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* [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
@ 2021-04-21 19:07 Rasmus Villemoes
  2021-04-22  3:32 ` Andrii Nakryiko
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Rasmus Villemoes @ 2021-04-21 19:07 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Daniel Borkmann
  Cc: Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt, bpf, linux-kernel, Rasmus Villemoes

The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
"%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
anything at all to the buffer).

Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.

Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
---
 kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
 1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
index b0c45d923f0f..4ee55df84cd3 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
@@ -412,9 +412,6 @@ static __printf(1, 0) int bpf_do_trace_printk(const char *fmt, ...)
 	va_start(ap, fmt);
 	ret = vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, ap);
 	va_end(ap);
-	/* vsnprintf() will not append null for zero-length strings */
-	if (ret == 0)
-		buf[0] = '\0';
 	trace_bpf_trace_printk(buf);
 	raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&trace_printk_lock, flags);
 
-- 
2.29.2


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-21 19:07 [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk() Rasmus Villemoes
@ 2021-04-22  3:32 ` Andrii Nakryiko
  2021-04-22  7:13   ` Rasmus Villemoes
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Andrii Nakryiko @ 2021-04-22  3:32 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Rasmus Villemoes
  Cc: Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt, bpf, open list

On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 6:19 PM Rasmus Villemoes
<linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
>
> The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
> "%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
> snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
> given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
> anything at all to the buffer).
>
> Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.
>
> Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
> ---
>  kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
>  1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)
>

The change looks good to me, but please rebase it on top of the
bpf-next tree. This is not a bug, so it doesn't have to go into the
bpf tree. As it is right now, it doesn't apply cleanly onto bpf-next.


> diff --git a/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
> index b0c45d923f0f..4ee55df84cd3 100644
> --- a/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
> +++ b/kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
> @@ -412,9 +412,6 @@ static __printf(1, 0) int bpf_do_trace_printk(const char *fmt, ...)
>         va_start(ap, fmt);
>         ret = vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, ap);
>         va_end(ap);
> -       /* vsnprintf() will not append null for zero-length strings */
> -       if (ret == 0)
> -               buf[0] = '\0';
>         trace_bpf_trace_printk(buf);
>         raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&trace_printk_lock, flags);
>
> --
> 2.29.2
>

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22  3:32 ` Andrii Nakryiko
@ 2021-04-22  7:13   ` Rasmus Villemoes
  2021-04-22  9:23     ` Florent Revest
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Rasmus Villemoes @ 2021-04-22  7:13 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andrii Nakryiko
  Cc: Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt, bpf, open list,
	Florent Revest, Alexei Starovoitov

On 22/04/2021 05.32, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
> On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 6:19 PM Rasmus Villemoes
> <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
>>
>> The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
>> "%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
>> snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
>> given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
>> anything at all to the buffer).
>>
>> Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
>> ---
>>  kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
>>  1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)
>>
> 
> The change looks good to me, but please rebase it on top of the
> bpf-next tree. This is not a bug, so it doesn't have to go into the
> bpf tree. As it is right now, it doesn't apply cleanly onto bpf-next.

Thanks for the pointer. Looking in next-20210420, it seems to me that

commit d9c9e4db186ab4d81f84e6f22b225d333b9424e3
Author: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
Date:   Mon Apr 19 17:52:38 2021 +0200

    bpf: Factorize bpf_trace_printk and bpf_seq_printf

is buggy. In particular, these two snippets:

+#define BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(arg_nb, args, mod)                            \
+       (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG_LONG ||                         \
+        (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG && __BITS_PER_LONG == 64)      \
+         ? (u64)args[arg_nb]                                           \
+         : (u32)args[arg_nb])


+       ret = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(0, args,
mod),
+               BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(1, args, mod), BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(2,
args, mod));

Regardless of the casts done in that macro, the type of the resulting
expression is that resulting from C promotion rules. And (foo ? (u64)bla
: (u32)blib) has type u64, which is thus the type the compiler uses when
building the vararg list being passed into snprintf(). C simply doesn't
allow you to change types at run-time in this way.

It probably works fine on x86-64, which passes the first six or so
argument in registers, va_start() puts those registers into the va_list
opaque structure, and when it comes time to do a va_arg(int), just the
lower 32 bits are used. It is broken on i386 and other architectures
where arguments are passed on the stack (and for x86-64 as well had
there been a few more arguments) and va_arg(ap, int) is essentially ({
int res = *(int *)ap; ap += 4; res; }) [or maybe it's -= 4 because stack
direction etc., that's not really relevant here].

