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From: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>
To: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>,
	Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>,
	"Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@kernel.org>,
	Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>,
	Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>,
	clang-built-linux <clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com>,
	Kernel Hardening <kernel-hardening@lists.openwall.com>,
	linux-arch <linux-arch@vger.kernel.org>,
	linux-arm-kernel <linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org>,
	Linux Kbuild mailing list <linux-kbuild@vger.kernel.org>,
	Linux Kernel Mailing List <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	linux-pci@vger.kernel.org, X86 ML <x86@kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2 00/28] Add support for Clang LTO
Date: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 10:18:05 +0900
Message-ID: <CAK7LNAR9zzP0ZU3b__PZv8gRtKrwz6-8GE1zG5UyFx1wDpOBzQ@mail.gmail.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20200908234643.GF1060586@google.com>

On Wed, Sep 9, 2020 at 8:46 AM Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com> wrote:
>
> On Sun, Sep 06, 2020 at 09:24:38AM +0900, Masahiro Yamada wrote:
> > On Fri, Sep 4, 2020 at 5:30 AM Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com> wrote:
> > >
> > > This patch series adds support for building x86_64 and arm64 kernels
> > > with Clang's Link Time Optimization (LTO).
> > >
> > > In addition to performance, the primary motivation for LTO is
> > > to allow Clang's Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) to be used in the
> > > kernel. Google has shipped millions of Pixel devices running three
> > > major kernel versions with LTO+CFI since 2018.
> > >
> > > Most of the patches are build system changes for handling LLVM
> > > bitcode, which Clang produces with LTO instead of ELF object files,
> > > postponing ELF processing until a later stage, and ensuring initcall
> > > ordering.
> > >
> > > Note that patches 1-4 are not directly related to LTO, but are
> > > needed to compile LTO kernels with ToT Clang, so I'm including them
> > > in the series for your convenience:
> > >
> > >  - Patches 1-3 are required for building the kernel with ToT Clang,
> > >    and IAS, and patch 4 is needed to build allmodconfig with LTO.
> > >
> > >  - Patches 3-4 are already in linux-next, but not yet in 5.9-rc.
> > >
> >
> >
> > I still do not understand how this patch set works.
> > (only me?)
> >
> > Please let me ask fundamental questions.
> >
> >
> >
> > I applied this series on top of Linus' tree,
> > and compiled for ARCH=arm64.
> >
> > I compared the kernel size with/without LTO.
> >
> >
> >
> > [1] No LTO  (arm64 defconfig, CONFIG_LTO_NONE)
> >
> > $ llvm-size   vmlinux
> >    text    data     bss     dec     hex filename
> > 15848692 10099449 493060 26441201 19375f1 vmlinux
> >
> >
> >
> > [2] Clang LTO  (arm64 defconfig + CONFIG_LTO_CLANG)
> >
> > $ llvm-size   vmlinux
> >    text    data     bss     dec     hex filename
> > 15906864 10197445 490804 26595113 195cf29 vmlinux
> >
> >
> > I compared the size of raw binary, arch/arm64/boot/Image.
> > Its size increased too.
> >
> >
> >
> > So, in my experiment, enabling CONFIG_LTO_CLANG
> > increases the kernel size.
> > Is this correct?
>
> Yes. LTO does produce larger binaries, mostly due to function
> inlining between translation units, I believe. The compiler people
> can probably give you a more detailed answer here. Without -mllvm
> -import-instr-limit, the binaries would be even larger.
>
> > One more thing, could you teach me
> > how Clang LTO optimizes the code against
> > relocatable objects?
> >
> >
> >
> > When I learned Clang LTO first, I read this document:
> > https://llvm.org/docs/LinkTimeOptimization.html
> >
> > It is easy to confirm the final executable
> > does not contain foo2, foo3...
> >
> >
> >
> > In contrast to userspace programs,
> > kernel modules are basically relocatable objects.
> >
> > Does Clang drop unused symbols from relocatable objects?
> > If so, how?
>
> I don't think the compiler can legally drop global symbols from
> relocatable objects, but it can rename and possibly even drop static
> functions.


Compilers can drop static functions without LTO.
Rather, it is a compiler warning
(-Wunused-function), so the code should be cleaned up.



