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From: Frank van der Linden <fllinden@amazon.com>
To: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
Cc: <bpf@vger.kernel.org>
Subject: [PATCH 5.4 7/8] bpf: Tighten speculative pointer arithmetic mask
Date: Thu, 29 Apr 2021 22:08:38 +0000
Message-ID: <20210429220839.15667-8-fllinden@amazon.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20210429220839.15667-1-fllinden@amazon.com>

From: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>

commit 7fedb63a8307dda0ec3b8969a3b233a1dd7ea8e0 upstream.

This work tightens the offset mask we use for unprivileged pointer arithmetic
in order to mitigate a corner case reported by Piotr and Benedict where in
the speculative domain it is possible to advance, for example, the map value
pointer by up to value_size-1 out-of-bounds in order to leak kernel memory
via side-channel to user space.

Before this change, the computed ptr_limit for retrieve_ptr_limit() helper
represents largest valid distance when moving pointer to the right or left
which is then fed as aux->alu_limit to generate masking instructions against
the offset register. After the change, the derived aux->alu_limit represents
the largest potential value of the offset register which we mask against which
is just a narrower subset of the former limit.

For minimal complexity, we call sanitize_ptr_alu() from 2 observation points
in adjust_ptr_min_max_vals(), that is, before and after the simulated alu
operation. In the first step, we retieve the alu_state and alu_limit before
the operation as well as we branch-off a verifier path and push it to the
verification stack as we did before which checks the dst_reg under truncation,
in other words, when the speculative domain would attempt to move the pointer
out-of-bounds.

In the second step, we retrieve the new alu_limit and calculate the absolute
distance between both. Moreover, we commit the alu_state and final alu_limit
via update_alu_sanitation_state() to the env's instruction aux data, and bail
out from there if there is a mismatch due to coming from different verification
paths with different states.

Reported-by: Piotr Krysiuk <piotras@gmail.com>
Reported-by: Benedict Schlueter <benedict.schlueter@rub.de>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>
Reviewed-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Tested-by: Benedict Schlueter <benedict.schlueter@rub.de>
[fllinden@amazon.com: backported to 5.4]
Signed-off-by: Frank van der Linden <fllinden@amazon.com>
---
 kernel/bpf/verifier.c | 73 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------
 1 file changed, 44 insertions(+), 29 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/bpf/verifier.c b/kernel/bpf/verifier.c
index b8abdbb4c063..bc439dcd438f 100644
--- a/kernel/bpf/verifier.c
+++ b/kernel/bpf/verifier.c
@@ -4278,7 +4278,7 @@ static int retrieve_ptr_limit(const struct bpf_reg_state *ptr_reg,
 	bool off_is_neg = off_reg->smin_value < 0;
 	bool mask_to_left = (opcode == BPF_ADD &&  off_is_neg) ||
 			    (opcode == BPF_SUB && !off_is_neg);
-	u32 off, max = 0, ptr_limit = 0;
+	u32 max = 0, ptr_limit = 0;
 
 	if (!tnum_is_const(off_reg->var_off) &&
 	    (off_reg->smin_value < 0) != (off_reg->smax_value < 0))
@@ -4287,26 +4287,18 @@ static int retrieve_ptr_limit(const struct bpf_reg_state *ptr_reg,
 	switch (ptr_reg->type) {
 	case PTR_TO_STACK:
 		/* Offset 0 is out-of-bounds, but acceptable start for the
-		 * left direction, see BPF_REG_FP.
+		 * left direction, see BPF_REG_FP. Also, unknown scalar
+		 * offset where we would need to deal with min/max bounds is
+		 * currently prohibited for unprivileged.
 		 */
 		max = MAX_BPF_STACK + mask_to_left;
-		/* Indirect variable offset stack access is prohibited in
-		 * unprivileged mode so it's not handled here.
-		 */
-		off = ptr_reg->off + ptr_reg->var_off.value;
-		if (mask_to_left)
-			ptr_limit = MAX_BPF_STACK + off;
-		else
-			ptr_limit = -off - 1;
+		ptr_limit = -(ptr_reg->var_off.value + ptr_reg->off);
 		break;
 	case PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE:
 		max = ptr_reg->map_ptr->value_size;
-		if (mask_to_left) {
-			ptr_limit = ptr_reg->umax_value + ptr_reg->off;
-		} else {
-			off = ptr_reg->smin_value + ptr_reg->off;
-			ptr_limit = ptr_reg->map_ptr->value_size - off - 1;
-		}
+		ptr_limit = (mask_to_left ?
+			     ptr_reg->smin_value :
+			     ptr_reg->umax_value) + ptr_reg->off;
 		break;
 	default:
 		return REASON_TYPE;
@@ -4361,10 +4353,12 @@ static int sanitize_ptr_alu(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
 			    struct bpf_insn *insn,
 			    const struct bpf_reg_state *ptr_reg,
 			    const struct bpf_reg_state *off_reg,
-			    struct bpf_reg_state *dst_reg)
+			    struct bpf_reg_state *dst_reg,
+			    struct bpf_insn_aux_data *tmp_aux,
+			    const bool commit_window)
 {
+	struct bpf_insn_aux_data *aux = commit_window ? cur_aux(env) : tmp_aux;
 	struct bpf_verifier_state *vstate = env->cur_state;
-	struct bpf_insn_aux_data *aux = cur_aux(env);
 	bool off_is_neg = off_reg->smin_value < 0;
 	bool ptr_is_dst_reg = ptr_reg == dst_reg;
 	u8 opcode = BPF_OP(insn->code);
@@ -4383,18 +4377,33 @@ static int sanitize_ptr_alu(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
 	if (vstate->speculative)
 		goto do_sim;
 