Rasmus

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22  7:13   ` Rasmus Villemoes
@ 2021-04-22  9:23     ` Florent Revest
  2021-04-22 10:09       ` Rasmus Villemoes
  2021-04-22 18:38       ` Andrii Nakryiko
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Florent Revest @ 2021-04-22  9:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Rasmus Villemoes
  Cc: Andrii Nakryiko, Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt,
	bpf, open list, Alexei Starovoitov

On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 9:13 AM Rasmus Villemoes
<linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
>
> On 22/04/2021 05.32, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
> > On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 6:19 PM Rasmus Villemoes
> > <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> >>
> >> The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
> >> "%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
> >> snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
> >> given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
> >> anything at all to the buffer).
> >>
> >> Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.
> >>
> >> Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
> >> ---
> >>  kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
> >>  1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)
> >>
> >
> > The change looks good to me, but please rebase it on top of the
> > bpf-next tree. This is not a bug, so it doesn't have to go into the
> > bpf tree. As it is right now, it doesn't apply cleanly onto bpf-next.

FWIW the idea of the patch also looks good to me :)

> Thanks for the pointer. Looking in next-20210420, it seems to me that
>
> commit d9c9e4db186ab4d81f84e6f22b225d333b9424e3
> Author: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
> Date:   Mon Apr 19 17:52:38 2021 +0200
>
>     bpf: Factorize bpf_trace_printk and bpf_seq_printf
>
> is buggy. In particular, these two snippets:
>
> +#define BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(arg_nb, args, mod)                            \
> +       (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG_LONG ||                         \
> +        (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG && __BITS_PER_LONG == 64)      \
> +         ? (u64)args[arg_nb]                                           \
> +         : (u32)args[arg_nb])
>
>
> +       ret = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(0, args,
> mod),
> +               BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(1, args, mod), BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(2,
> args, mod));
>
> Regardless of the casts done in that macro, the type of the resulting
> expression is that resulting from C promotion rules. And (foo ? (u64)bla
> : (u32)blib) has type u64, which is thus the type the compiler uses when
> building the vararg list being passed into snprintf(). C simply doesn't
> allow you to change types at run-time in this way.
>
> It probably works fine on x86-64, which passes the first six or so
> argument in registers, va_start() puts those registers into the va_list
> opaque structure, and when it comes time to do a va_arg(int), just the
> lower 32 bits are used. It is broken on i386 and other architectures
> where arguments are passed on the stack (and for x86-64 as well had
> there been a few more arguments) and va_arg(ap, int) is essentially ({
> int res = *(int *)ap; ap += 4; res; }) [or maybe it's -= 4 because stack
> direction etc., that's not really relevant here].
>
> Rasmus

Thank you Rasmus :)

It seems that we went offtrack in
https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/CAEf4BzZVEGM4esi-Rz67_xX_RTDrgxViy0gHfpeauECR5bmRNA@mail.gmail.com/
and we do need something like "88a5c690b6 bpf: fix bpf_trace_printk on
32 bit archs". Thinking about it again, it's clearer now why the
__BPF_TP_EMIT macro emits 2^3=8 different __trace_printk() indeed.

In the case of bpf_trace_printk with a maximum of 3 args, it's
relatively cheap; but for bpf_seq_printf and bpf_snprintf which accept
up to 12 arguments, that would be 2^12=4096 calls. Until now
bpf_seq_printf has just ignored this problem and just considered
everything as u64, I wonder if that'd be the best approach for these
two helpers anyway.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22  9:23     ` Florent Revest
@ 2021-04-22 10:09       ` Rasmus Villemoes
  2021-04-22 12:36         ` Florent Revest
  2021-04-22 18:38       ` Andrii Nakryiko
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Rasmus Villemoes @ 2021-04-22 10:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Florent Revest
  Cc: Andrii Nakryiko, Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt,
	bpf, open list, Alexei Starovoitov

