BPF Archive on lore.kernel.org
 help / color / Atom feed
From: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
To: <bpf@vger.kernel.org>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>,
	Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>,
	Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>, <kernel-team@fb.com>,
	John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>,
	Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Subject: [PATCH bpf-next v2] docs/bpf: add llvm_reloc.rst to explain llvm bpf relocations
Date: Mon, 24 May 2021 20:33:14 -0700
Message-ID: <20210525033314.3008878-1-yhs@fb.com> (raw)

LLVM upstream commit https://reviews.llvm.org/D102712
made some changes to bpf relocations to make them
llvm linker lld friendly. The scope of
existing relocations R_BPF_64_{64,32} is narrowed
and new relocations R_BPF_64_{ABS32,ABS64,NODYLD32}
are introduced.

Let us add some documentation about llvm bpf
relocations so people can understand how to resolve
them properly in their respective tools.

Cc: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@gmail.com>
Cc: Lorenz Bauer <lmb@cloudflare.com>
Signed-off-by: Yonghong Song <yhs@fb.com>
---
 Documentation/bpf/index.rst            |   1 +
 Documentation/bpf/llvm_reloc.rst       | 240 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/README.rst |  19 ++
 3 files changed, 260 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/bpf/llvm_reloc.rst

Changelogs:
  v1 -> v2:
    - add an example to illustrate how relocations related to base
      section and symbol table and what is "Implicit Addend"
    - clarify why we use 32bit read/write for R_BPF_64_64 (ld_imm64)
      relocations.

diff --git a/Documentation/bpf/index.rst b/Documentation/bpf/index.rst
index a702f67dd45f..93e8cf12a6d4 100644
--- a/Documentation/bpf/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/bpf/index.rst
@@ -84,6 +84,7 @@ Other
    :maxdepth: 1
 
