All of lore.kernel.org
 help / color / mirror / Atom feed
From: tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner <tipbot@zytor.com>
To: linux-tip-commits@vger.kernel.org
Cc: torvalds@linux-foundation.org, mingo@kernel.org,
	linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, tglx@linutronix.de,
	peterz@infradead.org, brgerst@gmail.com, hpa@zytor.com,
	dvlasenk@redhat.com, rostedt@goodmis.org, bp@alien8.de,
	jpoimboe@redhat.com, luto@kernel.org
Subject: [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Unify gate_struct handling for 32/64-bit kernels
Date: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 04:12:47 -0700	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <tip-64b163fab684e3de47aa8db6cc08ae7d2e194373@git.kernel.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20170828064957.861974317@linutronix.de>

Commit-ID:  64b163fab684e3de47aa8db6cc08ae7d2e194373
Gitweb:     http://git.kernel.org/tip/64b163fab684e3de47aa8db6cc08ae7d2e194373
Author:     Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
AuthorDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 08:47:37 +0200
Committer:  Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
CommitDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 12:07:24 +0200

x86/idt: Unify gate_struct handling for 32/64-bit kernels

The first 32 bits of gate struct are the same for 32 and 64 bit kernels.

The 32-bit version uses desc_struct and no designated data structure,
so we need different accessors for 32 and 64 bit kernels.

Aside of that the macros which are necessary to build the 32-bit
gate descriptor are horrible to read.

Unify the gate structs and switch all code fiddling with it over.

Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Brian Gerst <brgerst@gmail.com>
Cc: Denys Vlasenko <dvlasenk@redhat.com>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170828064957.861974317@linutronix.de
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
---
 arch/x86/boot/compressed/eboot.c |  8 +++---
 arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h      | 45 ++++++++++++++-----------------
 arch/x86/include/asm/desc_defs.h | 57 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------------
 arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c               |  2 +-
 arch/x86/xen/enlighten_pv.c      | 12 ++++-----
 5 files changed, 67 insertions(+), 57 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/eboot.c b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/eboot.c
index c3e869e..65f0b24 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/eboot.c
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/eboot.c
@@ -1058,7 +1058,7 @@ struct boot_params *efi_main(struct efi_config *c,
 		desc->s = DESC_TYPE_CODE_DATA;
 		desc->dpl = 0;
 		desc->p = 1;
-		desc->limit = 0xf;
+		desc->limit1 = 0xf;
 		desc->avl = 0;
 		desc->l = 0;
 		desc->d = SEG_OP_SIZE_32BIT;
@@ -1078,7 +1078,7 @@ struct boot_params *efi_main(struct efi_config *c,
 	desc->s = DESC_TYPE_CODE_DATA;
 	desc->dpl = 0;
 	desc->p = 1;
-	desc->limit = 0xf;
+	desc->limit1 = 0xf;
 	desc->avl = 0;
 	if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_X86_64)) {
 		desc->l = 1;
@@ -1099,7 +1099,7 @@ struct boot_params *efi_main(struct efi_config *c,
 	desc->s = DESC_TYPE_CODE_DATA;
 	desc->dpl = 0;
 	desc->p = 1;
-	desc->limit = 0xf;
+	desc->limit1 = 0xf;
 	desc->avl = 0;
 	desc->l = 0;
 	desc->d = SEG_OP_SIZE_32BIT;
@@ -1116,7 +1116,7 @@ struct boot_params *efi_main(struct efi_config *c,
 		desc->s = 0;
 		desc->dpl = 0;
 		desc->p = 1;
-		desc->limit = 0x0;
+		desc->limit1 = 0x0;
 		desc->avl = 0;
 		desc->l = 0;
 		desc->d = 0;
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h
index d18a604..0731064 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h
@@ -84,33 +84,25 @@ static inline phys_addr_t get_cpu_gdt_paddr(unsigned int cpu)
 	return per_cpu_ptr_to_phys(get_cpu_gdt_rw(cpu));
 }
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
-
 static inline void pack_gate(gate_desc *gate, unsigned type, unsigned long func,
 			     unsigned dpl, unsigned ist, unsigned seg)
 {
-	gate->offset_low	= PTR_LOW(func);
+	gate->offset_low	= (u16) func;
+	gate->bits.p		= 1;
+	gate->bits.dpl		= dpl;
+	gate->bits.zero		= 0;
+	gate->bits.type		= type;
+	gate->offset_middle	= (u16) (func >> 16);
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
 	gate->segment		= __KERNEL_CS;
-	gate->ist		= ist;
-	gate->p			= 1;
-	gate->dpl		= dpl;
-	gate->zero0		= 0;
-	gate->zero1		= 0;
-	gate->type		= type;
-	gate->offset_middle	= PTR_MIDDLE(func);
-	gate->offset_high	= PTR_HIGH(func);
-}
-
+	gate->bits.ist		= ist;
+	gate->reserved		= 0;
+	gate->offset_high	= (u32) (func >> 32);
 #else
-static inline void pack_gate(gate_desc *gate, unsigned char type,
-			     unsigned long base, unsigned dpl, unsigned flags,
-			     unsigned short seg)
-{
-	gate->a = (seg << 16) | (base & 0xffff);
-	gate->b = (base & 0xffff0000) | (((0x80 | type | (dpl << 5)) & 0xff) << 8);
-}
-
+	gate->segment		= seg;
+	gate->bits.ist		= 0;
 #endif
+}
 