On 22/04/2021 11.23, Florent Revest wrote:
> On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 9:13 AM Rasmus Villemoes
> <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
>>
>> On 22/04/2021 05.32, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
>>> On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 6:19 PM Rasmus Villemoes
>>> <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
>>>>
>>>> The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
>>>> "%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
>>>> snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
>>>> given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
>>>> anything at all to the buffer).
>>>>
>>>> Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.
>>>>
>>>> Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
>>>> ---
>>>>  kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
>>>>  1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)
>>>>
>>>
>>> The change looks good to me, but please rebase it on top of the
>>> bpf-next tree. This is not a bug, so it doesn't have to go into the
>>> bpf tree. As it is right now, it doesn't apply cleanly onto bpf-next.
> 
> FWIW the idea of the patch also looks good to me :)
> 
>> Thanks for the pointer. Looking in next-20210420, it seems to me that
>>
>> commit d9c9e4db186ab4d81f84e6f22b225d333b9424e3
>> Author: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
>> Date:   Mon Apr 19 17:52:38 2021 +0200
>>
>>     bpf: Factorize bpf_trace_printk and bpf_seq_printf
>>
>> is buggy. In particular, these two snippets:
>>
>> +#define BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(arg_nb, args, mod)                            \
>> +       (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG_LONG ||                         \
>> +        (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG && __BITS_PER_LONG == 64)      \
>> +         ? (u64)args[arg_nb]                                           \
>> +         : (u32)args[arg_nb])
>>
>>
>> +       ret = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(0, args,
>> mod),
>> +               BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(1, args, mod), BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(2,
>> args, mod));
>>
>> Regardless of the casts done in that macro, the type of the resulting
>> expression is that resulting from C promotion rules. And (foo ? (u64)bla
>> : (u32)blib) has type u64, which is thus the type the compiler uses when
>> building the vararg list being passed into snprintf(). C simply doesn't
>> allow you to change types at run-time in this way.
>>
>> It probably works fine on x86-64, which passes the first six or so
>> argument in registers, va_start() puts those registers into the va_list
>> opaque structure, and when it comes time to do a va_arg(int), just the
>> lower 32 bits are used. It is broken on i386 and other architectures
>> where arguments are passed on the stack (and for x86-64 as well had
>> there been a few more arguments) and va_arg(ap, int) is essentially ({
>> int res = *(int *)ap; ap += 4; res; }) [or maybe it's -= 4 because stack
>> direction etc., that's not really relevant here].
>>
>> Rasmus
> 
> Thank you Rasmus :)


I think you were lucky (or unlucky, depending on how you look at it)
with your test case

+	num_ret  = BPF_SNPRINTF(num_out, sizeof(num_out),
+				"%d %u %x %li %llu %lX",
+				-8, 9, 150, -424242, 1337, 0xDABBAD00);

because it just so happens that the eventual snprintf() call uses three
arguments for itself, so the first three 32-bit arguments end up being
passed via registers, while the 64 bit arguments are passed via the
stack. Can I get you to test what would happen if you interchanged
these, i.e. changed the test case to do

+	num_ret  = BPF_SNPRINTF(num_out, sizeof(num_out),
+				"%li %llu %lX %d %u %x",
+				-424242, 1337, 0xDABBAD00, -8, 9, 150);

(or just add a few more expects-a-32-bit argument format specifiers and
corresponding arguments). My guess is that up until formatting -8 it
goes well, but when vsnprintf() is to grab the argument corresponding to
%u, it will get the 0xffffffff from the upper half of (u64)-8.

> It seems that we went offtrack in
> https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/CAEf4BzZVEGM4esi-Rz67_xX_RTDrgxViy0gHfpeauECR5bmRNA@mail.gmail.com/
> and we do need something like "88a5c690b6 bpf: fix bpf_trace_printk on
> 32 bit archs". Thinking about it again, it's clearer now why the
> __BPF_TP_EMIT macro emits 2^3=8 different __trace_printk() indeed.

Isn't it 3^3 = 27, or has that been reduced in -next compared to Linus'
master? Doesn't matter much, just curious.

> In the case of bpf_trace_printk with a maximum of 3 args, it's
> relatively cheap; but for bpf_seq_printf and bpf_snprintf which accept
> up to 12 arguments, that would be 2^12=4096 calls.

Yeah, that doesn't scale at all.

 Until now
> bpf_seq_printf has just ignored this problem and just considered
> everything as u64, I wonder if that'd be the best approach for these
> two helpers anyway.
> 

[wild handwaving ahead]

One possibility, if one is willing to get hands dirty and dig into ABI
details on various arches, is to create a

  struct fake_va_list {
    union {
      va_list      ap; /* opaque, compiler-provided */
      arch_va_list _ap; /* arch-provided, must match layout of ap */
    };
    void *stack;
  };

Then do

  struct fake_va_list fva;
  u64 buf[24]; /* or whatever you want to support, can be different in
different functions */

  fake_va_init(&fva, buf);
  /* various C code, parsing format string etc. */
  if (arg[i] is really 32 bits)
    fake_va_push(&fva, (u32)arg[i]);
  else
    fake_va_push(&fva, (u64)arg[i]);
  /* etc. */
  ...
  vsnprintf(out, size, fmt, fva.va);

On arches like x86-64, where va_list is really a typedef for a
one-element array of

struct __va_list_tag {
        unsigned int               gp_offset;
        unsigned int               fp_offset;
        void *                     overflow_arg_area;
        void *                     reg_save_area;
};


fake_va_init() would make the va_list look like the reg_save_area is
already used (i.e., set gp_offset to 48), and initialize both
->_ap.overflow_arg_area and ->stack to point at the given buffer.
fake_va_push() would use and update stack appropriately. For 32 bit x86,
va_list is really just a pointer, so fake_va_init would essentially just
do "fva->_ap = fva->stack = buf", and fake_va_push() would again just
need to manipulate ->stack.

It's not pretty, but I don't think it necessarily requires too much
arch-specific work (fake_va_push() could be common, perhaps just with a
arch define to say whether 64 bit arguments need ->stack to first be
up-aligned to an 8 byte boundary).

