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From: "Huang, Ying" <ying.huang@intel.com>
To: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>,
	Linux-MM <linux-mm@kvack.org>,
	LKML <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	syzbot <syzbot+aa5bebed695edaccf0df@syzkaller.appspotmail.com>,
	Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>,
	Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>,
	"Andy Lutomirski" <luto@kernel.org>,
	Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>,
	Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>, Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com>,
	Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH -V2] mm/rmap: fix potential batched TLB flush race
Date: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 09:38:25 +0800	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <87a6hmv2we.fsf@yhuang6-desk2.ccr.corp.intel.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <B06F8361-4BCD-4E33-BA72-AB7DFC758717@vmware.com> (Nadav Amit's message of "Mon, 29 Nov 2021 16:51:04 +0000")

Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com> writes:

>> On Nov 28, 2021, at 10:39 PM, Huang, Ying <ying.huang@intel.com> wrote:
>> 
>> Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com> writes:
>> 
>>>> On Nov 24, 2021, at 10:50 PM, Huang Ying <ying.huang@intel.com> wrote:
>>>> 
>>>> In theory, the following race is possible for batched TLB flushing.
>>>> 
>>>> CPU0                               CPU1
>>>> ----                               ----
>>>> shrink_page_list()
>>>>                                  unmap
>>>>                                    zap_pte_range()
>>>>                                      flush_tlb_batched_pending()
>>>>                                        flush_tlb_mm()
>>>> try_to_unmap()
>>>>   set_tlb_ubc_flush_pending()
>>>>     mm->tlb_flush_batched = true
>>>>                                        mm->tlb_flush_batched = false
>>>> 
>>>> After the TLB is flushed on CPU1 via flush_tlb_mm() and before
>>>> mm->tlb_flush_batched is set to false, some PTE is unmapped on CPU0
>>>> and the TLB flushing is pended.  Then the pended TLB flushing will be
>>>> lost.  Although both set_tlb_ubc_flush_pending() and
>>>> flush_tlb_batched_pending() are called with PTL locked, different PTL
>>>> instances may be used.
>>>> 
>>>> Because the race window is really small, and the lost TLB flushing
>>>> will cause problem only if a TLB entry is inserted before the
>>>> unmapping in the race window, the race is only theoretical.  But the
>>>> fix is simple and cheap too.
>>>> 
>>>> Syzbot has reported this too as follows,
>>>> 
>>>> ==================================================================
>>>> BUG: KCSAN: data-race in flush_tlb_batched_pending / try_to_unmap_one
>>>> 
>>>> write to 0xffff8881072cfbbc of 1 bytes by task 17406 on cpu 1:
>>>> flush_tlb_batched_pending+0x5f/0x80 mm/rmap.c:691
>>>> madvise_free_pte_range+0xee/0x7d0 mm/madvise.c:594
>>>> walk_pmd_range mm/pagewalk.c:128 [inline]
>>>> walk_pud_range mm/pagewalk.c:205 [inline]
>>>> walk_p4d_range mm/pagewalk.c:240 [inline]
>>>> walk_pgd_range mm/pagewalk.c:277 [inline]
>>>> __walk_page_range+0x981/0x1160 mm/pagewalk.c:379
>>>> walk_page_range+0x131/0x300 mm/pagewalk.c:475
>>>> madvise_free_single_vma mm/madvise.c:734 [inline]
>>>> madvise_dontneed_free mm/madvise.c:822 [inline]
>>>> madvise_vma mm/madvise.c:996 [inline]
>>>> do_madvise+0xe4a/0x1140 mm/madvise.c:1202
>>>> __do_sys_madvise mm/madvise.c:1228 [inline]
>>>> __se_sys_madvise mm/madvise.c:1226 [inline]
>>>> __x64_sys_madvise+0x5d/0x70 mm/madvise.c:1226
>>>> do_syscall_x64 arch/x86/entry/common.c:50 [inline]
>>>> do_syscall_64+0x44/0xd0 arch/x86/entry/common.c:80