    ringbuf
+   llvm_reloc
 
 .. Links:
 .. _networking-filter: ../networking/filter.rst
diff --git a/Documentation/bpf/llvm_reloc.rst b/Documentation/bpf/llvm_reloc.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..5ade0244958f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/bpf/llvm_reloc.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,240 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: (LGPL-2.1 OR BSD-2-Clause)
+
+====================
+BPF LLVM Relocations
+====================
+
+This document describes LLVM BPF backend relocation types.
+
+Relocation Record
+=================
+
+LLVM BPF backend records each relocation with the following 16-byte
+ELF structure::
+
+  typedef struct
+  {
+    Elf64_Addr    r_offset;  // Offset from the beginning of section.
+    Elf64_Xword   r_info;    // Relocation type and symbol index.
+  } Elf64_Rel;
+
+For example, for the following code::
+
+  int g1 __attribute__((section("sec")));
+  int g2 __attribute__((section("sec")));
+  static volatile int l1 __attribute__((section("sec")));
+  static volatile int l2 __attribute__((section("sec")));
+  int test() {
+    return g1 + g2 + l1 + l2;
+  }
+
+Compiled with ``clang -target bpf -O2 -c test.c``, the following is
+the code with ``llvm-objdump -dr test.o``::
+
+       0:       18 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = 0 ll
+                0000000000000000:  R_BPF_64_64  g1
+       2:       61 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = *(u32 *)(r1 + 0)
+       3:       18 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 r2 = 0 ll
+                0000000000000018:  R_BPF_64_64  g2
+       5:       61 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 = *(u32 *)(r2 + 0)
+       6:       0f 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 += r1
+       7:       18 01 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = 8 ll
+                0000000000000038:  R_BPF_64_64  sec
+       9:       61 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = *(u32 *)(r1 + 0)
+      10:       0f 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 += r1
+      11:       18 01 00 00 0c 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = 12 ll
+                0000000000000058:  R_BPF_64_64  sec
+      13:       61 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = *(u32 *)(r1 + 0)
+      14:       0f 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 += r1
+      15:       95 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 exit
+
+There are four relations in the above for four ``LD_imm64`` instructions.
+The following ``llvm-readelf -r test.o`` shows the binary values of the four
+relocations::
+
+  Relocation section '.rel.text' at offset 0x190 contains 4 entries:
+      Offset             Info             Type               Symbol's Value  Symbol's Name
+  0000000000000000  0000000600000001 R_BPF_64_64            0000000000000000 g1
+  0000000000000018  0000000700000001 R_BPF_64_64            0000000000000004 g2
+  0000000000000038  0000000400000001 R_BPF_64_64            0000000000000000 sec
+  0000000000000058  0000000400000001 R_BPF_64_64            0000000000000000 sec
+
+Each relocation is represented by ``Offset`` (8 bytes) and ``Info`` (8 bytes).
+For example, the first relocation corresponds to the first instruction
+(Offset 0x0) and the corresponding ``Info`` indicates the relocation type
+of ``R_BPF_64_64`` (type 1) and the entry in the symbol table (entry 6).
+The following is the symbol table with ``llvm-readelf -s test.o``::
+
+  Symbol table '.symtab' contains 8 entries:
+     Num:    Value          Size Type    Bind   Vis       Ndx Name
+       0: 0000000000000000     0 NOTYPE  LOCAL  DEFAULT   UND
+       1: 0000000000000000     0 FILE    LOCAL  DEFAULT   ABS test.c
+       2: 0000000000000008     4 OBJECT  LOCAL  DEFAULT     4 l1
+       3: 000000000000000c     4 OBJECT  LOCAL  DEFAULT     4 l2
+       4: 0000000000000000     0 SECTION LOCAL  DEFAULT     4 sec
+       5: 0000000000000000   128 FUNC    GLOBAL DEFAULT     2 test
+       6: 0000000000000000     4 OBJECT  GLOBAL DEFAULT     4 g1
+       7: 0000000000000004     4 OBJECT  GLOBAL DEFAULT     4 g2
+
+The 6th entry is global variable ``g1`` with value 0.
+
+Similarly, the second relocation is at ``.text`` offset ``0x18``, instruction 3,
+for global variable ``g2`` which has a symbol value 4, the offset
+from the start of ``.data`` section.
+
+The third and fourth relocations refers to static variables ``l1``
+and ``l2``. From ``.rel.text`` section above, it is not clear
+which symbols they really refers to as they both refers to
+symbol table entry 4, symbol ``sec``, which has ``SECTION`` type
+and represents a section. So for static variable or function,
+the section offset is written to the original insn
+buffer, which is called ``IA`` (implicit addend). Looking at
+above insn ``7`` and ``11``, they have section offset ``8`` and ``12``.
+From symbol table, we can find that they correspond to entries ``2``
+and ``3`` for ``l1`` and ``l2``.
+
+In general, the ``IA`` is 0 for global variables and functions,
+and is the section offset or some computation result based on
+section offset for static variables/functions. The non-section-offset
+case refers to function calls. See below for more details.
+
+Different Relocation Types
+==========================
+
+Six relocation types are supported. The following is an overview and
+``S`` represents the value of the symbol in the symbol table::
+
+  Enum  ELF Reloc Type     Description      BitSize  Offset        Calculation
+  0     R_BPF_NONE         None
+  1     R_BPF_64_64        ld_imm64 insn    32       r_offset + 4  S + IA
+  2     R_BPF_64_ABS64     normal data      64       r_offset      S + IA
+  3     R_BPF_64_ABS32     normal data      32       r_offset      S + IA
+  4     R_BPF_64_NODYLD32  .BTF[.ext] data  32       r_offset      S + IA
+  10    R_BPF_64_32        call insn        32       r_offset + 4  (S + IA) / 8 - 1
+
+For example, ``R_BPF_64_64`` relocation type is used for ``ld_imm64`` instruction.
+The actual to-be-relocated data (0 or section offset)
+is stored at ``r_offset + 4`` and the read/write
+data bitsize is 32 (4 bytes). The relocation can be resolved with
+the symbol value plus implicit addend. Note that the ``BitSize`` is 32 which
+means the section offset must be less than or equal to ``UINT32_MAX`` and this