Rasmus

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22 10:09       ` Rasmus Villemoes
@ 2021-04-22 12:36         ` Florent Revest
  2021-04-22 15:34           ` Florent Revest
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Florent Revest @ 2021-04-22 12:36 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Rasmus Villemoes
  Cc: Andrii Nakryiko, Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt,
	bpf, open list, Alexei Starovoitov

On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 12:09 PM Rasmus Villemoes
<linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
>
> On 22/04/2021 11.23, Florent Revest wrote:
> > On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 9:13 AM Rasmus Villemoes
> > <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> >>
> >> On 22/04/2021 05.32, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
> >>> On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 6:19 PM Rasmus Villemoes
> >>> <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> >>>>
> >>>> The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
> >>>> "%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
> >>>> snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
> >>>> given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
> >>>> anything at all to the buffer).
> >>>>
> >>>> Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.
> >>>>
> >>>> Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
> >>>> ---
> >>>>  kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
> >>>>  1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)
> >>>>
> >>>
> >>> The change looks good to me, but please rebase it on top of the
> >>> bpf-next tree. This is not a bug, so it doesn't have to go into the
> >>> bpf tree. As it is right now, it doesn't apply cleanly onto bpf-next.
> >
> > FWIW the idea of the patch also looks good to me :)
> >
> >> Thanks for the pointer. Looking in next-20210420, it seems to me that
> >>
> >> commit d9c9e4db186ab4d81f84e6f22b225d333b9424e3
> >> Author: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
> >> Date:   Mon Apr 19 17:52:38 2021 +0200
> >>
> >>     bpf: Factorize bpf_trace_printk and bpf_seq_printf
> >>
> >> is buggy. In particular, these two snippets:
> >>
> >> +#define BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(arg_nb, args, mod)                            \
> >> +       (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG_LONG ||                         \
> >> +        (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG && __BITS_PER_LONG == 64)      \
> >> +         ? (u64)args[arg_nb]                                           \
> >> +         : (u32)args[arg_nb])
> >>
> >>
> >> +       ret = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(0, args,
> >> mod),
> >> +               BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(1, args, mod), BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(2,
> >> args, mod));
> >>
> >> Regardless of the casts done in that macro, the type of the resulting
> >> expression is that resulting from C promotion rules. And (foo ? (u64)bla
> >> : (u32)blib) has type u64, which is thus the type the compiler uses when
> >> building the vararg list being passed into snprintf(). C simply doesn't
> >> allow you to change types at run-time in this way.
> >>
> >> It probably works fine on x86-64, which passes the first six or so
> >> argument in registers, va_start() puts those registers into the va_list
> >> opaque structure, and when it comes time to do a va_arg(int), just the
> >> lower 32 bits are used. It is broken on i386 and other architectures
> >> where arguments are passed on the stack (and for x86-64 as well had
> >> there been a few more arguments) and va_arg(ap, int) is essentially ({
> >> int res = *(int *)ap; ap += 4; res; }) [or maybe it's -= 4 because stack
> >> direction etc., that's not really relevant here].
> >>
> >> Rasmus
> >
> > Thank you Rasmus :)
>
>
> I think you were lucky (or unlucky, depending on how you look at it)
> with your test case
>
> +       num_ret  = BPF_SNPRINTF(num_out, sizeof(num_out),
> +                               "%d %u %x %li %llu %lX",
> +                               -8, 9, 150, -424242, 1337, 0xDABBAD00);
>
> because it just so happens that the eventual snprintf() call uses three
> arguments for itself, so the first three 32-bit arguments end up being
> passed via registers, while the 64 bit arguments are passed via the
> stack. Can I get you to test what would happen if you interchanged
> these, i.e. changed the test case to do
>
> +       num_ret  = BPF_SNPRINTF(num_out, sizeof(num_out),
> +                               "%li %llu %lX %d %u %x",
> +                               -424242, 1337, 0xDABBAD00, -8, 9, 150);
>
> (or just add a few more expects-a-32-bit argument format specifiers and
> corresponding arguments). My guess is that up until formatting -8 it
> goes well, but when vsnprintf() is to grab the argument corresponding to
> %u, it will get the 0xffffffff from the upper half of (u64)-8.