>>>> entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x44/0xae
>>>> 
>>>> write to 0xffff8881072cfbbc of 1 bytes by task 71 on cpu 0:
>>>> set_tlb_ubc_flush_pending mm/rmap.c:636 [inline]
>>>> try_to_unmap_one+0x60e/0x1220 mm/rmap.c:1515
>>>> rmap_walk_anon+0x2fb/0x470 mm/rmap.c:2301
>>>> try_to_unmap+0xec/0x110
>>>> shrink_page_list+0xe91/0x2620 mm/vmscan.c:1719
>>>> shrink_inactive_list+0x3fb/0x730 mm/vmscan.c:2394
>>>> shrink_list mm/vmscan.c:2621 [inline]
>>>> shrink_lruvec+0x3c9/0x710 mm/vmscan.c:2940
>>>> shrink_node_memcgs+0x23e/0x410 mm/vmscan.c:3129
>>>> shrink_node+0x8f6/0x1190 mm/vmscan.c:3252
>>>> kswapd_shrink_node mm/vmscan.c:4022 [inline]
>>>> balance_pgdat+0x702/0xd30 mm/vmscan.c:4213
>>>> kswapd+0x200/0x340 mm/vmscan.c:4473
>>>> kthread+0x2c7/0x2e0 kernel/kthread.c:327
>>>> ret_from_fork+0x1f/0x30
>>>> 
>>>> value changed: 0x01 -> 0x00
>>>> 
>>>> Reported by Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer on:
>>>> CPU: 0 PID: 71 Comm: kswapd0 Not tainted 5.16.0-rc1-syzkaller #0
>>>> Hardware name: Google Google Compute Engine/Google Compute Engine, BIOS Google 01/01/2011
>>>> ==================================================================
>>>> 
>>>> Signed-off-by: "Huang, Ying" <ying.huang@intel.com>
>>>> Reported-by: syzbot+aa5bebed695edaccf0df@syzkaller.appspotmail.com
>>>> Cc: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com>
>>>> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
>>>> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
>>>> Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
>>>> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>
>>>> Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
>>>> Cc: Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com>
>>>> Cc: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
>>>> ---
>>>> include/linux/mm_types.h |  2 +-
>>>> mm/rmap.c                | 30 +++++++++++++++++++++++-------
>>>> 2 files changed, 24 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
>>>> 
>>>> diff --git a/include/linux/mm_types.h b/include/linux/mm_types.h
>>>> index c3a6e6209600..789778067db9 100644
>>>> --- a/include/linux/mm_types.h
>>>> +++ b/include/linux/mm_types.h
>>>> @@ -632,7 +632,7 @@ struct mm_struct {
>>>> 		atomic_t tlb_flush_pending;
>>>> #ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_WANT_BATCHED_UNMAP_TLB_FLUSH
>>>> 		/* See flush_tlb_batched_pending() */
>>>> -		bool tlb_flush_batched;
>>>> +		atomic_t tlb_flush_batched;
>>>> #endif
>>>> 		struct uprobes_state uprobes_state;
>>>> #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT
>>>> diff --git a/mm/rmap.c b/mm/rmap.c
>>>> index 163ac4e6bcee..2e6b19be5a18 100644
>>>> --- a/mm/rmap.c
>>>> +++ b/mm/rmap.c
>>>> @@ -621,6 +621,18 @@ void try_to_unmap_flush_dirty(void)
>>>> 		try_to_unmap_flush();
>>>> }
>>>> 
>>>> +/* The upper 15 bit of mm->tlb_flush_batched records pending flushes */
>>> 
>>> Why 15? I think it will be easier to swallow if it was 32-bit (which
>>> correspond to number of PIDs?)
>>> 
>>> What would happen on an overflow? If you regarded each pneding/flushed
>>> counter as a separate atomic, that would have been easier. But anyhow,
>>> a comment is necessary IMHO.
>> 
>> I want to pack the "pending" and "flush" generations into one atomic_t,
>> which is 32 bit.  Previously I thought 15-bit is large enough to make
>> overflow impossible in practice, but after more thought, I found that it
>> isn't large enough.  So I come up with some solution for overflow and I
>> will send a new version of patch to show my idea.
>> 
>> Why not 16 bit?  Just want to make it easier to read the code via
>> avoiding to deal with signed/unsigned.
>
> I don’t think it helps.