+is enforced by LLVM BPF backend.
+
+In another case, ``R_BPF_64_ABS64`` relocation type is used for normal 64-bit data.
+The actual to-be-relocated data is stored at ``r_offset`` and the read/write data
+bitsize is 64 (8 bytes). The relocation can be resolved with
+the symbol value plus implicit addend.
+
+Both ``R_BPF_64_ABS32`` and ``R_BPF_64_NODYLD32`` types are for 32-bit data.
+But ``R_BPF_64_NODYLD32`` specifically refers to relocations in ``.BTF`` and
+``.BTF.ext`` sections. For cases like bcc where llvm ``ExecutionEngine RuntimeDyld``
+is involved, ``R_BPF_64_NODYLD32`` types of relocations should not be resolved
+to actual function/variable address. Otherwise, ``.BTF`` and ``.BTF.ext``
+become unusable by bcc and kernel.
+
+Type ``R_BPF_64_32`` is used for call instruction. The call target section
+offset is stored at ``r_offset + 4`` (32bit) and calculated as
+``(S + IA) / 8 - 1``.
+
+Examples
+========
+
+Types ``R_BPF_64_64`` and ``R_BPF_64_32`` are used to resolve ``ld_imm64``
+and ``call`` instructions. For example::
+
+  __attribute__((noinline)) __attribute__((section("sec1")))
+  int gfunc(int a, int b) {
+    return a * b;
+  }
+  static __attribute__((noinline)) __attribute__((section("sec1")))
+  int lfunc(int a, int b) {
+    return a + b;
+  }
+  int global __attribute__((section("sec2")));
+  int test(int a, int b) {
+    return gfunc(a, b) +  lfunc(a, b) + global;
+  }
+
+Compiled with ``clang -target bpf -O2 -c test.c``, we will have
+following code with `llvm-objdump -dr test.o``::
+
+  Disassembly of section .text:
+
+  0000000000000000 <test>:
+         0:       bf 26 00 00 00 00 00 00 r6 = r2
+         1:       bf 17 00 00 00 00 00 00 r7 = r1
+         2:       85 10 00 00 ff ff ff ff call -1
+                  0000000000000010:  R_BPF_64_32  gfunc
+         3:       bf 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 r8 = r0
+         4:       bf 71 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = r7
+         5:       bf 62 00 00 00 00 00 00 r2 = r6
+         6:       85 10 00 00 02 00 00 00 call 2
+                  0000000000000030:  R_BPF_64_32  sec1
+         7:       0f 80 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 += r8
+         8:       18 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = 0 ll
+                  0000000000000040:  R_BPF_64_64  global
+        10:       61 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 r1 = *(u32 *)(r1 + 0)
+        11:       0f 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 += r1
+        12:       95 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 exit
+
+  Disassembly of section sec1:
+
+  0000000000000000 <gfunc>:
+         0:       bf 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 = r2
+         1:       2f 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 *= r1
+         2:       95 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 exit
+
+  0000000000000018 <lfunc>:
+         3:       bf 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 = r2
+         4:       0f 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 r0 += r1
+         5:       95 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 exit
+
+The first relocation corresponds to ``gfunc(a, b)`` where ``gfunc`` has a value of 0,
+so the ``call`` instruction offset is ``(0 + 0)/8 - 1 = -1``.
+The second relocation corresponds to ``lfunc(a, b)`` where ``lfunc`` has a section
+offset ``0x18``, so the ``call`` instruction offset is ``(0 + 0x18)/8 - 1 = 2``.
+The third relocation corresponds to ld_imm64 of ``global``, which has a section
+offset ``0``.
+
+The following is an example to show how R_BPF_64_ABS64 could be generated::
+
+  int global() { return 0; }
+  struct t { void *g; } gbl = { global };
+
+Compiled with ``clang -target bpf -O2 -g -c test.c``, we will see a
+relocation below in ``.data`` section with command
+``llvm-readelf -r test.o``::
+
+  Relocation section '.rel.data' at offset 0x458 contains 1 entries:
+      Offset             Info             Type               Symbol's Value  Symbol's Name
+  0000000000000000  0000000700000002 R_BPF_64_ABS64         0000000000000000 global
+
+The relocation says the first 8-byte of ``.data`` section should be
+filled with address of ``global`` variable.
+
+With ``llvm-readelf`` output, we can see that dwarf sections have a bunch of
+``R_BPF_64_ABS32`` and ``R_BPF_64_ABS64`` relocations::
+
+  Relocation section '.rel.debug_info' at offset 0x468 contains 13 entries:
+      Offset             Info             Type               Symbol's Value  Symbol's Name
+  0000000000000006  0000000300000003 R_BPF_64_ABS32         0000000000000000 .debug_abbrev
+  000000000000000c  0000000400000003 R_BPF_64_ABS32         0000000000000000 .debug_str
+  0000000000000012  0000000400000003 R_BPF_64_ABS32         0000000000000000 .debug_str
+  0000000000000016  0000000600000003 R_BPF_64_ABS32         0000000000000000 .debug_line
+  000000000000001a  0000000400000003 R_BPF_64_ABS32         0000000000000000 .debug_str
+  000000000000001e  0000000200000002 R_BPF_64_ABS64         0000000000000000 .text
+  000000000000002b  0000000400000003 R_BPF_64_ABS32         0000000000000000 .debug_str
+  0000000000000037  0000000800000002 R_BPF_64_ABS64         0000000000000000 gbl
+  0000000000000040  0000000400000003 R_BPF_64_ABS32         0000000000000000 .debug_str
+  ......
+
+The .BTF/.BTF.ext sections has R_BPF_64_NODYLD32 relocations::
+
+  Relocation section '.rel.BTF' at offset 0x538 contains 1 entries:
+      Offset             Info             Type               Symbol's Value  Symbol's Name
+  0000000000000084  0000000800000004 R_BPF_64_NODYLD32      0000000000000000 gbl
+
+  Relocation section '.rel.BTF.ext' at offset 0x548 contains 2 entries:
+      Offset             Info             Type               Symbol's Value  Symbol's Name
+  000000000000002c  0000000200000004 R_BPF_64_NODYLD32      0000000000000000 .text
+  0000000000000040  0000000200000004 R_BPF_64_NODYLD32      0000000000000000 .text
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/README.rst b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/README.rst
index 3353778c30f8..8deec1ca9150 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/README.rst
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/README.rst
@@ -202,3 +202,22 @@ generate valid BTF information for weak variables. Please make sure you use
 Clang that contains the fix.
 