I will need to come up with a repro and let you know yes :)

> > It seems that we went offtrack in
> > https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/CAEf4BzZVEGM4esi-Rz67_xX_RTDrgxViy0gHfpeauECR5bmRNA@mail.gmail.com/
> > and we do need something like "88a5c690b6 bpf: fix bpf_trace_printk on
> > 32 bit archs". Thinking about it again, it's clearer now why the
> > __BPF_TP_EMIT macro emits 2^3=8 different __trace_printk() indeed.
>
> Isn't it 3^3 = 27, or has that been reduced in -next compared to Linus'
> master? Doesn't matter much, just curious.
>
> > In the case of bpf_trace_printk with a maximum of 3 args, it's
> > relatively cheap; but for bpf_seq_printf and bpf_snprintf which accept
> > up to 12 arguments, that would be 2^12=4096 calls.
>
> Yeah, that doesn't scale at all.
>
>  Until now
> > bpf_seq_printf has just ignored this problem and just considered
> > everything as u64, I wonder if that'd be the best approach for these
> > two helpers anyway.
> >
>
> [wild handwaving ahead]
>
> One possibility, if one is willing to get hands dirty and dig into ABI
> details on various arches, is to create a
>
>   struct fake_va_list {
>     union {
>       va_list      ap; /* opaque, compiler-provided */
>       arch_va_list _ap; /* arch-provided, must match layout of ap */
>     };
>     void *stack;
>   };
>
> Then do
>
>   struct fake_va_list fva;
>   u64 buf[24]; /* or whatever you want to support, can be different in
> different functions */
>
>   fake_va_init(&fva, buf);
>   /* various C code, parsing format string etc. */
>   if (arg[i] is really 32 bits)
>     fake_va_push(&fva, (u32)arg[i]);
>   else
>     fake_va_push(&fva, (u64)arg[i]);
>   /* etc. */
>   ...
>   vsnprintf(out, size, fmt, fva.va);
>
> On arches like x86-64, where va_list is really a typedef for a
> one-element array of
>
> struct __va_list_tag {
>         unsigned int               gp_offset;
>         unsigned int               fp_offset;
>         void *                     overflow_arg_area;
>         void *                     reg_save_area;
> };
>
>
> fake_va_init() would make the va_list look like the reg_save_area is
> already used (i.e., set gp_offset to 48), and initialize both
> ->_ap.overflow_arg_area and ->stack to point at the given buffer.
> fake_va_push() would use and update stack appropriately. For 32 bit x86,
> va_list is really just a pointer, so fake_va_init would essentially just
> do "fva->_ap = fva->stack = buf", and fake_va_push() would again just
> need to manipulate ->stack.
>
> It's not pretty, but I don't think it necessarily requires too much
> arch-specific work (fake_va_push() could be common, perhaps just with a
> arch define to say whether 64 bit arguments need ->stack to first be
> up-aligned to an 8 byte boundary).
>
> Rasmus

Creative! :D I think these arch-specific structures would be a hard
sell though ahah.

I was having a stroll through lib/vsprintf.c and noticed bstr_printf:

 * This function like C99 vsnprintf, but the difference is that vsnprintf gets
 * arguments from stack, and bstr_printf gets arguments from @bin_buf which is
 * a binary buffer that generated by vbin_printf.

Maybe it would be easier to just build our argument buffer similarly
to what vbin_printf does.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22 12:36         ` Florent Revest
@ 2021-04-22 15:34           ` Florent Revest
  2021-04-22 15:43             ` Alexei Starovoitov
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Florent Revest @ 2021-04-22 15:34 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Rasmus Villemoes
  Cc: Andrii Nakryiko, Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt,
	bpf, open list, Alexei Starovoitov

