nr_reclaimed,
 				    sc))
@@ -4286,6 +4343,7 @@ static int kswapd(void *p)
 
 	WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->kswapd_order, 0);
 	WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->kswapd_highest_zoneidx, MAX_NR_ZONES);
+	atomic_set(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled, 0);
 	for ( ; ; ) {
 		bool ret;
 
diff --git a/mm/vmstat.c b/mm/vmstat.c
index 8ce2620344b2..9b2bc9d61d4b 100644
--- a/mm/vmstat.c
+++ b/mm/vmstat.c
@@ -1225,6 +1225,7 @@ const char * const vmstat_text[] = {
 	"nr_vmscan_immediate_reclaim",
 	"nr_dirtied",
 	"nr_written",
+	"nr_throttled_written",
 	"nr_kernel_misc_reclaimable",
 	"nr_foll_pin_acquired",
 	"nr_foll_pin_released",
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 2/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim and compaction when too may pages are isolated
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 1/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim until some writeback completes if congested Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made Mel Gorman
                   ` (5 subsequent siblings)
  7 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

Page reclaim throttles on congestion if too many parallel reclaim instances
have isolated too many pages. This makes no sense, excessive parallelisation
has nothing to do with writeback or congestion.

This patch creates an additional workqueue to sleep on when too many
pages are isolated. The throttled tasks are woken when the number
of isolated pages is reduced or a timeout occurs. There may be
some false positive wakeups for GFP_NOIO/GFP_NOFS callers but
the tasks will throttle again if necessary.

[shy828301@gmail.com: Wake up from compaction context]
[vbabka@suse.cz: Account number of throttled tasks only for writeback]
Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
---
 include/linux/mmzone.h        |  1 +
 include/trace/events/vmscan.h |  4 +++-
 mm/compaction.c               | 10 ++++++++--
 mm/internal.h                 | 11 +++++++++++
 mm/vmscan.c                   | 22 ++++++++++++++++------
 5 files changed, 39 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
index 419304093610..9ccd8d95291b 100644
--- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
+++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
@@ -275,6 +275,7 @@ enum lru_list {
 
 enum vmscan_throttle_state {
 	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,
+	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,
 	NR_VMSCAN_THROTTLE,
 };
 
diff --git a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
index c317f9fe0d17..d4905bd9e9c4 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
@@ -28,10 +28,12 @@
 		) : "RECLAIM_WB_NONE"
 
 #define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK)
+#define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED)
 
 #define show_throttle_flags(flags)						\
 	(flags) ? __print_flags(flags, "|",					\
-		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK"}	\
+		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK"},	\
+		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED"}	\
 		) : "VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NONE"
 
 
diff --git a/mm/compaction.c b/mm/compaction.c
index bfc93da1c2c7..7359093d8ac0 100644
--- a/mm/compaction.c
+++ b/mm/compaction.c
@@ -761,6 +761,8 @@ isolate_freepages_range(struct compact_control *cc,
 /* Similar to reclaim, but different enough that they don't share logic */
 static bool too_many_isolated(pg_data_t *pgdat)
 {
+	bool too_many;
+
 	unsigned long active, inactive, isolated;
 
 	inactive = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_FILE) +
@@ -770,7 +772,11 @@ static bool too_many_isolated(pg_data_t *pgdat)
 	isolated = node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_FILE) +
 			node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ISOLATED_ANON);
 
-	return isolated > (inactive + active) / 2;
+	too_many = isolated > (inactive + active) / 2;
+	if (!too_many)
+		wake_throttle_isolated(pgdat);
+
+	return too_many;
 }
 
 /**
@@ -822,7 +828,7 @@ isolate_migratepages_block(struct compact_control *cc, unsigned long low_pfn,
 		if (cc->mode == MIGRATE_ASYNC)
 			return -EAGAIN;
 
-		congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED, HZ/10);
 
 		if (fatal_signal_pending(current))
 			return -EINTR;
diff --git a/mm/internal.h b/mm/internal.h
index b495e60c955d..c72d3383ef34 100644
--- a/mm/internal.h
+++ b/mm/internal.h
@@ -45,6 +45,15 @@ static inline void acct_reclaim_writeback(struct page *page)
 		__acct_reclaim_writeback(pgdat, page, nr_throttled);
 }
 
+static inline void wake_throttle_isolated(pg_data_t *pgdat)
+{
+	wait_queue_head_t *wqh;
+
+	wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED];
+	if (waitqueue_active(wqh))
+		wake_up(wqh);
+}
+
 vm_fault_t do_swap_page(struct vm_fault *vmf);
 
 void free_pgtables(struct mmu_gather *tlb, struct vm_area_struct *start_vma,
@@ -120,6 +129,8 @@ extern unsigned long highest_memmap_pfn;
  */
 extern int isolate_lru_page(struct page *page);
 extern void putback_lru_page(struct page *page);
+extern void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
+								long timeout);
 
 /*
  * in mm/rmap.c:
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 0c1595065f49..1e54e636b927 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1006,12 +1006,12 @@ static void handle_write_error(struct address_space *mapping,
 	unlock_page(page);
 }
 
-static void
-reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
+void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
 							long timeout)
 {
 	wait_queue_head_t *wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[reason];
 	long ret;
+	bool acct_writeback = (reason == VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK);
 	DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
 
 	/*
@@ -1023,7 +1023,8 @@ reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
 	    current->flags & (PF_IO_WORKER|PF_KTHREAD))
 		return;
 
-	if (atomic_inc_return(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled) == 1) {
+	if (acct_writeback &&
+	    atomic_inc_return(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled) == 1) {
 		WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->nr_reclaim_start,
 			node_page_state(pgdat, NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN));
 	}
@@ -1031,7 +1032,9 @@ reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
 	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
 	ret = schedule_timeout(timeout);
 	finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
-	atomic_dec(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled);
+
+	if (acct_writeback)
+		atomic_dec(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled);
 
 	trace_mm_vmscan_throttled(pgdat->node_id, jiffies_to_usecs(timeout),
 				jiffies_to_usecs(timeout - ret),
@@ -2176,6 +2179,7 @@ static int too_many_isolated(struct pglist_data *pgdat, int file,
 		struct scan_control *sc)
 {
 	unsigned long inactive, isolated;
+	bool too_many;
 
 	if (current_is_kswapd())
 		return 0;
@@ -2199,7 +2203,13 @@ static int too_many_isolated(struct pglist_data *pgdat, int file,
 	if ((sc->gfp_mask & (__GFP_IO | __GFP_FS)) == (__GFP_IO | __GFP_FS))
 		inactive >>= 3;
 
-	return isolated > inactive;
+	too_many = isolated > inactive;
+
+	/* Wake up tasks throttled due to too_many_isolated. */
+	if (!too_many)
+		wake_throttle_isolated(pgdat);
+
+	return too_many;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -2308,8 +2318,8 @@ shrink_inactive_list(unsigned long nr_to_scan, struct lruvec *lruvec,
 			return 0;
 
 		/* wait a bit for the reclaimer. */
-		msleep(100);
 		stalled = true;
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED, HZ/10);
 
 		/* We are about to die and free our memory. Return now. */
 		if (fatal_signal_pending(current))
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 1/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim until some writeback completes if congested Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 2/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim and compaction when too may pages are isolated Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  2021-11-24  1:19   ` Darrick J. Wong
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 4/8] mm/writeback: Throttle based on page writeback instead of congestion Mel Gorman
                   ` (4 subsequent siblings)
  7 siblings, 1 reply; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

Memcg reclaim throttles on congestion if no reclaim progress is made.
This makes little sense, it might be due to writeback or a host of
other factors.

For !memcg reclaim, it's messy. Direct reclaim primarily is throttled
in the page allocator if it is failing to make progress. Kswapd
throttles if too many pages are under writeback and marked for
immediate reclaim.