If it doesn't hurt too, why not?

>> 
>>> 
>>>> +#define TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PENDING_SHIFT	16
>>>> +#define TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_COUNT_MASK	0x7f
>>> 
>>> 0x7f is not 15 bits the last time I checked.
>> 
>> Oops!  My fault!  I will correct this in the new version.
>> 
>>>> +#define TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PENDING_ONE	(1 << TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PENDING_SHIFT)
>>>> +
>>>> +#define TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PENDING(cnt)					\
>>>> +	(((cnt) >> TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PENDING_SHIFT) & TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_COUNT_MASK)
>>>> +#define TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_FLUSHED(cnt)					\
>>>> +	((cnt) & TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_COUNT_MASK)
>>>> +#define TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PACK(pending, flushed)				\
>>>> +	(((pending) << TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PENDING_SHIFT) | (flushed))
>>> 
>>> I would have preferred, when possible to avoid such macros. It just makes
>>> reading the code harder.
>> 
>> Yes.  They are not elegant.  But it's not good to hard code raw numbers too.
>
> Having macros for TLB_FLUSH_PENDING_SHIFT and TLB_FLUSH_PENDING_MASK is
> reasonable. Here we have macros with arguments, and I am not even sure that
> the upper-case names here are compliant with the kernel code styling.
> I also think it is unnecessary, and open-coding will make the code more
> readable.
>
> If you had bit-fields/struct with pending & flushed, and then did
> type-casting, then although others might not be too happy with that,
> I do think it would’ve made the code more readable. Otherwise, these 
> macros are just confusing IMHO.

OK.  I will only keep the constant definition.

>> 
>>>> +
>>>> static void set_tlb_ubc_flush_pending(struct mm_struct *mm, bool writable)
>>>> {
>>>> 	struct tlbflush_unmap_batch *tlb_ubc = &current->tlb_ubc;
>>>> @@ -633,7 +645,7 @@ static void set_tlb_ubc_flush_pending(struct mm_struct *mm, bool writable)
>>>> 	 * before the PTE is cleared.
>>>> 	 */
>>>> 	barrier();
>>>> -	mm->tlb_flush_batched = true;
>>>> +	atomic_add(TLB_FLUSH_BATCH_PENDING_ONE, &mm->tlb_flush_batched);
>>> 
>>> Any reason to put the pending in the top bits instead of the low ones?
>>> It can at least simplify the code a bit.
>> 
>> In this patch, it is to avoid to make the overflowed bit of "pending"
>> goes into "flushed".  But I will change the algorithm in the new
>> version, so this isn't necessary any more.
>> 
>>> As for the barrier, I would
>>> change it for smp_mb__before_atomic() or smp_wmb(). You want the
>>> PTE changes and the counter updates to be ordered.
>> 
>> You suggest to convert barrier() to something stricter?  I think it
>> deserves a separate patch.
>
> If you relaxed the memory barrier, yes - new patch, but I am not sure
> that if you make it stricter you need a different patch.

Stricter memory barrier increases overhead too.  So we only add them
when necessary.  I think a separate patch is better because I think the
necessity should be documented in that patch.

Best Regards,
Huang, Ying

  reply	other threads:[~2021-11-30  1:38 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 5+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-11-29  6:39 [PATCH -V2] mm/rmap: fix potential batched TLB flush race Huang, Ying
2021-11-29 16:51 ` Nadav Amit
2021-11-30  1:38   ` Huang, Ying [this message]
  -- strict thread matches above, loose matches on Subject: below --
2021-11-25  6:50 Huang Ying
2021-11-25  8:39 ` Nadav Amit

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