 static inline int desc_empty(const void *ptr)
 {
@@ -186,7 +178,8 @@ static inline void pack_descriptor(struct desc_struct *desc, unsigned long base,
 }
 
 
-static inline void set_tssldt_descriptor(void *d, unsigned long addr, unsigned type, unsigned size)
+static inline void set_tssldt_descriptor(void *d, unsigned long addr,
+					 unsigned type, unsigned size)
 {
 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
 	struct ldttss_desc64 *desc = d;
@@ -194,13 +187,13 @@ static inline void set_tssldt_descriptor(void *d, unsigned long addr, unsigned t
 	memset(desc, 0, sizeof(*desc));
 
 	desc->limit0		= size & 0xFFFF;
-	desc->base0		= PTR_LOW(addr);
-	desc->base1		= PTR_MIDDLE(addr) & 0xFF;
+	desc->base0		= (u16) addr;
+	desc->base1		= (addr >> 16) & 0xFF;
 	desc->type		= type;
 	desc->p			= 1;
 	desc->limit1		= (size >> 16) & 0xF;
-	desc->base2		= (PTR_MIDDLE(addr) >> 8) & 0xFF;
-	desc->base3		= PTR_HIGH(addr);
+	desc->base2		= (addr >> 24) & 0xFF;
+	desc->base3		= (u32) (addr >> 32);
 #else
 	pack_descriptor((struct desc_struct *)d, addr, size, 0x80 | type, 0);
 #endif
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/desc_defs.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/desc_defs.h
index 4926534..d684bee 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/desc_defs.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/desc_defs.h
@@ -47,20 +47,6 @@ enum {
 	GATE_TASK = 0x5,
 };
 
-/* 16byte gate */
-struct gate_struct64 {
-	u16 offset_low;
-	u16 segment;
-	unsigned ist : 3, zero0 : 5, type : 5, dpl : 2, p : 1;
-	u16 offset_middle;
-	u32 offset_high;
-	u32 zero1;
-} __attribute__((packed));
-
-#define PTR_LOW(x) ((unsigned long long)(x) & 0xFFFF)
-#define PTR_MIDDLE(x) (((unsigned long long)(x) >> 16) & 0xFFFF)
-#define PTR_HIGH(x) ((unsigned long long)(x) >> 32)
-
 enum {
 	DESC_TSS = 0x9,
 	DESC_LDT = 0x2,
@@ -77,20 +63,51 @@ struct ldttss_desc64 {
 	u32 zero1;
 } __attribute__((packed));
 
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
-typedef struct gate_struct64 gate_desc;
 typedef struct ldttss_desc64 ldt_desc;
 typedef struct ldttss_desc64 tss_desc;
-#define gate_offset(g) ((g).offset_low | ((unsigned long)(g).offset_middle << 16) | ((unsigned long)(g).offset_high << 32))
-#define gate_segment(g) ((g).segment)
 #else
-typedef struct desc_struct gate_desc;
 typedef struct desc_struct ldt_desc;
 typedef struct desc_struct tss_desc;
-#define gate_offset(g)		(((g).b & 0xffff0000) | ((g).a & 0x0000ffff))
-#define gate_segment(g)		((g).a >> 16)
 #endif
 