This patch explicitly throttles if reclaim is failing to make progress.

[vbabka@suse.cz: Remove redundant code]
Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
---
 include/linux/mmzone.h        |  1 +
 include/trace/events/vmscan.h |  4 +++-
 mm/memcontrol.c               | 10 +---------
 mm/vmscan.c                   | 28 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 33 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
index 9ccd8d95291b..00e305cfb3ec 100644
--- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
+++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
@@ -276,6 +276,7 @@ enum lru_list {
 enum vmscan_throttle_state {
 	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,
 	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,
+	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS,
 	NR_VMSCAN_THROTTLE,
 };
 
diff --git a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
index d4905bd9e9c4..f25a6149d3ba 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
@@ -29,11 +29,13 @@
 
 #define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK)
 #define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED)
+#define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS)
 
 #define show_throttle_flags(flags)						\
 	(flags) ? __print_flags(flags, "|",					\
 		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK"},	\
-		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED"}	\
+		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED"},	\
+		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS"}	\
 		) : "VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NONE"
 
 
diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
index 6da5020a8656..8b33152c9b85 100644
--- a/mm/memcontrol.c
+++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
@@ -3465,19 +3465,11 @@ static int mem_cgroup_force_empty(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
 
 	/* try to free all pages in this cgroup */
 	while (nr_retries && page_counter_read(&memcg->memory)) {
-		int progress;
-
 		if (signal_pending(current))
 			return -EINTR;
 
-		progress = try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages(memcg, 1,
-							GFP_KERNEL, true);
-		if (!progress) {
+		if (!try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages(memcg, 1, GFP_KERNEL, true))
 			nr_retries--;
-			/* maybe some writeback is necessary */
-			congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
-		}
-
 	}
 
 	return 0;
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 1e54e636b927..0450f6867d61 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -3323,6 +3323,33 @@ static inline bool compaction_ready(struct zone *zone, struct scan_control *sc)
 	return zone_watermark_ok_safe(zone, 0, watermark, sc->reclaim_idx);
 }
 
+static void consider_reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
+{
+	/* If reclaim is making progress, wake any throttled tasks. */
+	if (sc->nr_reclaimed) {
+		wait_queue_head_t *wqh;
+
+		wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS];
+		if (waitqueue_active(wqh))
+			wake_up(wqh);
+
+		return;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Do not throttle kswapd on NOPROGRESS as it will throttle on
+	 * VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK if there are too many pages under
+	 * writeback and marked for immediate reclaim at the tail of
+	 * the LRU.
+	 */
+	if (current_is_kswapd())
+		return;
+
+	/* Throttle if making no progress at high prioities. */
+	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2)
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS, HZ/10);
+}
+
 /*
  * This is the direct reclaim path, for page-allocating processes.  We only
  * try to reclaim pages from zones which will satisfy the caller's allocation
@@ -3407,6 +3434,7 @@ static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
 			continue;
 		last_pgdat = zone->zone_pgdat;
 		shrink_node(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
+		consider_reclaim_throttle(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
 	}
 
 	/*
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 4/8] mm/writeback: Throttle based on page writeback instead of congestion
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 5/8] mm/page_alloc: Remove the throttling logic from the page allocator Mel Gorman
                   ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  7 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

do_writepages throttles on congestion if the writepages() fails due to a
lack of memory but congestion_wait() is partially broken as the congestion
state is not updated for all BDIs.

This patch stalls waiting for a number of pages to complete writeback
that located on the local node. The main weakness is that there is no
correlation between the location of the inode's pages and locality but
that is still better than congestion_wait.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
---
 mm/page-writeback.c | 11 +++++++++--
 1 file changed, 9 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/page-writeback.c b/mm/page-writeback.c
index 4812a17b288c..f34f54fcd5b4 100644
--- a/mm/page-writeback.c
+++ b/mm/page-writeback.c
@@ -2366,8 +2366,15 @@ int do_writepages(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc)
 			ret = generic_writepages(mapping, wbc);
 		if ((ret != -ENOMEM) || (wbc->sync_mode != WB_SYNC_ALL))
 			break;
-		cond_resched();
-		congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/50);
+
+		/*
+		 * Lacking an allocation context or the locality or writeback
+		 * state of any of the inode's pages, throttle based on
+		 * writeback activity on the local node. It's as good a
+		 * guess as any.
+		 */
+		reclaim_throttle(NODE_DATA(numa_node_id()),
+			VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK, HZ/50);
 	}
 	/*
 	 * Usually few pages are written by now from those we've just submitted
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 5/8] mm/page_alloc: Remove the throttling logic from the page allocator
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
                   ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 4/8] mm/writeback: Throttle based on page writeback instead of congestion Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  2021-10-25 10:07   ` Vlastimil Babka
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 6/8] mm/vmscan: Centralise timeout values for reclaim_throttle Mel Gorman
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  7 siblings, 1 reply; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

The page allocator stalls based on the number of pages that are
waiting for writeback to start but this should now be redundant.
shrink_inactive_list() will wake flusher threads if the LRU tail are
unqueued dirty pages so the flusher should be active. If it fails to make
progress due to pages under writeback not being completed quickly then
it should stall on VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
---
 mm/page_alloc.c | 21 +--------------------
 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 20 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index 78e538067651..8fa0109ff417 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -4795,30 +4795,11 @@ should_reclaim_retry(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned order,
 		trace_reclaim_retry_zone(z, order, reclaimable,
 				available, min_wmark, *no_progress_loops, wmark);
 		if (wmark) {
-			/*
-			 * If we didn't make any progress and have a lot of
-			 * dirty + writeback pages then we should wait for
-			 * an IO to complete to slow down the reclaim and
-			 * prevent from pre mature OOM
-			 */
-			if (!did_some_progress) {
-				unsigned long write_pending;
-
-				write_pending = zone_page_state_snapshot(zone,
-							NR_ZONE_WRITE_PENDING);
-
-				if (2 * write_pending > reclaimable) {
-					congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
-					return true;
-				}
-			}
-
 			ret = true;
-			goto out;
+			break;
 		}
 	}
 
-out:
 	/*
 	 * Memory allocation/reclaim might be called from a WQ context and the
 	 * current implementation of the WQ concurrency control doesn't
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 6/8] mm/vmscan: Centralise timeout values for reclaim_throttle
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
                   ` (4 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 5/8] mm/page_alloc: Remove the throttling logic from the page allocator Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 7/8] mm/vmscan: Increase the timeout if page reclaim is not making progress Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 8/8] mm/vmscan: Delay waking of tasks throttled on NOPROGRESS Mel Gorman
  7 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

Neil Brown raised concerns about callers of reclaim_throttle specifying
a timeout value. The original timeout values to congestion_wait() were
probably pulled out of thin air or copy&pasted from somewhere else.
This patch centralises the timeout values and selects a timeout based
on the reason for reclaim throttling. These figures are also pulled
out of the same thin air but better values may be derived

Running a workload that is throttling for inappropriate periods
and tracing mm_vmscan_throttled can be used to pick a more appropriate
value. Excessive throttling would pick a lower timeout where as
excessive CPU usage in reclaim context would select a larger timeout.
Ideally a large value would always be used and the wakeups would
occur before a timeout but that requires careful testing.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
---
 mm/compaction.c     |  2 +-
 mm/internal.h       |  3 +--
 mm/page-writeback.c |  2 +-
 mm/vmscan.c         | 50 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
 4 files changed, 40 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/compaction.c b/mm/compaction.c
index 7359093d8ac0..151b04c4dab3 100644
--- a/mm/compaction.c
+++ b/mm/compaction.c
@@ -828,7 +828,7 @@ isolate_migratepages_block(struct compact_control *cc, unsigned long low_pfn,
 		if (cc->mode == MIGRATE_ASYNC)
 			return -EAGAIN;
 