On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 2:36 PM Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org> wrote:
>
> On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 12:09 PM Rasmus Villemoes
> <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> >
> > On 22/04/2021 11.23, Florent Revest wrote:
> > > On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 9:13 AM Rasmus Villemoes
> > > <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> > >>
> > >> On 22/04/2021 05.32, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
> > >>> On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 6:19 PM Rasmus Villemoes
> > >>> <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> > >>>>
> > >>>> The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
> > >>>> "%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
> > >>>> snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
> > >>>> given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
> > >>>> anything at all to the buffer).
> > >>>>
> > >>>> Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.
> > >>>>
> > >>>> Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
> > >>>> ---
> > >>>>  kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
> > >>>>  1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)
> > >>>>
> > >>>
> > >>> The change looks good to me, but please rebase it on top of the
> > >>> bpf-next tree. This is not a bug, so it doesn't have to go into the
> > >>> bpf tree. As it is right now, it doesn't apply cleanly onto bpf-next.
> > >
> > > FWIW the idea of the patch also looks good to me :)
> > >
> > >> Thanks for the pointer. Looking in next-20210420, it seems to me that
> > >>
> > >> commit d9c9e4db186ab4d81f84e6f22b225d333b9424e3
> > >> Author: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
> > >> Date:   Mon Apr 19 17:52:38 2021 +0200
> > >>
> > >>     bpf: Factorize bpf_trace_printk and bpf_seq_printf
> > >>
> > >> is buggy. In particular, these two snippets:
> > >>
> > >> +#define BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(arg_nb, args, mod)                            \
> > >> +       (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG_LONG ||                         \
> > >> +        (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG && __BITS_PER_LONG == 64)      \
> > >> +         ? (u64)args[arg_nb]                                           \
> > >> +         : (u32)args[arg_nb])
> > >>
> > >>
> > >> +       ret = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(0, args,
> > >> mod),
> > >> +               BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(1, args, mod), BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(2,
> > >> args, mod));
> > >>
> > >> Regardless of the casts done in that macro, the type of the resulting
> > >> expression is that resulting from C promotion rules. And (foo ? (u64)bla
> > >> : (u32)blib) has type u64, which is thus the type the compiler uses when
> > >> building the vararg list being passed into snprintf(). C simply doesn't
> > >> allow you to change types at run-time in this way.
> > >>
> > >> It probably works fine on x86-64, which passes the first six or so
> > >> argument in registers, va_start() puts those registers into the va_list
> > >> opaque structure, and when it comes time to do a va_arg(int), just the
> > >> lower 32 bits are used. It is broken on i386 and other architectures
> > >> where arguments are passed on the stack (and for x86-64 as well had
> > >> there been a few more arguments) and va_arg(ap, int) is essentially ({
> > >> int res = *(int *)ap; ap += 4; res; }) [or maybe it's -= 4 because stack
> > >> direction etc., that's not really relevant here].
> > >>
> > >> Rasmus
> > >
> > > Thank you Rasmus :)
> >
> >
> > I think you were lucky (or unlucky, depending on how you look at it)
> > with your test case
> >
> > +       num_ret  = BPF_SNPRINTF(num_out, sizeof(num_out),
> > +                               "%d %u %x %li %llu %lX",
> > +                               -8, 9, 150, -424242, 1337, 0xDABBAD00);
> >
> > because it just so happens that the eventual snprintf() call uses three
> > arguments for itself, so the first three 32-bit arguments end up being
> > passed via registers, while the 64 bit arguments are passed via the
> > stack. Can I get you to test what would happen if you interchanged
> > these, i.e. changed the test case to do
> >
> > +       num_ret  = BPF_SNPRINTF(num_out, sizeof(num_out),
> > +                               "%li %llu %lX %d %u %x",
> > +                               -424242, 1337, 0xDABBAD00, -8, 9, 150);
> >
> > (or just add a few more expects-a-32-bit argument format specifiers and
> > corresponding arguments). My guess is that up until formatting -8 it
> > goes well, but when vsnprintf() is to grab the argument corresponding to
> > %u, it will get the 0xffffffff from the upper half of (u64)-8.
>
> I will need to come up with a repro and let you know yes :)
>
> > > It seems that we went offtrack in
> > > https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/CAEf4BzZVEGM4esi-Rz67_xX_RTDrgxViy0gHfpeauECR5bmRNA@mail.gmail.com/
> > > and we do need something like "88a5c690b6 bpf: fix bpf_trace_printk on
> > > 32 bit archs". Thinking about it again, it's clearer now why the
> > > __BPF_TP_EMIT macro emits 2^3=8 different __trace_printk() indeed.
> >
> > Isn't it 3^3 = 27, or has that been reduced in -next compared to Linus'
> > master? Doesn't matter much, just curious.
> >
> > > In the case of bpf_trace_printk with a maximum of 3 args, it's
> > > relatively cheap; but for bpf_seq_printf and bpf_snprintf which accept
> > > up to 12 arguments, that would be 2^12=4096 calls.
> >
> > Yeah, that doesn't scale at all.
> >
> >  Until now
> > > bpf_seq_printf has just ignored this problem and just considered
> > > everything as u64, I wonder if that'd be the best approach for these
> > > two helpers anyway.
> > >
> >
> > [wild handwaving ahead]
> >
> > One possibility, if one is willing to get hands dirty and dig into ABI
> > details on various arches, is to create a
> >
> >   struct fake_va_list {
> >     union {
> >       va_list      ap; /* opaque, compiler-provided */
> >       arch_va_list _ap; /* arch-provided, must match layout of ap */
> >     };
> >     void *stack;
> >   };
> >
> > Then do
> >
> >   struct fake_va_list fva;
> >   u64 buf[24]; /* or whatever you want to support, can be different in
> > different functions */
> >
> >   fake_va_init(&fva, buf);
> >   /* various C code, parsing format string etc. */
> >   if (arg[i] is really 32 bits)
> >     fake_va_push(&fva, (u32)arg[i]);
> >   else
> >     fake_va_push(&fva, (u64)arg[i]);
> >   /* etc. */
> >   ...
> >   vsnprintf(out, size, fmt, fva.va);
> >
> > On arches like x86-64, where va_list is really a typedef for a
> > one-element array of
> >
> > struct __va_list_tag {
> >         unsigned int               gp_offset;
> >         unsigned int               fp_offset;
> >         void *                     overflow_arg_area;
> >         void *                     reg_save_area;
> > };
> >
> >
> > fake_va_init() would make the va_list look like the reg_save_area is
> > already used (i.e., set gp_offset to 48), and initialize both
> > ->_ap.overflow_arg_area and ->stack to point at the given buffer.
> > fake_va_push() would use and update stack appropriately. For 32 bit x86,
> > va_list is really just a pointer, so fake_va_init would essentially just
> > do "fva->_ap = fva->stack = buf", and fake_va_push() would again just
> > need to manipulate ->stack.
> >
> > It's not pretty, but I don't think it necessarily requires too much
> > arch-specific work (fake_va_push() could be common, perhaps just with a
> > arch define to say whether 64 bit arguments need ->stack to first be
> > up-aligned to an 8 byte boundary).
> >
> > Rasmus
>
> Creative! :D I think these arch-specific structures would be a hard
> sell though ahah.
>
> I was having a stroll through lib/vsprintf.c and noticed bstr_printf:
>
>  * This function like C99 vsnprintf, but the difference is that vsnprintf gets
>  * arguments from stack, and bstr_printf gets arguments from @bin_buf which is
>  * a binary buffer that generated by vbin_printf.
>
> Maybe it would be easier to just build our argument buffer similarly
> to what vbin_printf does.