-	alu_state  = off_is_neg ? BPF_ALU_NEG_VALUE : 0;
-	alu_state |= ptr_is_dst_reg ?
-		     BPF_ALU_SANITIZE_SRC : BPF_ALU_SANITIZE_DST;
-
 	err = retrieve_ptr_limit(ptr_reg, off_reg, &alu_limit, opcode);
 	if (err < 0)
 		return err;
 
+	if (commit_window) {
+		/* In commit phase we narrow the masking window based on
+		 * the observed pointer move after the simulated operation.
+		 */
+		alu_state = tmp_aux->alu_state;
+		alu_limit = abs(tmp_aux->alu_limit - alu_limit);
+	} else {
+		alu_state  = off_is_neg ? BPF_ALU_NEG_VALUE : 0;
+		alu_state |= ptr_is_dst_reg ?
+			     BPF_ALU_SANITIZE_SRC : BPF_ALU_SANITIZE_DST;
+	}
+
 	err = update_alu_sanitation_state(aux, alu_state, alu_limit);
 	if (err < 0)
 		return err;
 do_sim:
+	/* If we're in commit phase, we're done here given we already
+	 * pushed the truncated dst_reg into the speculative verification
+	 * stack.
+	 */
+	if (commit_window)
+		return 0;
+
 	/* Simulate and find potential out-of-bounds access under
 	 * speculative execution from truncation as a result of
 	 * masking when off was not within expected range. If off
@@ -4506,6 +4515,7 @@ static int adjust_ptr_min_max_vals(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
 	    smin_ptr = ptr_reg->smin_value, smax_ptr = ptr_reg->smax_value;
 	u64 umin_val = off_reg->umin_value, umax_val = off_reg->umax_value,
 	    umin_ptr = ptr_reg->umin_value, umax_ptr = ptr_reg->umax_value;
+	struct bpf_insn_aux_data tmp_aux = {};
 	u8 opcode = BPF_OP(insn->code);
 	u32 dst = insn->dst_reg;
 	int ret;
@@ -4564,12 +4574,15 @@ static int adjust_ptr_min_max_vals(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
 	    !check_reg_sane_offset(env, ptr_reg, ptr_reg->type))
 		return -EINVAL;
 
-	switch (opcode) {
-	case BPF_ADD:
-		ret = sanitize_ptr_alu(env, insn, ptr_reg, off_reg, dst_reg);
+	if (sanitize_needed(opcode)) {
+		ret = sanitize_ptr_alu(env, insn, ptr_reg, off_reg, dst_reg,
+				       &tmp_aux, false);
 		if (ret < 0)
 			return sanitize_err(env, insn, ret, off_reg, dst_reg);
+	}
 
+	switch (opcode) {
+	case BPF_ADD:
 		/* We can take a fixed offset as long as it doesn't overflow
 		 * the s32 'off' field
 		 */
@@ -4620,10 +4633,6 @@ static int adjust_ptr_min_max_vals(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
 		}
 		break;
 	case BPF_SUB:
-		ret = sanitize_ptr_alu(env, insn, ptr_reg, off_reg, dst_reg);
-		if (ret < 0)
-			return sanitize_err(env, insn, ret, off_reg, dst_reg);
-
 		if (dst_reg == off_reg) {
 			/* scalar -= pointer.  Creates an unknown scalar */
 			verbose(env, "R%d tried to subtract pointer from scalar\n",
@@ -4706,6 +4715,12 @@ static int adjust_ptr_min_max_vals(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
 
 	if (sanitize_check_bounds(env, insn, dst_reg) < 0)
 		return -EACCES;
+	if (sanitize_needed(opcode)) {
+		ret = sanitize_ptr_alu(env, insn, dst_reg, off_reg, dst_reg,
+				       &tmp_aux, true);
+		if (ret < 0)
+			return sanitize_err(env, insn, ret, off_reg, dst_reg);
+	}
 
 	return 0;
 }
-- 
2.23.3


  parent reply index

Thread overview: 14+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-04-29 22:08 [PATCH 5.4 0/8] BPF backports for CVE-2021-29155 Frank van der Linden
2021-04-29 22:08 ` [PATCH 5.4 1/8] bpf: Move off_reg into sanitize_ptr_alu Frank van der Linden
2021-04-29 22:08 ` [PATCH 5.4 2/8] bpf: Ensure off_reg has no mixed signed bounds for all types Frank van der Linden
2021-04-29 22:08 ` [PATCH 5.4 3/8] bpf: Rework ptr_limit into alu_limit and add common error path Frank van der Linden
2021-04-29 22:08 ` [PATCH 5.4 4/8] bpf: Improve verifier error messages for users Frank van der Linden
2021-04-29 22:08 ` [PATCH 5.4 5/8] bpf: Refactor and streamline bounds check into helper Frank van der Linden
2021-04-29 22:08 ` [PATCH 5.4 6/8] bpf: Move sanitize_val_alu out of op switch Frank van der Linden
2021-04-29 22:08 ` Frank van der Linden [this message]
2021-04-29 22:08 ` [PATCH 5.4 8/8] bpf: Update selftests to reflect new error states Frank van der Linden
2021-04-30 13:38 ` [PATCH 5.4 0/8] BPF backports for CVE-2021-29155 Greg KH
2021-04-30 16:38   ` van der Linden, Frank
2021-05-01  6:05     ` Greg KH
2021-05-01 17:54       ` van der Linden, Frank
     [not found] <20210430141911.137473863@linuxfoundation.org>
2021-04-30 14:20 ` [PATCH 5.4 7/8] bpf: Tighten speculative pointer arithmetic mask Greg Kroah-Hartman

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