-		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED, HZ/10);
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED);
 
 		if (fatal_signal_pending(current))
 			return -EINTR;
diff --git a/mm/internal.h b/mm/internal.h
index c72d3383ef34..383d9b7e7991 100644
--- a/mm/internal.h
+++ b/mm/internal.h
@@ -129,8 +129,7 @@ extern unsigned long highest_memmap_pfn;
  */
 extern int isolate_lru_page(struct page *page);
 extern void putback_lru_page(struct page *page);
-extern void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
-								long timeout);
+extern void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason);
 
 /*
  * in mm/rmap.c:
diff --git a/mm/page-writeback.c b/mm/page-writeback.c
index f34f54fcd5b4..4b01a6872f9e 100644
--- a/mm/page-writeback.c
+++ b/mm/page-writeback.c
@@ -2374,7 +2374,7 @@ int do_writepages(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc)
 		 * guess as any.
 		 */
 		reclaim_throttle(NODE_DATA(numa_node_id()),
-			VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK, HZ/50);
+			VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK);
 	}
 	/*
 	 * Usually few pages are written by now from those we've just submitted
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 0450f6867d61..66da45084af4 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1006,12 +1006,10 @@ static void handle_write_error(struct address_space *mapping,
 	unlock_page(page);
 }
 
-void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
-							long timeout)
+void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason)
 {
 	wait_queue_head_t *wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[reason];
-	long ret;
-	bool acct_writeback = (reason == VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK);
+	long timeout, ret;
 	DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
 
 	/*
@@ -1023,17 +1021,43 @@ void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason,
 	    current->flags & (PF_IO_WORKER|PF_KTHREAD))
 		return;
 
-	if (acct_writeback &&
-	    atomic_inc_return(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled) == 1) {
-		WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->nr_reclaim_start,
-			node_page_state(pgdat, NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN));
+	/*
+	 * These figures are pulled out of thin air.
+	 * VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED is a transient condition based on too many
+	 * parallel reclaimers which is a short-lived event so the timeout is
+	 * short. Failing to make progress or waiting on writeback are
+	 * potentially long-lived events so use a longer timeout. This is shaky
+	 * logic as a failure to make progress could be due to anything from
+	 * writeback to a slow device to excessive references pages at the tail
+	 * of the inactive LRU.
+	 */
+	switch(reason) {
+	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK:
+		timeout = HZ/10;
+
+		if (atomic_inc_return(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled) == 1) {
+			WRITE_ONCE(pgdat->nr_reclaim_start,
+				node_page_state(pgdat, NR_THROTTLED_WRITTEN));
+		}
+
+		break;
+	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS:
+		timeout = HZ/10;
+		break;
+	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED:
+		timeout = HZ/50;
+		break;
+	default:
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+		timeout = HZ;
+		break;
 	}
 
 	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
 	ret = schedule_timeout(timeout);
 	finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
 
-	if (acct_writeback)
+	if (reason == VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK)
 		atomic_dec(&pgdat->nr_writeback_throttled);
 
 	trace_mm_vmscan_throttled(pgdat->node_id, jiffies_to_usecs(timeout),
@@ -2319,7 +2343,7 @@ shrink_inactive_list(unsigned long nr_to_scan, struct lruvec *lruvec,
 
 		/* wait a bit for the reclaimer. */
 		stalled = true;
-		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED, HZ/10);
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED);
 
 		/* We are about to die and free our memory. Return now. */
 		if (fatal_signal_pending(current))
@@ -3251,7 +3275,7 @@ static void shrink_node(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
 		 * until some pages complete writeback.
 		 */
 		if (sc->nr.immediate)
-			reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK, HZ/10);
+			reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -3275,7 +3299,7 @@ static void shrink_node(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
 	if (!current_is_kswapd() && current_may_throttle() &&
 	    !sc->hibernation_mode &&
 	    test_bit(LRUVEC_CONGESTED, &target_lruvec->flags))
-		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK, HZ/10);
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK);
 
 	if (should_continue_reclaim(pgdat, sc->nr_reclaimed - nr_reclaimed,
 				    sc))
@@ -3347,7 +3371,7 @@ static void consider_reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
 
 	/* Throttle if making no progress at high prioities. */
 	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2)
-		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS, HZ/10);
+		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS);
 }
 
 /*
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 7/8] mm/vmscan: Increase the timeout if page reclaim is not making progress
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
                   ` (5 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 6/8] mm/vmscan: Centralise timeout values for reclaim_throttle Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 8/8] mm/vmscan: Delay waking of tasks throttled on NOPROGRESS Mel Gorman
  7 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

Tracing of the stutterp workload showed the following delays

      1 usect_delayed=124000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=128000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=176000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=536000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=544000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=556000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=624000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=716000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      1 usect_delayed=772000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
      2 usect_delayed=512000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     16 usect_delayed=120000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
     53 usect_delayed=116000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
    116 usect_delayed=112000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
   5907 usect_delayed=108000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS
  71741 usect_delayed=104000 reason=VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS

All the throttling hit the full timeout and then there was wakeup delays
meaning that the wakeups are premature as no other reclaimer such as
kswapd has made progress. This patch increases the maximum timeout.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
---
 mm/vmscan.c | 2 +-
 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 66da45084af4..35b6ccaa01c3 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1042,7 +1042,7 @@ void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason)
 
 		break;
 	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS:
-		timeout = HZ/10;
+		timeout = HZ/2;
 		break;
 	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED:
 		timeout = HZ/50;
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 8/8] mm/vmscan: Delay waking of tasks throttled on NOPROGRESS
  2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
                   ` (6 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 7/8] mm/vmscan: Increase the timeout if page reclaim is not making progress Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-22 14:46 ` Mel Gorman
  7 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-10-22 14:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML, Mel Gorman

Tracing indicates that tasks throttled on NOPROGRESS are woken
prematurely resulting in occasional massive spikes in direct
reclaim activity. This patch wakes tasks throttled on NOPROGRESS
if reclaim efficiency is at least 12%.

Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
---
 mm/vmscan.c | 7 +++++--
 1 file changed, 5 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 35b6ccaa01c3..812d4697d50d 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -3349,8 +3349,11 @@ static inline bool compaction_ready(struct zone *zone, struct scan_control *sc)
 
 static void consider_reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
 {
-	/* If reclaim is making progress, wake any throttled tasks. */
-	if (sc->nr_reclaimed) {
+	/*
+	 * If reclaim is making progress greater than 12% efficiency then
+	 * wake all the NOPROGRESS throttled tasks.
+	 */
+	if (sc->nr_reclaimed > (sc->nr_scanned >> 3)) {
 		wait_queue_head_t *wqh;
 
 		wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS];
-- 
2.31.1


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 5/8] mm/page_alloc: Remove the throttling logic from the page allocator
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 5/8] mm/page_alloc: Remove the throttling logic from the page allocator Mel Gorman
@ 2021-10-25 10:07   ` Vlastimil Babka
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Vlastimil Babka @ 2021-10-25 10:07 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Mel Gorman, Andrew Morton
  Cc: NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger, Darrick J . Wong,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM, Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On 10/22/21 16:46, Mel Gorman wrote:
> The page allocator stalls based on the number of pages that are
> waiting for writeback to start but this should now be redundant.
> shrink_inactive_list() will wake flusher threads if the LRU tail are
> unqueued dirty pages so the flusher should be active. If it fails to make
> progress due to pages under writeback not being completed quickly then
> it should stall on VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>

Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>

> ---
>  mm/page_alloc.c | 21 +--------------------
>  1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 20 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
> index 78e538067651..8fa0109ff417 100644
> --- a/mm/page_alloc.c
> +++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
> @@ -4795,30 +4795,11 @@ should_reclaim_retry(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned order,
>  		trace_reclaim_retry_zone(z, order, reclaimable,
>  				available, min_wmark, *no_progress_loops, wmark);
>  		if (wmark) {
> -			/*
> -			 * If we didn't make any progress and have a lot of
> -			 * dirty + writeback pages then we should wait for
> -			 * an IO to complete to slow down the reclaim and
> -			 * prevent from pre mature OOM
> -			 */
> -			if (!did_some_progress) {
> -				unsigned long write_pending;
> -
> -				write_pending = zone_page_state_snapshot(zone,
> -							NR_ZONE_WRITE_PENDING);
> -
> -				if (2 * write_pending > reclaimable) {
> -					congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
> -					return true;
> -				}
> -			}
> -
>  			ret = true;
> -			goto out;
> +			break;
>  		}
>  	}
>  
> -out:
>  	/*
>  	 * Memory allocation/reclaim might be called from a WQ context and the
>  	 * current implementation of the WQ concurrency control doesn't
> 


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made Mel Gorman
@ 2021-11-24  1:19   ` Darrick J. Wong
  2021-11-24  1:49     ` Darrick J. Wong
  2021-11-24 10:32     ` Mel Gorman
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Darrick J. Wong @ 2021-11-24  1:19 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Mel Gorman
  Cc: Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On Fri, Oct 22, 2021 at 03:46:46PM +0100, Mel Gorman wrote:
> Memcg reclaim throttles on congestion if no reclaim progress is made.
> This makes little sense, it might be due to writeback or a host of
> other factors.
> 
> For !memcg reclaim, it's messy. Direct reclaim primarily is throttled
> in the page allocator if it is failing to make progress. Kswapd
> throttles if too many pages are under writeback and marked for
> immediate reclaim.
> 
> This patch explicitly throttles if reclaim is failing to make progress.

Hi Mel,

Ever since Christoph broke swapfiles, I've been carrying around a little
fstest in my dev tree[1] that tries to exercise paging things in and out
of a swapfile.  Sadly I've been trapped in about three dozen customer
escalations for over a month, which means I haven't been able to do much
upstream in weeks.  Like submit this test upstream. :(

Now that I've finally gotten around to trying out a 5.16-rc2 build, I
notice that the runtime of this test has gone from ~5s to 2 hours.
Among other things that it does, the test sets up a cgroup with a memory
controller limiting the memory usage to 25MB, then runs a program that
tries to dirty 50MB of memory.  There's 2GB of memory in the VM, so
we're not running reclaim globally, but the cgroup gets throttled very
severely.

AFAICT the system is mostly idle, but it's difficult to tell because ps
and top also get stuck waiting for this cgroup for whatever reason.  My
uninformed spculation is that usemem_and_swapoff takes a page fault
while dirtying the 50MB memory buffer, prepares to pull a page in from
swap, tries to evict another page to stay under the memcg limit, but
that decides that it's making no progress and calls
reclaim_throttle(..., VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS).

The sleep is uninterruptible, so I can't even kill -9 fstests to shut it
down.  Eventually we either finish the test or (for the mlock part) the
OOM killer actually kills the process, but this takes a very long time.

Any thoughts?  For now I can just hack around this by skipping
reclaim_throttle if cgroup_reclaim() == true, but that's probably not
the correct fix. :)

--D

[1] https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/djwong/xfstests-dev.git/commit/?h=test-swapfile-io&id=0d0ad843cea366d0ab0a7d8d984e5cd1deba5b43

> 
> [vbabka@suse.cz: Remove redundant code]
> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
> Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
> ---
>  include/linux/mmzone.h        |  1 +
>  include/trace/events/vmscan.h |  4 +++-
>  mm/memcontrol.c               | 10 +---------
>  mm/vmscan.c                   | 28 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  4 files changed, 33 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> index 9ccd8d95291b..00e305cfb3ec 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> @@ -276,6 +276,7 @@ enum lru_list {
>  enum vmscan_throttle_state {
>  	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,
>  	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,
> +	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS,
>  	NR_VMSCAN_THROTTLE,
>  };
>  
> diff --git a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
> index d4905bd9e9c4..f25a6149d3ba 100644
> --- a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
> +++ b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
> @@ -29,11 +29,13 @@
>  
>  #define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK)
>  #define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED)
> +#define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS)
>  
>  #define show_throttle_flags(flags)						\
>  	(flags) ? __print_flags(flags, "|",					\
>  		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK"},	\
> -		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED"}	\
> +		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED"},	\
> +		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS"}	\
>  		) : "VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NONE"
>  
>  
> diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
> index 6da5020a8656..8b33152c9b85 100644
> --- a/mm/memcontrol.c
> +++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
> @@ -3465,19 +3465,11 @@ static int mem_cgroup_force_empty(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
>  
>  	/* try to free all pages in this cgroup */
>  	while (nr_retries && page_counter_read(&memcg->memory)) {
> -		int progress;
> -
>  		if (signal_pending(current))
>  			return -EINTR;
>  
> -		progress = try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages(memcg, 1,
> -							GFP_KERNEL, true);
> -		if (!progress) {
> +		if (!try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages(memcg, 1, GFP_KERNEL, true))
>  			nr_retries--;
> -			/* maybe some writeback is necessary */
> -			congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
> -		}
> -
>  	}
>  
>  	return 0;
> diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
> index 1e54e636b927..0450f6867d61 100644
> --- a/mm/vmscan.c
> +++ b/mm/vmscan.c
> @@ -3323,6 +3323,33 @@ static inline bool compaction_ready(struct zone *zone, struct scan_control *sc)
>  	return zone_watermark_ok_safe(zone, 0, watermark, sc->reclaim_idx);
>  }
>  
> +static void consider_reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
> +{
> +	/* If reclaim is making progress, wake any throttled tasks. */
> +	if (sc->nr_reclaimed) {
> +		wait_queue_head_t *wqh;
> +
> +		wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS];
> +		if (waitqueue_active(wqh))
> +			wake_up(wqh);
> +
> +		return;
> +	}
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * Do not throttle kswapd on NOPROGRESS as it will throttle on
> +	 * VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK if there are too many pages under
> +	 * writeback and marked for immediate reclaim at the tail of
> +	 * the LRU.
> +	 */
> +	if (current_is_kswapd())
> +		return;
> +
> +	/* Throttle if making no progress at high prioities. */
> +	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2)
> +		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS, HZ/10);
> +}
> +
>  /*
>   * This is the direct reclaim path, for page-allocating processes.  We only
>   * try to reclaim pages from zones which will satisfy the caller's allocation
> @@ -3407,6 +3434,7 @@ static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
>  			continue;
>  		last_pgdat = zone->zone_pgdat;
>  		shrink_node(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
> +		consider_reclaim_throttle(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
>  	}
>  
>  	/*
> -- 
> 2.31.1
> 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-11-24  1:19   ` Darrick J. Wong
@ 2021-11-24  1:49     ` Darrick J. Wong
  2021-11-24 14:35       ` Mel Gorman
  2021-11-24 10:32     ` Mel Gorman
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 18+ messages in thread
From: Darrick J. Wong @ 2021-11-24  1:49 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Mel Gorman
  Cc: Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On Tue, Nov 23, 2021 at 05:19:12PM -0800, Darrick J. Wong wrote:
> On Fri, Oct 22, 2021 at 03:46:46PM +0100, Mel Gorman wrote:
> > Memcg reclaim throttles on congestion if no reclaim progress is made.
> > This makes little sense, it might be due to writeback or a host of
> > other factors.
> > 
> > For !memcg reclaim, it's messy. Direct reclaim primarily is throttled
> > in the page allocator if it is failing to make progress. Kswapd
> > throttles if too many pages are under writeback and marked for
> > immediate reclaim.
> > 
> > This patch explicitly throttles if reclaim is failing to make progress.
> 
> Hi Mel,
> 
> Ever since Christoph broke swapfiles, I've been carrying around a little
> fstest in my dev tree[1] that tries to exercise paging things in and out
> of a swapfile.  Sadly I've been trapped in about three dozen customer
> escalations for over a month, which means I haven't been able to do much
> upstream in weeks.  Like submit this test upstream. :(
> 
> Now that I've finally gotten around to trying out a 5.16-rc2 build, I
> notice that the runtime of this test has gone from ~5s to 2 hours.
> Among other things that it does, the test sets up a cgroup with a memory
> controller limiting the memory usage to 25MB, then runs a program that
> tries to dirty 50MB of memory.  There's 2GB of memory in the VM, so
> we're not running reclaim globally, but the cgroup gets throttled very
> severely.
> 
> AFAICT the system is mostly idle, but it's difficult to tell because ps
> and top also get stuck waiting for this cgroup for whatever reason.  My
> uninformed spculation is that usemem_and_swapoff takes a page fault
> while dirtying the 50MB memory buffer, prepares to pull a page in from
> swap, tries to evict another page to stay under the memcg limit, but
> that decides that it's making no progress and calls
> reclaim_throttle(..., VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS).
> 
> The sleep is uninterruptible, so I can't even kill -9 fstests to shut it
> down.  Eventually we either finish the test or (for the mlock part) the
> OOM killer actually kills the process, but this takes a very long time.
> 
> Any thoughts?  For now I can just hack around this by skipping
> reclaim_throttle if cgroup_reclaim() == true, but that's probably not
> the correct fix. :)