I've been experimenting with this idea and it is quite promising :) it
also makes the code much cleaner, I find. I'll send a series asap.

BPF maintainers: should we fix forward or do you prefer reverting the
snprintf series and then re-applying another snprintf series without
the regression in bpf_trace_printk that mangles some argument types ?
(bpf_seq_printf has always been like that so no regression there)

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22 15:34           ` Florent Revest
@ 2021-04-22 15:43             ` Alexei Starovoitov
  2021-04-22 15:46               ` Florent Revest
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Alexei Starovoitov @ 2021-04-22 15:43 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Florent Revest
  Cc: Rasmus Villemoes, Andrii Nakryiko, Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire,
	Steven Rostedt, bpf, open list, Alexei Starovoitov

On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 8:35 AM Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org> wrote:
> >
> > I was having a stroll through lib/vsprintf.c and noticed bstr_printf:
> >
> >  * This function like C99 vsnprintf, but the difference is that vsnprintf gets
> >  * arguments from stack, and bstr_printf gets arguments from @bin_buf which is
> >  * a binary buffer that generated by vbin_printf.
> >
> > Maybe it would be easier to just build our argument buffer similarly
> > to what vbin_printf does.
>
> I've been experimenting with this idea and it is quite promising :) it
> also makes the code much cleaner, I find. I'll send a series asap.

You mean to use bstr_printf internally ? That could work indeed.
Make sure CONFIG_BINARY_PRINTF is selected.
CONFIG_TRACING does it already.

> BPF maintainers: should we fix forward or do you prefer reverting the
> snprintf series and then re-applying another snprintf series without
> the regression in bpf_trace_printk that mangles some argument types ?
> (bpf_seq_printf has always been like that so no regression there)

Pls send it as a follow up.
Along with another patch to clean verifier bits we discussed.
The merge window is approaching, so it has to be done asap.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22 15:43             ` Alexei Starovoitov
@ 2021-04-22 15:46               ` Florent Revest
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Florent Revest @ 2021-04-22 15:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Alexei Starovoitov
  Cc: Rasmus Villemoes, Andrii Nakryiko, Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire,
	Steven Rostedt, bpf, open list, Alexei Starovoitov

On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 5:44 PM Alexei Starovoitov
<alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 8:35 AM Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org> wrote:
> > >
> > > I was having a stroll through lib/vsprintf.c and noticed bstr_printf:
> > >
> > >  * This function like C99 vsnprintf, but the difference is that vsnprintf gets
> > >  * arguments from stack, and bstr_printf gets arguments from @bin_buf which is
> > >  * a binary buffer that generated by vbin_printf.
> > >
> > > Maybe it would be easier to just build our argument buffer similarly
> > > to what vbin_printf does.
> >
> > I've been experimenting with this idea and it is quite promising :) it
> > also makes the code much cleaner, I find. I'll send a series asap.
>
> You mean to use bstr_printf internally ? That could work indeed.
> Make sure CONFIG_BINARY_PRINTF is selected.
> CONFIG_TRACING does it already.

Yes :)

> > BPF maintainers: should we fix forward or do you prefer reverting the
> > snprintf series and then re-applying another snprintf series without
> > the regression in bpf_trace_printk that mangles some argument types ?
> > (bpf_seq_printf has always been like that so no regression there)
>
> Pls send it as a follow up.
> Along with another patch to clean verifier bits we discussed.
> The merge window is approaching, so it has to be done asap.