+struct idt_bits {
+	u16		ist	: 3,
+			zero	: 5,
+			type	: 5,
+			dpl	: 2,
+			p	: 1;
+} __attribute__((packed));
+
+struct gate_struct {
+	u16		offset_low;
+	u16		segment;
+	struct idt_bits	bits;
+	u16		offset_middle;
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
+	u32		offset_high;
+	u32		reserved;
+#endif
+} __attribute__((packed));
+
+typedef struct gate_struct gate_desc;
+
+static inline unsigned long gate_offset(const gate_desc *g)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
+	return g->offset_low | ((unsigned long)g->offset_middle << 16) |
+		((unsigned long) g->offset_high << 32);
+#else
+	return g->offset_low | ((unsigned long)g->offset_middle << 16);
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long gate_segment(const gate_desc *g)
+{
+	return g->segment;
+}
+
 struct desc_ptr {
 	unsigned short size;
 	unsigned long address;
diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c b/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c
index c6ef294..08d00ee 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c
@@ -8779,7 +8779,7 @@ static void vmx_handle_external_intr(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
 
 		vector =  exit_intr_info & INTR_INFO_VECTOR_MASK;
 		desc = (gate_desc *)vmx->host_idt_base + vector;
-		entry = gate_offset(*desc);
+		entry = gate_offset(desc);
 		asm volatile(
 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
 			"mov %%" _ASM_SP ", %[sp]\n\t"
diff --git a/arch/x86/xen/enlighten_pv.c b/arch/x86/xen/enlighten_pv.c
index 9849152..4c5d72b 100644
--- a/arch/x86/xen/enlighten_pv.c
+++ b/arch/x86/xen/enlighten_pv.c
@@ -584,12 +584,12 @@ static int cvt_gate_to_trap(int vector, const gate_desc *val,
 {
 	unsigned long addr;
 
-	if (val->type != GATE_TRAP && val->type != GATE_INTERRUPT)
+	if (val->bits.type != GATE_TRAP && val->bits.type != GATE_INTERRUPT)
 		return 0;
 
 	info->vector = vector;
 
-	addr = gate_offset(*val);
+	addr = gate_offset(val);
 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
 	/*
 	 * Look for known traps using IST, and substitute them
@@ -622,16 +622,16 @@ static int cvt_gate_to_trap(int vector, const gate_desc *val,
 		;
 	else {
 		/* Some other trap using IST? */
-		if (WARN_ON(val->ist != 0))
+		if (WARN_ON(val->bits.ist != 0))
 			return 0;
 	}
 #endif	/* CONFIG_X86_64 */
 	info->address = addr;
 
-	info->cs = gate_segment(*val);
-	info->flags = val->dpl;
+	info->cs = gate_segment(val);
+	info->flags = val->bits.dpl;
 	/* interrupt gates clear IF */
-	if (val->type == GATE_INTERRUPT)
+	if (val->bits.type == GATE_INTERRUPT)
 		info->flags |= 1 << 2;
 
 	return 1;