Update: after adding timing information to usemem_and_swapoff, it looks
like dirtying the 50MB buffer takes ~22s (up from 0.06s on 5.15).  The
mlock call stalls for ~280s until the OOM killer kills it (up from
nearly instantaneous on 5.15), and the swapon/swapoff variant takes
20 minutes to hours depending on the run.

--D

> --D
> 
> [1] https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/djwong/xfstests-dev.git/commit/?h=test-swapfile-io&id=0d0ad843cea366d0ab0a7d8d984e5cd1deba5b43
> 
> > 
> > [vbabka@suse.cz: Remove redundant code]
> > Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
> > Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
> > ---
> >  include/linux/mmzone.h        |  1 +
> >  include/trace/events/vmscan.h |  4 +++-
> >  mm/memcontrol.c               | 10 +---------
> >  mm/vmscan.c                   | 28 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> >  4 files changed, 33 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)
> > 
> > diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> > index 9ccd8d95291b..00e305cfb3ec 100644
> > --- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
> > +++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
> > @@ -276,6 +276,7 @@ enum lru_list {
> >  enum vmscan_throttle_state {
> >  	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,
> >  	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,
> > +	VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS,
> >  	NR_VMSCAN_THROTTLE,
> >  };
> >  
> > diff --git a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
> > index d4905bd9e9c4..f25a6149d3ba 100644
> > --- a/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
> > +++ b/include/trace/events/vmscan.h
> > @@ -29,11 +29,13 @@
> >  
> >  #define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK)
> >  #define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED)
> > +#define _VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS	(1 << VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS)
> >  
> >  #define show_throttle_flags(flags)						\
> >  	(flags) ? __print_flags(flags, "|",					\
> >  		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK"},	\
> > -		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED"}	\
> > +		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED"},	\
> > +		{_VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS,	"VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS"}	\
> >  		) : "VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NONE"
> >  
> >  
> > diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
> > index 6da5020a8656..8b33152c9b85 100644
> > --- a/mm/memcontrol.c
> > +++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
> > @@ -3465,19 +3465,11 @@ static int mem_cgroup_force_empty(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
> >  
> >  	/* try to free all pages in this cgroup */
> >  	while (nr_retries && page_counter_read(&memcg->memory)) {
> > -		int progress;
> > -
> >  		if (signal_pending(current))
> >  			return -EINTR;
> >  
> > -		progress = try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages(memcg, 1,
> > -							GFP_KERNEL, true);
> > -		if (!progress) {
> > +		if (!try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages(memcg, 1, GFP_KERNEL, true))
> >  			nr_retries--;
> > -			/* maybe some writeback is necessary */
> > -			congestion_wait(BLK_RW_ASYNC, HZ/10);
> > -		}
> > -
> >  	}
> >  
> >  	return 0;
> > diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
> > index 1e54e636b927..0450f6867d61 100644
> > --- a/mm/vmscan.c
> > +++ b/mm/vmscan.c
> > @@ -3323,6 +3323,33 @@ static inline bool compaction_ready(struct zone *zone, struct scan_control *sc)
> >  	return zone_watermark_ok_safe(zone, 0, watermark, sc->reclaim_idx);
> >  }
> >  
> > +static void consider_reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
> > +{
> > +	/* If reclaim is making progress, wake any throttled tasks. */
> > +	if (sc->nr_reclaimed) {
> > +		wait_queue_head_t *wqh;
> > +
> > +		wqh = &pgdat->reclaim_wait[VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS];
> > +		if (waitqueue_active(wqh))
> > +			wake_up(wqh);
> > +
> > +		return;
> > +	}
> > +
> > +	/*
> > +	 * Do not throttle kswapd on NOPROGRESS as it will throttle on
> > +	 * VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK if there are too many pages under
> > +	 * writeback and marked for immediate reclaim at the tail of
> > +	 * the LRU.
> > +	 */
> > +	if (current_is_kswapd())
> > +		return;
> > +
> > +	/* Throttle if making no progress at high prioities. */
> > +	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2)
> > +		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS, HZ/10);
> > +}
> > +
> >  /*
> >   * This is the direct reclaim path, for page-allocating processes.  We only
> >   * try to reclaim pages from zones which will satisfy the caller's allocation
> > @@ -3407,6 +3434,7 @@ static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
> >  			continue;
> >  		last_pgdat = zone->zone_pgdat;
> >  		shrink_node(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
> > +		consider_reclaim_throttle(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
> >  	}
> >  
> >  	/*
> > -- 
> > 2.31.1
> > 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-11-24  1:19   ` Darrick J. Wong
  2021-11-24  1:49     ` Darrick J. Wong
@ 2021-11-24 10:32     ` Mel Gorman
  2021-11-24 10:43       ` Vlastimil Babka
  2021-11-24 17:24       ` Mike Galbraith
  1 sibling, 2 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-11-24 10:32 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Darrick J. Wong
  Cc: Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On Tue, Nov 23, 2021 at 05:19:12PM -0800, Darrick J. Wong wrote:
> On Fri, Oct 22, 2021 at 03:46:46PM +0100, Mel Gorman wrote:
> > Memcg reclaim throttles on congestion if no reclaim progress is made.
> > This makes little sense, it might be due to writeback or a host of
> > other factors.
> > 
> > For !memcg reclaim, it's messy. Direct reclaim primarily is throttled
> > in the page allocator if it is failing to make progress. Kswapd
> > throttles if too many pages are under writeback and marked for
> > immediate reclaim.
> > 
> > This patch explicitly throttles if reclaim is failing to make progress.
> 
> Hi Mel,
> 
> Ever since Christoph broke swapfiles, I've been carrying around a little
> fstest in my dev tree[1] that tries to exercise paging things in and out
> of a swapfile.  Sadly I've been trapped in about three dozen customer
> escalations for over a month, which means I haven't been able to do much
> upstream in weeks.  Like submit this test upstream. :(
> 
> Now that I've finally gotten around to trying out a 5.16-rc2 build, I
> notice that the runtime of this test has gone from ~5s to 2 hours.
> Among other things that it does, the test sets up a cgroup with a memory
> controller limiting the memory usage to 25MB, then runs a program that
> tries to dirty 50MB of memory.  There's 2GB of memory in the VM, so
> we're not running reclaim globally, but the cgroup gets throttled very
> severely.
> 

Ok, so this test cannot make progress until some of the cgroup pages get
cleaned. What is the expectation for the test? Should it OOM or do you
expect it to have spin-like behaviour until some writeback completes?
I'm guessing you'd prefer it to spin and right now it's sleeping far
too much.