On it ;)

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk()
  2021-04-22  9:23     ` Florent Revest
  2021-04-22 10:09       ` Rasmus Villemoes
@ 2021-04-22 18:38       ` Andrii Nakryiko
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Andrii Nakryiko @ 2021-04-22 18:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Florent Revest
  Cc: Rasmus Villemoes, Daniel Borkmann, Alan Maguire, Steven Rostedt,
	bpf, open list, Alexei Starovoitov

On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 2:23 AM Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org> wrote:
>
> On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 9:13 AM Rasmus Villemoes
> <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> >
> > On 22/04/2021 05.32, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
> > > On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 6:19 PM Rasmus Villemoes
> > > <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> wrote:
> > >>
> > >> The comment is wrong. snprintf(buf, 16, "") and snprintf(buf, 16,
> > >> "%s", "") etc. will certainly put '\0' in buf[0]. The only case where
> > >> snprintf() does not guarantee a nul-terminated string is when it is
> > >> given a buffer size of 0 (which of course prevents it from writing
> > >> anything at all to the buffer).
> > >>
> > >> Remove it before it gets cargo-culted elsewhere.
> > >>
> > >> Signed-off-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk>
> > >> ---
> > >>  kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 3 ---
> > >>  1 file changed, 3 deletions(-)
> > >>
> > >
> > > The change looks good to me, but please rebase it on top of the
> > > bpf-next tree. This is not a bug, so it doesn't have to go into the
> > > bpf tree. As it is right now, it doesn't apply cleanly onto bpf-next.
>
> FWIW the idea of the patch also looks good to me :)
>
> > Thanks for the pointer. Looking in next-20210420, it seems to me that
> >
> > commit d9c9e4db186ab4d81f84e6f22b225d333b9424e3
> > Author: Florent Revest <revest@chromium.org>
> > Date:   Mon Apr 19 17:52:38 2021 +0200
> >
> >     bpf: Factorize bpf_trace_printk and bpf_seq_printf
> >
> > is buggy. In particular, these two snippets:
> >
> > +#define BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(arg_nb, args, mod)                            \
> > +       (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG_LONG ||                         \
> > +        (mod[arg_nb] == BPF_PRINTF_LONG && __BITS_PER_LONG == 64)      \
> > +         ? (u64)args[arg_nb]                                           \
> > +         : (u32)args[arg_nb])
> >
> >
> > +       ret = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(0, args,
> > mod),
> > +               BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(1, args, mod), BPF_CAST_FMT_ARG(2,
> > args, mod));
> >
> > Regardless of the casts done in that macro, the type of the resulting
> > expression is that resulting from C promotion rules. And (foo ? (u64)bla
> > : (u32)blib) has type u64, which is thus the type the compiler uses when
> > building the vararg list being passed into snprintf(). C simply doesn't
> > allow you to change types at run-time in this way.
> >
> > It probably works fine on x86-64, which passes the first six or so
> > argument in registers, va_start() puts those registers into the va_list
> > opaque structure, and when it comes time to do a va_arg(int), just the
> > lower 32 bits are used. It is broken on i386 and other architectures
> > where arguments are passed on the stack (and for x86-64 as well had
> > there been a few more arguments) and va_arg(ap, int) is essentially ({
> > int res = *(int *)ap; ap += 4; res; }) [or maybe it's -= 4 because stack
> > direction etc., that's not really relevant here].
> >
> > Rasmus
>
> Thank you Rasmus :)
>
> It seems that we went offtrack in
> https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/CAEf4BzZVEGM4esi-Rz67_xX_RTDrgxViy0gHfpeauECR5bmRNA@mail.gmail.com/
> and we do need something like "88a5c690b6 bpf: fix bpf_trace_printk on
> 32 bit archs". Thinking about it again, it's clearer now why the
> __BPF_TP_EMIT macro emits 2^3=8 different __trace_printk() indeed.

Yeah, we wondering but no one could guess why it was done the way it
was done :) Next time we should invest in a better comment ;-P

>
> In the case of bpf_trace_printk with a maximum of 3 args, it's
> relatively cheap; but for bpf_seq_printf and bpf_snprintf which accept
> up to 12 arguments, that would be 2^12=4096 calls. Until now
> bpf_seq_printf has just ignored this problem and just considered
> everything as u64, I wonder if that'd be the best approach for these
> two helpers anyway.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2021-04-22 18:38 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 10+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2021-04-21 19:07 [PATCH] bpf: remove pointless code from bpf_do_trace_printk() Rasmus Villemoes
2021-04-22  3:32 ` Andrii Nakryiko
2021-04-22  7:13   ` Rasmus Villemoes
2021-04-22  9:23     ` Florent Revest
2021-04-22 10:09       ` Rasmus Villemoes
2021-04-22 12:36         ` Florent Revest
2021-04-22 15:34           ` Florent Revest
2021-04-22 15:43             ` Alexei Starovoitov
2021-04-22 15:46               ` Florent Revest
2021-04-22 18:38       ` Andrii Nakryiko

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