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From: John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>
To: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>, Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: <linux-mm@kvack.org>, <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>,
	"Kirill A . Shutemov" <kirill@shutemov.name>,
	Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>, <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2] mm/gup: fix try_grab_compound_head() race with split_huge_page()
Date: Mon, 14 Jun 2021 23:37:51 -0700	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <50d828d1-2ce6-21b4-0e27-fb15daa77561@nvidia.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20210615012014.1100672-1-jannh@google.com>

On 6/14/21 6:20 PM, Jann Horn wrote:
> try_grab_compound_head() is used to grab a reference to a page from
> get_user_pages_fast(), which is only protected against concurrent
> freeing of page tables (via local_irq_save()), but not against
> concurrent TLB flushes, freeing of data pages, or splitting of compound
> pages.
> 
> Because no reference is held to the page when try_grab_compound_head()
> is called, the page may have been freed and reallocated by the time its
> refcount has been elevated; therefore, once we're holding a stable
> reference to the page, the caller re-checks whether the PTE still points
> to the same page (with the same access rights).
> 
> The problem is that try_grab_compound_head() has to grab a reference on
> the head page; but between the time we look up what the head page is and
> the time we actually grab a reference on the head page, the compound
> page may have been split up (either explicitly through split_huge_page()
> or by freeing the compound page to the buddy allocator and then
> allocating its individual order-0 pages).
> If that happens, get_user_pages_fast() may end up returning the right
> page but lifting the refcount on a now-unrelated page, leading to
> use-after-free of pages.
> 
> To fix it:
> Re-check whether the pages still belong together after lifting the
> refcount on the head page.
> Move anything else that checks compound_head(page) below the refcount
> increment.
> 
> This can't actually happen on bare-metal x86 (because there, disabling
> IRQs locks out remote TLB flushes), but it can happen on virtualized x86
> (e.g. under KVM) and probably also on arm64. The race window is pretty
> narrow, and constantly allocating and shattering hugepages isn't exactly
> fast; for now I've only managed to reproduce this in an x86 KVM guest with
> an artificially widened timing window (by adding a loop that repeatedly
> calls `inl(0x3f8 + 5)` in `try_get_compound_head()` to force VM exits,
> so that PV TLB flushes are used instead of IPIs).
> 
> As requested on the list, also replace the existing VM_BUG_ON_PAGE()
> with a warning and bailout. Since the existing code only performed the
> BUG_ON check on DEBUG_VM kernels, ensure that the new code also only
> performs the check under that configuration - I don't want to mix two
> logically separate changes together too much.
> The macro VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_PAGE() doesn't return a value on !DEBUG_VM,
> so wrap the whole check in an #ifdef block.
> An alternative would be to change the VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_PAGE() definition
> for !DEBUG_VM such that it always returns false, but since that would
> differ from the behavior of the normal WARN macros, it might be too
> confusing for readers.
> 
> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
> Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name>
> Cc: John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>
> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
> Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org
> Fixes: 7aef4172c795 ("mm: handle PTE-mapped tail pages in gerneric fast gup implementaiton")
> Signed-off-by: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>

Looks good. I'll poke around maybe tomorrow and see if there is anything
that might possibly improve the VM_WARN*() macro situation, as a follow up.

One small question below, but in any case,

Reviewed-by: John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>

> ---
>   mm/gup.c | 58 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------
>   1 file changed, 43 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/mm/gup.c b/mm/gup.c
> index 3ded6a5f26b2..90262e448552 100644
> --- a/mm/gup.c
> +++ b/mm/gup.c
> @@ -43,8 +43,25 @@ static void hpage_pincount_sub(struct page *page, int refs)
>   
>   	atomic_sub(refs, compound_pincount_ptr(page));
>   }
>   
> +/* Equivalent to calling put_page() @refs times. */
> +static void put_page_refs(struct page *page, int refs)
> +{
> +#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
> +	if (VM_WARN_ON_ONCE_PAGE(page_ref_count(page) < refs, page))
> +		return;
> +#endif
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * Calling put_page() for each ref is unnecessarily slow. Only the last
> +	 * ref needs a put_page().
> +	 */
> +	if (refs > 1)
> +		page_ref_sub(page, refs - 1);
> +	put_page(page);
> +}
> +
>   /*
>    * Return the compound head page with ref appropriately incremented,
>    * or NULL if that failed.
>    */
> @@ -55,8 +72,23 @@ static inline struct page *try_get_compound_head(struct page *page, int refs)
>   	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(page_ref_count(head) < 0))
>   		return NULL;
>   	if (unlikely(!page_cache_add_speculative(head, refs)))
>   		return NULL;
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * At this point we have a stable reference to the head page; but it
> +	 * could be that between the compound_head() lookup and the refcount
> +	 * increment, the compound page was split, in which case we'd end up
> +	 * holding a reference on a page that has nothing to do with the page
> +	 * we were given anymore.
> +	 * So now that the head page is stable, recheck that the pages still
> +	 * belong together.
> +	 */
> +	if (unlikely(compound_head(page) != head)) {