> AFAICT the system is mostly idle, but it's difficult to tell because ps
> and top also get stuck waiting for this cgroup for whatever reason. 

But this is surprising because I expect that ps and top are not running
within the cgroup. Was /proc/PID/stack readable? 

> My
> uninformed spculation is that usemem_and_swapoff takes a page fault
> while dirtying the 50MB memory buffer, prepares to pull a page in from
> swap, tries to evict another page to stay under the memcg limit, but
> that decides that it's making no progress and calls
> reclaim_throttle(..., VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS).
> 
> The sleep is uninterruptible, so I can't even kill -9 fstests to shut it
> down.  Eventually we either finish the test or (for the mlock part) the
> OOM killer actually kills the process, but this takes a very long time.
> 

The sleep can be interruptible.

> Any thoughts?  For now I can just hack around this by skipping
> reclaim_throttle if cgroup_reclaim() == true, but that's probably not
> the correct fix. :)
> 

No, it wouldn't be but a possibility is throttling for only 1 jiffy if
reclaiming within a memcg and the zone is balanced overall.

The interruptible part should just be the patch below. I need to poke at
the cgroup limit part a bit

diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index fb9584641ac7..07db03883062 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1068,7 +1068,7 @@ void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason)
 		break;
 	}
 
-	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
 	ret = schedule_timeout(timeout);
 	finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
 

^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-11-24 10:32     ` Mel Gorman
@ 2021-11-24 10:43       ` Vlastimil Babka
  2021-11-24 10:53         ` Mel Gorman
  2021-11-24 17:24       ` Mike Galbraith
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 18+ messages in thread
From: Vlastimil Babka @ 2021-11-24 10:43 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Mel Gorman, Darrick J. Wong
  Cc: Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM, Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On 11/24/21 11:32, Mel Gorman wrote:
> On Tue, Nov 23, 2021 at 05:19:12PM -0800, Darrick J. Wong wrote:
>> On Fri, Oct 22, 2021 at 03:46:46PM +0100, Mel Gorman wrote:
>> > Memcg reclaim throttles on congestion if no reclaim progress is made.
>> > This makes little sense, it might be due to writeback or a host of
>> > other factors.
>> > 
>> > For !memcg reclaim, it's messy. Direct reclaim primarily is throttled
>> > in the page allocator if it is failing to make progress. Kswapd
>> > throttles if too many pages are under writeback and marked for
>> > immediate reclaim.
>> > 
>> > This patch explicitly throttles if reclaim is failing to make progress.
>> 
>> Hi Mel,
>> 
>> Ever since Christoph broke swapfiles, I've been carrying around a little
>> fstest in my dev tree[1] that tries to exercise paging things in and out
>> of a swapfile.  Sadly I've been trapped in about three dozen customer
>> escalations for over a month, which means I haven't been able to do much
>> upstream in weeks.  Like submit this test upstream. :(
>> 
>> Now that I've finally gotten around to trying out a 5.16-rc2 build, I
>> notice that the runtime of this test has gone from ~5s to 2 hours.
>> Among other things that it does, the test sets up a cgroup with a memory
>> controller limiting the memory usage to 25MB, then runs a program that
>> tries to dirty 50MB of memory.  There's 2GB of memory in the VM, so
>> we're not running reclaim globally, but the cgroup gets throttled very
>> severely.
>> 
> 
> Ok, so this test cannot make progress until some of the cgroup pages get
> cleaned. What is the expectation for the test? Should it OOM or do you
> expect it to have spin-like behaviour until some writeback completes?
> I'm guessing you'd prefer it to spin and right now it's sleeping far
> too much.
> 
>> AFAICT the system is mostly idle, but it's difficult to tell because ps
>> and top also get stuck waiting for this cgroup for whatever reason. 
> 
> But this is surprising because I expect that ps and top are not running
> within the cgroup. Was /proc/PID/stack readable? 
> 
>> My
>> uninformed spculation is that usemem_and_swapoff takes a page fault
>> while dirtying the 50MB memory buffer, prepares to pull a page in from
>> swap, tries to evict another page to stay under the memcg limit, but
>> that decides that it's making no progress and calls
>> reclaim_throttle(..., VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS).
>> 
>> The sleep is uninterruptible, so I can't even kill -9 fstests to shut it
>> down.  Eventually we either finish the test or (for the mlock part) the
>> OOM killer actually kills the process, but this takes a very long time.
>> 
> 
> The sleep can be interruptible.
> 
>> Any thoughts?  For now I can just hack around this by skipping
>> reclaim_throttle if cgroup_reclaim() == true, but that's probably not
>> the correct fix. :)
>> 
> 
> No, it wouldn't be but a possibility is throttling for only 1 jiffy if
> reclaiming within a memcg and the zone is balanced overall.
> 
> The interruptible part should just be the patch below. I need to poke at
> the cgroup limit part a bit

As the throttle timeout is short anyway, will the TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE vs
TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE make a difference for the (ability to kill? AFAIU
typically this inability to kill is because of a loop that doesn't check for
fatal_signal_pending().

> diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
> index fb9584641ac7..07db03883062 100644
> --- a/mm/vmscan.c
> +++ b/mm/vmscan.c
> @@ -1068,7 +1068,7 @@ void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason)
>  		break;
>  	}
>  
> -	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
> +	prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
>  	ret = schedule_timeout(timeout);
>  	finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
>  
> 


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-11-24 10:43       ` Vlastimil Babka
@ 2021-11-24 10:53         ` Mel Gorman
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-11-24 10:53 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Vlastimil Babka
  Cc: Darrick J. Wong, Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o,
	Andreas Dilger, Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner,
	Rik van Riel, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On Wed, Nov 24, 2021 at 11:43:05AM +0100, Vlastimil Babka wrote:
> >> Any thoughts?  For now I can just hack around this by skipping
> >> reclaim_throttle if cgroup_reclaim() == true, but that's probably not
> >> the correct fix. :)
> >> 
> > 
> > No, it wouldn't be but a possibility is throttling for only 1 jiffy if
> > reclaiming within a memcg and the zone is balanced overall.
> > 
> > The interruptible part should just be the patch below. I need to poke at
> > the cgroup limit part a bit
> 
> As the throttle timeout is short anyway, will the TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE vs
> TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE make a difference for the (ability to kill? AFAIU
> typically this inability to kill is because of a loop that doesn't check for
> fatal_signal_pending().
> 

Yep, and the fatal_signal_pending() is lacking within reclaim in general
but I'm undecided on how much that should change in the context of reclaim
throttling but at minimum, I don't want the signal delivery to be masked
or delayed.