  reply	other threads:[~2017-08-29 11:18 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 95+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2017-08-28  6:47 [patch V3 00/44] x86: Cleanup IDT code Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 01/44] x86/irq: Remove vector_used_by_percpu_irq() Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:04   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 02/44] x86/irq: Unexport used_vectors Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:04   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/irq: Unexport used_vectors[] tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 03/44] x86/irq: Get rid of the first_system_vector bogisity Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:04   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/irq: Get rid of the 'first_system_vector' indirection bogosity tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 04/44] x86/irq: Remove duplicated used_vectors definition Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:05   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 05/44] x86/boot: Move EISA setup to a proper place Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:05   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/boot: Move EISA setup to a separate file tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 06/44] x86/tracing: Introduce a static key for exception tracing Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:06   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 07/44] x86/traps: Simplify pagefault tracing logic Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:06   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 08/44] x86/apic: Remove the duplicated tracing version of local_timer_interrupt Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:07   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/apic: Remove the duplicated tracing version of local_timer_interrupt() tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 09/44] x86/apic: Use this_cpu_ptr in local_timer_interrupt Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:07   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/apic: Use this_cpu_ptr() in local_timer_interrupt() tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 10/44] x86/irq: Get rid of duplicated trace_x86_platform_ipi() code Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:07   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 11/44] x86/apic: Remove the duplicated tracing versions of interrupts Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:08   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 12/44] x86/irqwork: Get rid of duplicated tracing interrupt code Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:08   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 13/44] x86/mce: Remove " Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:08   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 14/44] x86/smp: Remove pointless duplicated " Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:09   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 15/44] x86/smp: Use static key for reschedule interrupt tracing Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:09   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 16/44] x86/idt: Remove tracing idt completely Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:10   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Remove the tracing IDT completely tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 17/44] x86/idt: Cleanup the i386 low level entry macros Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:10   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Clean up " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 18/44] x86/tracing: Disentangle pagefault and resched IPI tracing key Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:10   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 19/44] x86/ipi: Make platform IPI depend on APIC Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:11   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 20/44] x86/irq_work: Make it " Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:11   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 21/44] x86/tracing: Build tracepoints only when they are used Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:12   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 22/44] x86/idt: Unify gate_struct handling for 32/64bit Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:12   ` tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner [this message]
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 23/44] x86/percpu: Use static initializer for GDT entry Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:13   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 24/44] x86/fpu: Use bitfield accessors for desc_struct Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:13   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 25/44] x86: Replace access to desc_struct:a/b fields Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:13   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/asm: " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 26/44] x86/gdt: Use bitfields for initialization Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:14   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 27/44] x86/ldttss: Cleanup 32bit descriptors Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:14   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/ldttss: Clean up 32-bit descriptors tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 28/44] x86/idt: Create file for IDT related code Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:15   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 29/44] x86/idt: Move 32bit idt_descr to C code Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:15   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Move 32-bit " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 30/44] x86/idt: Remove unused set_trap_gate() Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:16   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 31/44] x86/idt: Consolidate IDT invalidation Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:16   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 32/44] x86/idt: Move early IDT handler setup to IDT code Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:16   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 33/44] x86/idt: Move early IDT setup out of 32bit asm Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:17   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Move early IDT setup out of 32-bit asm tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 34/44] x86/idt: Prepare for table based init Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:17   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 35/44] x86/idt: Switch early trap init to IDT tables Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:18   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 36/44] x86/idt: Move debug stack init to table based Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:18   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 37/44] x86/idt: Move ist stack based traps to table init Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:18   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Move IST " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-09-01  6:28     ` Andrei Vagin
2017-09-01  8:26       ` [PATCH] x86/idt: Fix the X86_TRAP_BP gate Ingo Molnar
2017-09-01  8:59         ` Thomas Gleixner
2017-09-01  9:09         ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Ingo Molnar
2017-09-01 14:39         ` [PATCH] " Andrei Vagin
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 38/44] x86/idt: Move regular trap init to tables Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:19   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 39/44] x86/idt: Move APIC gate initialization " Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:19   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 40/44] x86/idt: Move interrupt gate initialization to IDT code Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:20   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 41/44] x86/idt: Remove unused functions/inlines Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:20   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 42/44] x86/idt: Deinline setup functions Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:20   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 43/44] x86/idt: Simplify alloc_intr_gate Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28 14:35   ` KY Srinivasan
2017-08-29 11:21   ` [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Simplify alloc_intr_gate() tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-28  6:47 ` [patch V3 44/44] x86/idt: Hide set_intr_gate() Thomas Gleixner
2017-08-29 11:21   ` [tip:x86/apic] " tip-bot for Thomas Gleixner

Reply instructions:

You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=tip-64b163fab684e3de47aa8db6cc08ae7d2e194373@git.kernel.org \
    --to=tipbot@zytor.com \
    --cc=bp@alien8.de \
    --cc=brgerst@gmail.com \
    --cc=dvlasenk@redhat.com \
    --cc=hpa@zytor.com \
    --cc=jpoimboe@redhat.com \
    --cc=linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-tip-commits@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=luto@kernel.org \
    --cc=mingo@kernel.org \
    --cc=peterz@infradead.org \
    --cc=rostedt@goodmis.org \
    --cc=tglx@linutronix.de \
    --cc=torvalds@linux-foundation.org \
    --subject='Re: [tip:x86/apic] x86/idt: Unify gate_struct handling for 32/64-bit kernels' \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

This is an external index of several public inboxes,
see mirroring instructions on how to clone and mirror
all data and code used by this external index.