I was just wondering about what all could happen here. Such as: page gets split,
reallocated into a different-sized compound page, one that still has page pointing
to head. I think that's OK, because we don't look at or change other huge page
fields.

But I thought I'd mention the idea in case anyone else has any clever ideas about
how this simple check might be insufficient here. It seems fine to me, but I
routinely lack enough imagination about concurrent operations. :)

thanks,
-- 
John Hubbard
NVIDIA

> +		put_page_refs(head, refs);
> +		return NULL;
> +	}
> +
>   	return head;
>   }
>   
>   /*
> @@ -94,25 +126,28 @@ __maybe_unused struct page *try_grab_compound_head(struct page *page,
>   		if (unlikely((flags & FOLL_LONGTERM) &&
>   			     !is_pinnable_page(page)))
>   			return NULL;
>   
> +		/*
> +		 * CAUTION: Don't use compound_head() on the page before this
> +		 * point, the result won't be stable.
> +		 */
> +		page = try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
> +		if (!page)
> +			return NULL;
> +
>   		/*
>   		 * When pinning a compound page of order > 1 (which is what
>   		 * hpage_pincount_available() checks for), use an exact count to
>   		 * track it, via hpage_pincount_add/_sub().
>   		 *
>   		 * However, be sure to *also* increment the normal page refcount
>   		 * field at least once, so that the page really is pinned.
>   		 */
> -		if (!hpage_pincount_available(page))
> -			refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
> -
> -		page = try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
> -		if (!page)
> -			return NULL;
> -
>   		if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
>   			hpage_pincount_add(page, refs);
> +		else
> +			page_ref_add(page, refs * (GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS - 1));
>   
>   		mod_node_page_state(page_pgdat(page), NR_FOLL_PIN_ACQUIRED,
>   				    orig_refs);
>   
> @@ -134,16 +169,9 @@ static void put_compound_head(struct page *page, int refs, unsigned int flags)
>   		else
>   			refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
>   	}
>   
> -	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_ref_count(page) < refs, page);
> -	/*
> -	 * Calling put_page() for each ref is unnecessarily slow. Only the last
> -	 * ref needs a put_page().
> -	 */
> -	if (refs > 1)
> -		page_ref_sub(page, refs - 1);
> -	put_page(page);
> +	put_page_refs(page, refs);
>   }
>   
>   /**
>    * try_grab_page() - elevate a page's refcount by a flag-dependent amount
> 
> base-commit: 614124bea77e452aa6df7a8714e8bc820b489922
> 


  parent reply	other threads:[~2021-06-15  6:37 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 18+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-06-15  1:20 Jann Horn
2021-06-15  2:00 ` Andrew Morton
2021-06-15  2:36   ` Jann Horn
2021-06-15  2:36     ` Jann Horn
2021-06-15  2:38     ` Jann Horn
2021-06-15  2:38       ` Jann Horn
2021-06-15  6:37 ` John Hubbard [this message]
2021-06-15 12:09   ` Jann Horn
2021-06-15 12:09     ` Jann Horn
2021-06-15 23:10     ` Yang Shi
2021-06-15 23:10       ` Yang Shi
2021-06-16 17:27       ` Vlastimil Babka
2021-06-16 18:40         ` Yang Shi
2021-06-16 18:40           ` Yang Shi
2021-06-17 16:09           ` Vlastimil Babka
2021-06-18 13:25     ` Jason Gunthorpe
2021-06-18 13:50       ` Matthew Wilcox
2021-06-18 14:58         ` Jason Gunthorpe

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