-- 
Mel Gorman
SUSE Labs

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-11-24  1:49     ` Darrick J. Wong
@ 2021-11-24 14:35       ` Mel Gorman
  2021-11-24 18:02         ` Darrick J. Wong
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mel Gorman @ 2021-11-24 14:35 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Darrick J. Wong
  Cc: Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On Tue, Nov 23, 2021 at 05:49:14PM -0800, Darrick J. Wong wrote:
> > Ever since Christoph broke swapfiles, I've been carrying around a little
> > fstest in my dev tree[1] that tries to exercise paging things in and out
> > of a swapfile.  Sadly I've been trapped in about three dozen customer
> > escalations for over a month, which means I haven't been able to do much
> > upstream in weeks.  Like submit this test upstream. :(
> > 
> > Now that I've finally gotten around to trying out a 5.16-rc2 build, I
> > notice that the runtime of this test has gone from ~5s to 2 hours.
> > Among other things that it does, the test sets up a cgroup with a memory
> > controller limiting the memory usage to 25MB, then runs a program that
> > tries to dirty 50MB of memory.  There's 2GB of memory in the VM, so
> > we're not running reclaim globally, but the cgroup gets throttled very
> > severely.
> > 
> > AFAICT the system is mostly idle, but it's difficult to tell because ps
> > and top also get stuck waiting for this cgroup for whatever reason.  My
> > uninformed spculation is that usemem_and_swapoff takes a page fault
> > while dirtying the 50MB memory buffer, prepares to pull a page in from
> > swap, tries to evict another page to stay under the memcg limit, but
> > that decides that it's making no progress and calls
> > reclaim_throttle(..., VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS).
> > 
> > The sleep is uninterruptible, so I can't even kill -9 fstests to shut it
> > down.  Eventually we either finish the test or (for the mlock part) the
> > OOM killer actually kills the process, but this takes a very long time.
> > 
> > Any thoughts?  For now I can just hack around this by skipping
> > reclaim_throttle if cgroup_reclaim() == true, but that's probably not
> > the correct fix. :)
> 
> Update: after adding timing information to usemem_and_swapoff, it looks
> like dirtying the 50MB buffer takes ~22s (up from 0.06s on 5.15).  The
> mlock call stalls for ~280s until the OOM killer kills it (up from
> nearly instantaneous on 5.15), and the swapon/swapoff variant takes
> 20 minutes to hours depending on the run.
> 

Can you try the patch below please? I think I'm running the test
correctly and it finishes for me in 16 seconds with this applied

diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 07db03883062..d9166e94eb95 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1057,7 +1057,17 @@ void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason)
 
 		break;
 	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS:
-		timeout = HZ/2;
+		timeout = 1;
+
+		/*
+		 * If kswapd is disabled, reschedule if necessary but do not
+		 * throttle as the system is likely near OOM.
+		 */
+		if (pgdat->kswapd_failures >= MAX_RECLAIM_RETRIES) {
+			cond_resched();
+			return;
+		}
+
 		break;
 	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED:
 		timeout = HZ/50;
@@ -3395,7 +3405,7 @@ static void consider_reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
 		return;
 
 	/* Throttle if making no progress at high prioities. */
-	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2)
+	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2 && !sc->nr_reclaimed)
 		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS);
 }
 
@@ -3415,6 +3425,7 @@ static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
 	unsigned long nr_soft_scanned;
 	gfp_t orig_mask;
 	pg_data_t *last_pgdat = NULL;
+	pg_data_t *first_pgdat = NULL;
 
 	/*
 	 * If the number of buffer_heads in the machine exceeds the maximum
@@ -3478,14 +3489,18 @@ static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
 			/* need some check for avoid more shrink_zone() */
 		}
 
+		if (!first_pgdat)
+			first_pgdat = zone->zone_pgdat;
+
 		/* See comment about same check for global reclaim above */
 		if (zone->zone_pgdat == last_pgdat)
 			continue;
 		last_pgdat = zone->zone_pgdat;
 		shrink_node(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
-		consider_reclaim_throttle(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
 	}
 
+	consider_reclaim_throttle(first_pgdat, sc);
+
 	/*
 	 * Restore to original mask to avoid the impact on the caller if we
 	 * promoted it to __GFP_HIGHMEM.

^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-11-24 10:32     ` Mel Gorman
  2021-11-24 10:43       ` Vlastimil Babka
@ 2021-11-24 17:24       ` Mike Galbraith
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Mike Galbraith @ 2021-11-24 17:24 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Mel Gorman, Darrick J. Wong
  Cc: Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On Wed, 2021-11-24 at 10:32 +0000, Mel Gorman wrote:
> On Tue, Nov 23, 2021 at 05:19:12PM -0800, Darrick J. Wong wrote:
>
> > AFAICT the system is mostly idle, but it's difficult to tell because ps
> > and top also get stuck waiting for this cgroup for whatever reason.
>
> But this is surprising because I expect that ps and top are not running
> within the cgroup. Was /proc/PID/stack readable?

Probably this.

crash> ps | grep UN
   4418   4417   4  ffff8881cae66e40  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1 <== the bad guy
   4419   4417   6  ffff8881cae62f40  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1
   4420   4417   5  ffff8881cae65e80  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1
   4421   4417   7  ffff8881cae63f00  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1
   4422   4417   4  ffff8881cae60000  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1
   4423   4417   3  ffff888128985e80  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1
   4424   4417   7  ffff888117f79f80  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1
   4425   4417   2  ffff888117f7af40  UN   0.0    7620    980  memcg_test_1
   4428   2791   6  ffff8881a8253f00  UN   0.0   38868   3568  ps
   4429   2808   4  ffff888100c90000  UN   0.0   38868   3600  ps
crash> bt -sx 4429
PID: 4429   TASK: ffff888100c90000  CPU: 4   COMMAND: "ps"
 #0 [ffff8881af1c3ce0] __schedule+0x285 at ffffffff817ae6c5
 #1 [ffff8881af1c3d68] schedule+0x3a at ffffffff817aed4a
 #2 [ffff8881af1c3d78] rwsem_down_read_slowpath+0x197 at ffffffff817b11a7
 #3 [ffff8881af1c3e08] down_read_killable+0x5c at ffffffff817b142c
 #4 [ffff8881af1c3e18] down_read_killable+0x5c at ffffffff817b142c
 #5 [ffff8881af1c3e28] __access_remote_vm+0x3f at ffffffff8120131f
 #6 [ffff8881af1c3e90] proc_pid_cmdline_read+0x148 at ffffffff812fc9a8
 #7 [ffff8881af1c3ee8] vfs_read+0x92 at ffffffff8126a302
 #8 [ffff8881af1c3f00] ksys_read+0x7d at ffffffff8126a72d
 #9 [ffff8881af1c3f38] do_syscall_64+0x37 at ffffffff817a3f57
#10 [ffff8881af1c3f50] entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x44 at ffffffff8180007c
    RIP: 00007f4b50fe8b5e  RSP: 00007ffdd7f6fe38  RFLAGS: 00000246
    RAX: ffffffffffffffda  RBX: 00007f4b5186a010  RCX: 00007f4b50fe8b5e
    RDX: 0000000000020000  RSI: 00007f4b5186a010  RDI: 0000000000000006
    RBP: 0000000000020000   R8: 0000000000000007   R9: 00000000ffffffff
    R10: 0000000000000000  R11: 0000000000000246  R12: 00007f4b5186a010
    R13: 0000000000000000  R14: 0000000000000006  R15: 0000000000000000
    ORIG_RAX: 0000000000000000  CS: 0033  SS: 002b
crash> mm_struct -x ffff8881021b4800
struct mm_struct {
  {
    mmap = 0xffff8881ccfe6a80,
    mm_rb = {
      rb_node = 0xffff8881ccfe61a0
    },
...
    mmap_lock = {
      count = {
        counter = 0x3
      },
      owner = {
        counter = 0xffff8881cae66e40
...
crash> bt 0xffff8881cae66e40
PID: 4418   TASK: ffff8881cae66e40  CPU: 4   COMMAND: "memcg_test_1"
 #0 [ffff888154097a88] __schedule at ffffffff817ae6c5
 #1 [ffff888154097b10] schedule at ffffffff817aed4a
 #2 [ffff888154097b20] schedule_timeout at ffffffff817b311f
 #3 [ffff888154097b90] reclaim_throttle at ffffffff811d802b
 #4 [ffff888154097bf0] do_try_to_free_pages at ffffffff811da206
 #5 [ffff888154097c40] try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages at ffffffff811db522
 #6 [ffff888154097cd0] try_charge_memcg at ffffffff81256440
 #7 [ffff888154097d60] obj_cgroup_charge_pages at ffffffff81256c97
 #8 [ffff888154097d88] obj_cgroup_charge at ffffffff8125898c
 #9 [ffff888154097da8] kmem_cache_alloc at ffffffff81242099
#10 [ffff888154097de0] vm_area_alloc at ffffffff8106c87a
#11 [ffff888154097df0] mmap_region at ffffffff812082b2
#12 [ffff888154097e58] do_mmap at ffffffff81208922
#13 [ffff888154097eb0] vm_mmap_pgoff at ffffffff811e259f
#14 [ffff888154097f38] do_syscall_64 at ffffffff817a3f57
#15 [ffff888154097f50] entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe at
ffffffff8180007c
    RIP: 00007f211c36b743  RSP: 00007ffeaac1bd58  RFLAGS: 00000246
    RAX: ffffffffffffffda  RBX: 0000000000000000  RCX: 00007f211c36b743
    RDX: 0000000000000003  RSI: 0000000000001000  RDI: 0000000000000000
    RBP: 0000000000000000   R8: 0000000000000000   R9: 0000000000000000
    R10: 0000000000002022  R11: 0000000000000246  R12: 0000000000000003
    R13: 0000000000001000  R14: 0000000000002022  R15: 0000000000000000
    ORIG_RAX: 0000000000000009  CS: 0033  SS: 002b
crash>