> This is why we need global wrappers for initcalls, for
> example, to have stable symbol names.
>
> Sami



At first, I thought the motivation of LTO
was to remove unused global symbols, and
to perform further optimization.


It is true for userspace programs.
In fact, the example of
https://llvm.org/docs/LinkTimeOptimization.html
produces a smaller binary.


In contrast, this patch set produces a bigger kernel
because LTO cannot remove any unused symbol.

So, I do not understand what the benefit is.


Is inlining beneficial?
I am not sure.


Documentation/process/coding-style.rst
"15) The inline disease"
mentions that inlining is not always
a good thing.


As a whole, I still do not understand
the motivation of this patch set.


-- 
Best Regards
Masahiro Yamada

  reply index

Thread overview: 213+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-06-24 20:31 [PATCH 00/22] add " Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 01/22] objtool: use sh_info to find the base for .rela sections Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 02/22] kbuild: add support for Clang LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:53   ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 21:29     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-25  2:26   ` Nathan Chancellor
2020-06-25 16:13     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 03/22] kbuild: lto: fix module versioning Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 04/22] kbuild: lto: fix recordmcount Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 21:27   ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-24 21:45     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-25  7:45       ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-25 16:15         ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-25 20:02           ` [RFC][PATCH] objtool,x86_64: Replace recordmcount with objtool Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-25 20:54             ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-25 22:40             ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-26 11:29               ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-26 11:42                 ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-17 17:28                 ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-17 17:36                   ` Steven Rostedt
2020-07-17 17:47                     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-17 18:05                       ` Steven Rostedt
2020-07-20 16:52                         ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-22 17:58                           ` Steven Rostedt
2020-07-22 18:07                             ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-22 17:55                 ` Steven Rostedt
2020-07-22 18:41                   ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-22 19:09                     ` Steven Rostedt
2020-07-22 20:03                       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-22 23:56                       ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-23  0:06                         ` Steven Rostedt
2020-08-06 22:09                           ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 05/22] kbuild: lto: postpone objtool Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 21:19   ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-24 21:49     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-25  7:47       ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-25 16:22         ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-25 18:33           ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-25 19:32             ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 06/22] kbuild: lto: limit inlining Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 21:20   ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-24 23:37     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 07/22] kbuild: lto: merge module sections Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 21:01   ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 21:31     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 08/22] kbuild: lto: remove duplicate dependencies from .mod files Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 21:13   ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 09/22] init: lto: ensure initcall ordering Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-25  0:58   ` kernel test robot
2020-06-25  4:19   ` kernel test robot
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 10/22] init: lto: fix PREL32 relocations Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 11/22] pci: " Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 22:49   ` kernel test robot
2020-06-24 23:03     ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 23:21       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-17 20:26   ` Bjorn Helgaas
2020-07-22 18:15     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 12/22] modpost: lto: strip .lto from module names Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 22:05   ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 13/22] scripts/mod: disable LTO for empty.c Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:57   ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 14/22] efi/libstub: disable LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 15/22] drivers/misc/lkdtm: disable LTO for rodata.o Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 16/22] arm64: export CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 17/22] arm64: vdso: disable LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:58   ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 21:09     ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 23:51       ` Andi Kleen
2020-06-24 21:52     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 23:05       ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-24 23:39         ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 18/22] arm64: allow LTO_CLANG and THINLTO to be selected Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 19/22] x86, vdso: disable LTO only for vDSO Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 20/22] x86, ftrace: disable recordmcount for ftrace_make_nop Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:31 ` [PATCH 21/22] x86, relocs: Ignore L4_PAGE_OFFSET relocations Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 20:32 ` [PATCH 22/22] x86, build: allow LTO_CLANG and THINLTO to be selected Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-24 21:15 ` [PATCH 00/22] add support for Clang LTO Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-24 21:30   ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-06-25  8:27     ` Will Deacon
2020-06-24 21:31   ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-06-25  8:03     ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-25  8:24       ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-25  8:57         ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-30 19:19           ` Marco Elver
2020-06-30 20:12             ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-06-30 20:30               ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-01  9:10                 ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-01 14:20                   ` David Laight
2020-07-01 16:06                     ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-02  9:37                       ` David Laight
2020-07-02 18:00                         ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-01  9:41                 ` Marco Elver
2020-07-01 10:03                   ` Will Deacon