 __ https://reviews.llvm.org/D100362
+
+Clang relocation changes
+========================
+
+Clang 13 patch `clang reloc patch`_  made some changes on relocations such
+that existing relocation types are broken into more types and
+each new type corresponds to only one way to resolve relocation.
+See `kernel llvm reloc`_ for more explanation and some examples.
+Using clang 13 to compile old libbpf which has static linker support,
+there will be a compilation failure::
+
+  libbpf: ELF relo #0 in section #6 has unexpected type 2 in .../bpf_tcp_nogpl.o
+
+Here, ``type 2`` refers to new relocation type ``R_BPF_64_ABS64``.
+To fix this issue, user newer libbpf.
+
+.. Links
+.. _clang reloc patch: https://reviews.llvm.org/D102712
+.. _kernel llvm reloc: /Documentation/bpf/llvm_reloc.rst
-- 
2.30.2


             reply index

Thread overview: 16+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-05-25  3:33 Yonghong Song [this message]
2021-05-25 18:29 ` Fangrui Song
2021-05-25 18:52   ` Yonghong Song
2021-06-05 21:03     ` Fāng-ruì Sòng
2021-06-07 21:06       ` Yonghong Song
2021-06-07 22:08         ` Fāng-ruì Sòng
2021-06-08  4:22           ` Andrii Nakryiko
2021-06-08  4:32           ` Yonghong Song
2021-06-08  5:51             ` Fāng-ruì Sòng
2021-06-08 15:49               ` Alexei Starovoitov
2021-06-08 16:33                 ` Fāng-ruì Sòng
2021-06-08 18:32                   ` Alexei Starovoitov
2021-06-08 23:10                     ` Fāng-ruì Sòng
2021-06-08 23:23                       ` Alexei Starovoitov
2021-05-25 15:25 Yonghong Song
2021-05-25 15:31 ` Yonghong Song

Reply instructions:

You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=20210525033314.3008878-1-yhs@fb.com \
    --to=yhs@fb.com \
    --cc=andrii@kernel.org \
    --cc=ast@kernel.org \
    --cc=bpf@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=daniel@iogearbox.net \
    --cc=john.fastabend@gmail.com \
    --cc=kernel-team@fb.com \
    --cc=lmb@cloudflare.com \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

BPF Archive on lore.kernel.org

Archives are clonable:
	git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/0 bpf/git/0.git

	# If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may
	# initialize and index your mirror using the following commands:
	public-inbox-init -V2 bpf bpf/ https://lore.kernel.org/bpf \
		bpf@vger.kernel.org
	public-inbox-index bpf

Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.bpf


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git