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made
  2021-11-24 14:35       ` Mel Gorman
@ 2021-11-24 18:02         ` Darrick J. Wong
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 18+ messages in thread
From: Darrick J. Wong @ 2021-11-24 18:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Mel Gorman
  Cc: Andrew Morton, NeilBrown, Theodore Ts'o, Andreas Dilger,
	Matthew Wilcox, Michal Hocko, Dave Chinner, Rik van Riel,
	Vlastimil Babka, Johannes Weiner, Jonathan Corbet, Linux-MM,
	Linux-fsdevel, LKML

On Wed, Nov 24, 2021 at 02:35:59PM +0000, Mel Gorman wrote:
> On Tue, Nov 23, 2021 at 05:49:14PM -0800, Darrick J. Wong wrote:
> > > Ever since Christoph broke swapfiles, I've been carrying around a little
> > > fstest in my dev tree[1] that tries to exercise paging things in and out
> > > of a swapfile.  Sadly I've been trapped in about three dozen customer
> > > escalations for over a month, which means I haven't been able to do much
> > > upstream in weeks.  Like submit this test upstream. :(
> > > 
> > > Now that I've finally gotten around to trying out a 5.16-rc2 build, I
> > > notice that the runtime of this test has gone from ~5s to 2 hours.
> > > Among other things that it does, the test sets up a cgroup with a memory
> > > controller limiting the memory usage to 25MB, then runs a program that
> > > tries to dirty 50MB of memory.  There's 2GB of memory in the VM, so
> > > we're not running reclaim globally, but the cgroup gets throttled very
> > > severely.
> > > 
> > > AFAICT the system is mostly idle, but it's difficult to tell because ps
> > > and top also get stuck waiting for this cgroup for whatever reason.  My
> > > uninformed spculation is that usemem_and_swapoff takes a page fault
> > > while dirtying the 50MB memory buffer, prepares to pull a page in from
> > > swap, tries to evict another page to stay under the memcg limit, but
> > > that decides that it's making no progress and calls
> > > reclaim_throttle(..., VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS).
> > > 
> > > The sleep is uninterruptible, so I can't even kill -9 fstests to shut it
> > > down.  Eventually we either finish the test or (for the mlock part) the
> > > OOM killer actually kills the process, but this takes a very long time.
> > > 
> > > Any thoughts?  For now I can just hack around this by skipping
> > > reclaim_throttle if cgroup_reclaim() == true, but that's probably not
> > > the correct fix. :)
> > 
> > Update: after adding timing information to usemem_and_swapoff, it looks
> > like dirtying the 50MB buffer takes ~22s (up from 0.06s on 5.15).  The
> > mlock call stalls for ~280s until the OOM killer kills it (up from
> > nearly instantaneous on 5.15), and the swapon/swapoff variant takes
> > 20 minutes to hours depending on the run.
> > 
> 
> Can you try the patch below please? I think I'm running the test
> correctly and it finishes for me in 16 seconds with this applied

20 seconds here, but this /does/ fix the problem.  Thank you!

Tested-by: Darrick J. Wong <djwong@kernel.org>

--D

> 
> diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
> index 07db03883062..d9166e94eb95 100644
> --- a/mm/vmscan.c
> +++ b/mm/vmscan.c
> @@ -1057,7 +1057,17 @@ void reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, enum vmscan_throttle_state reason)
>  
>  		break;
>  	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS:
> -		timeout = HZ/2;
> +		timeout = 1;
> +
> +		/*
> +		 * If kswapd is disabled, reschedule if necessary but do not
> +		 * throttle as the system is likely near OOM.
> +		 */
> +		if (pgdat->kswapd_failures >= MAX_RECLAIM_RETRIES) {
> +			cond_resched();
> +			return;
> +		}
> +
>  		break;
>  	case VMSCAN_THROTTLE_ISOLATED:
>  		timeout = HZ/50;
> @@ -3395,7 +3405,7 @@ static void consider_reclaim_throttle(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct scan_control *sc)
>  		return;
>  
>  	/* Throttle if making no progress at high prioities. */
> -	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2)
> +	if (sc->priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2 && !sc->nr_reclaimed)
>  		reclaim_throttle(pgdat, VMSCAN_THROTTLE_NOPROGRESS);
>  }
>  
> @@ -3415,6 +3425,7 @@ static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
>  	unsigned long nr_soft_scanned;
>  	gfp_t orig_mask;
>  	pg_data_t *last_pgdat = NULL;
> +	pg_data_t *first_pgdat = NULL;
>  
>  	/*
>  	 * If the number of buffer_heads in the machine exceeds the maximum
> @@ -3478,14 +3489,18 @@ static void shrink_zones(struct zonelist *zonelist, struct scan_control *sc)
>  			/* need some check for avoid more shrink_zone() */
>  		}
>  
> +		if (!first_pgdat)
> +			first_pgdat = zone->zone_pgdat;
> +
>  		/* See comment about same check for global reclaim above */
>  		if (zone->zone_pgdat == last_pgdat)
>  			continue;
>  		last_pgdat = zone->zone_pgdat;
>  		shrink_node(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
> -		consider_reclaim_throttle(zone->zone_pgdat, sc);
>  	}
>  
> +	consider_reclaim_throttle(first_pgdat, sc);
> +
>  	/*
>  	 * Restore to original mask to avoid the impact on the caller if we
>  	 * promoted it to __GFP_HIGHMEM.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 18+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2021-11-24 18:02 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 18+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2021-10-22 14:46 [PATCH v5 0/8] Remove dependency on congestion_wait in mm/ Mel Gorman
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 1/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim until some writeback completes if congested Mel Gorman
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 2/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim and compaction when too may pages are isolated Mel Gorman
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 3/8] mm/vmscan: Throttle reclaim when no progress is being made Mel Gorman
2021-11-24  1:19   ` Darrick J. Wong
2021-11-24  1:49     ` Darrick J. Wong
2021-11-24 14:35       ` Mel Gorman
2021-11-24 18:02         ` Darrick J. Wong
2021-11-24 10:32     ` Mel Gorman
2021-11-24 10:43       ` Vlastimil Babka
2021-11-24 10:53         ` Mel Gorman
2021-11-24 17:24       ` Mike Galbraith
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 4/8] mm/writeback: Throttle based on page writeback instead of congestion Mel Gorman
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 5/8] mm/page_alloc: Remove the throttling logic from the page allocator Mel Gorman
2021-10-25 10:07   ` Vlastimil Babka
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 6/8] mm/vmscan: Centralise timeout values for reclaim_throttle Mel Gorman
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 7/8] mm/vmscan: Increase the timeout if page reclaim is not making progress Mel Gorman
2021-10-22 14:46 ` [PATCH 8/8] mm/vmscan: Delay waking of tasks throttled on NOPROGRESS Mel Gorman

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