2020-07-01 11:40                   ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-01 14:06                     ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-01 15:05                       ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-01 16:03                         ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-02  8:20                           ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-02 17:59                             ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-03 13:13                               ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-03 13:25                                 ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-03 14:51                                   ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-03 14:42                                 ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-06 16:26                                   ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-06 18:29                                     ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-06 18:39                                       ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-07-06 19:40                                         ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-07-06 23:41                                           ` Paul E. McKenney
2020-06-28 16:56 ` Masahiro Yamada
2020-06-29 23:20   ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-07 15:51     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-07 16:05       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-07 16:56         ` Jakub Kicinski
2020-07-07 17:17           ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-07-07 17:30             ` Jakub Kicinski
2020-07-11 16:32 ` Paul Menzel
2020-07-12  8:59   ` Sedat Dilek
2020-07-12 18:40     ` Nathan Chancellor
2020-07-14  9:44       ` Sedat Dilek
2020-07-14 17:54         ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-07-12 23:34   ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-07-14 12:16     ` Paul Menzel
2020-07-14 12:35       ` Sedat Dilek
2020-07-14 13:40         ` Paul Menzel
2020-09-03 20:30 ` [PATCH v2 00/28] Add " Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 01/28] x86/boot/compressed: Disable relocation relaxation Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:44     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 23:42       ` Arvind Sankar
2020-09-04  7:14         ` Nathan Chancellor
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 02/28] x86/asm: Replace __force_order with memory clobber Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:45     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 03/28] lib/string.c: implement stpcpy Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:47     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 04/28] RAS/CEC: Fix cec_init() prototype Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:50     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 05/28] objtool: Add a pass for generating __mcount_loc Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:51     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 22:03       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-04  9:31         ` peterz
2020-09-10 18:29           ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 06/28] objtool: Don't autodetect vmlinux.o Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:52     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 07/28] kbuild: add support for objtool mcount Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:56     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 08/28] x86, build: use " Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 21:58     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 22:11       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 09/28] kbuild: add support for Clang LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:08     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-08 17:02       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-05 19:36     ` Masahiro Yamada
2020-09-08 17:10       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-05 20:17     ` Masahiro Yamada
2020-09-08 17:14       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-07 15:30     ` Masahiro Yamada
2020-09-08 17:30       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 10/28] kbuild: lto: fix module versioning Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:11     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-08 18:23       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 11/28] kbuild: lto: postpone objtool Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:19     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-08 20:56       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 12/28] kbuild: lto: limit inlining Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:20     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 13/28] kbuild: lto: merge module sections Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:23     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-07 15:25     ` Masahiro Yamada
2020-09-08 21:07       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 14/28] kbuild: lto: remove duplicate dependencies from .mod files Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:29     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 15/28] init: lto: ensure initcall ordering Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:40     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-08 21:16       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-10  9:25     ` David Woodhouse
2020-09-10 15:07       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 16/28] init: lto: fix PREL32 relocations Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:41     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 17/28] PCI: Fix PREL32 relocations for LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:42     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 18/28] modpost: lto: strip .lto from module names Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:42     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 19/28] scripts/mod: disable LTO for empty.c Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:43     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 20/28] efi/libstub: disable LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:43     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 21/28] drivers/misc/lkdtm: disable LTO for rodata.o Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 22/28] arm64: export CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:44     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-08 21:23       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 23/28] arm64: vdso: disable LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:45     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 24/28] KVM: arm64: disable LTO for the nVHE directory Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:45     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 25/28] arm64: allow LTO_CLANG and THINLTO to be selected Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:45     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 26/28] x86, vdso: disable LTO only for vDSO Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:46     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 27/28] x86, relocs: Ignore L4_PAGE_OFFSET relocations Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:47     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-08 23:28       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 20:30   ` [PATCH v2 28/28] x86, build: allow LTO_CLANG and THINLTO to be selected Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-03 22:48     ` Kees Cook
2020-09-03 23:34   ` [PATCH v2 00/28] Add support for Clang LTO Kees Cook
2020-09-04  4:45     ` Nathan Chancellor
2020-09-03 23:38   ` Kees Cook
2020-09-04  7:53   ` Sedat Dilek
2020-09-04  8:55   ` peterz
2020-09-04  9:08     ` Sedat Dilek
2020-09-06  0:24   ` Masahiro Yamada
2020-09-08 23:46     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-10  1:18       ` Masahiro Yamada [this message]
2020-09-10 15:17         ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-09-10 18:18         ` Kees Cook

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