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From: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
To: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>,
	Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>,
	 Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>,
	David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>,
	 Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>,
	Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>,
	 Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>,
	Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@gmail.com>,
	 Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>,
	Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>,
	 Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>,
	Roman Gushchin <roman.gushchin@linux.dev>,
	 Hyeonggon Yoo <42.hyeyoo@gmail.com>,
	kasan-dev@googlegroups.com,  linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-mm@kvack.org,  linux-hardening@vger.kernel.org,
	kernel-hardening@lists.openwall.com
Subject: Re: [PATCH] slub: Introduce CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
Date: Mon, 11 Sep 2023 13:51:55 +0200	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <CANpmjNOVGos0b+6tqBzTCpuBqgaCBVDMx-Q3Q6x3TDGuYSYe-w@mail.gmail.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20230825211426.3798691-1-jannh@google.com>

On Fri, 25 Aug 2023 at 23:15, 'Jann Horn' via kasan-dev
<kasan-dev@googlegroups.com> wrote:
>
> Currently, KASAN is unable to catch use-after-free in SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU
> slabs because use-after-free is allowed within the RCU grace period by
> design.
>
> Add a SLUB debugging feature which RCU-delays every individual
> kmem_cache_free() before either actually freeing the object or handing it
> off to KASAN, and change KASAN to poison freed objects as normal when this
> option is enabled.
>
> Note that this creates a 16-byte unpoisoned area in the middle of the
> slab metadata area, which kinda sucks but seems to be necessary in order
> to be able to store an rcu_head in there without triggering an ASAN
> splat during RCU callback processing.
>
> For now I've configured Kconfig.kasan to always enable this feature in the
> GENERIC and SW_TAGS modes; I'm not forcibly enabling it in HW_TAGS mode
> because I'm not sure if it might have unwanted performance degradation
> effects there.
>
> Signed-off-by: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>
> ---
> can I get a review from the KASAN folks of this?
> I have been running it on my laptop for a bit and it seems to be working
> fine.
>
> Notes:
>     With this patch, a UAF on a TYPESAFE_BY_RCU will splat with an error
>     like this (tested by reverting a security bugfix).
>     Note that, in the ASAN memory state dump, we can see the little
>     unpoisoned 16-byte areas storing the rcu_head.
>
>     BUG: KASAN: slab-use-after-free in folio_lock_anon_vma_read+0x129/0x4c0
>     Read of size 8 at addr ffff888004e85b00 by task forkforkfork/592
>
>     CPU: 0 PID: 592 Comm: forkforkfork Not tainted 6.5.0-rc7-00105-gae70c1e1f6f5-dirty #334
>     Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.16.2-debian-1.16.2-1 04/01/2014
>     Call Trace:
>      <TASK>
>      dump_stack_lvl+0x4a/0x80
>      print_report+0xcf/0x660
>      kasan_report+0xd4/0x110
>      folio_lock_anon_vma_read+0x129/0x4c0
>      rmap_walk_anon+0x1cc/0x290
>      folio_referenced+0x277/0x2a0
>      shrink_folio_list+0xb8c/0x1680
>      reclaim_folio_list+0xdc/0x1f0
>      reclaim_pages+0x211/0x280
>      madvise_cold_or_pageout_pte_range+0x812/0xb70
>      walk_pgd_range+0x70b/0xce0
>      __walk_page_range+0x343/0x360
>      walk_page_range+0x227/0x280
>      madvise_pageout+0x1cd/0x2d0
>      do_madvise+0x552/0x15a0
>      __x64_sys_madvise+0x62/0x70
>      do_syscall_64+0x3b/0x90
>      entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x6e/0xd8
>     [...]
>      </TASK>
>
>     Allocated by task 574:
>      kasan_save_stack+0x33/0x60
>      kasan_set_track+0x25/0x30
>      __kasan_slab_alloc+0x6e/0x70
>      kmem_cache_alloc+0xfd/0x2b0
>      anon_vma_fork+0x88/0x270
>      dup_mmap+0x87c/0xc10
>      copy_process+0x3399/0x3590
>      kernel_clone+0x10e/0x480
>      __do_sys_clone+0xa1/0xe0
>      do_syscall_64+0x3b/0x90
>      entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x6e/0xd8
>
>     Freed by task 0:
>      kasan_save_stack+0x33/0x60
>      kasan_set_track+0x25/0x30
>      kasan_save_free_info+0x2b/0x50
>      __kasan_slab_free+0xfe/0x180
>      slab_free_after_rcu_debug+0xad/0x200
>      rcu_core+0x638/0x1620
>      __do_softirq+0x14c/0x581
>
>     Last potentially related work creation:
>      kasan_save_stack+0x33/0x60
>      __kasan_record_aux_stack+0x94/0xa0
>      __call_rcu_common.constprop.0+0x47/0x730
>      __put_anon_vma+0x6e/0x150
>      unlink_anon_vmas+0x277/0x2e0
>      vma_complete+0x341/0x580
>      vma_merge+0x613/0xff0
>      mprotect_fixup+0x1c0/0x510
>      do_mprotect_pkey+0x5a7/0x710
>      __x64_sys_mprotect+0x47/0x60
>      do_syscall_64+0x3b/0x90
>      entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x6e/0xd8
>
>     Second to last potentially related work creation:
>     [...]
>
>     The buggy address belongs to the object at ffff888004e85b00
>      which belongs to the cache anon_vma of size 192
>     The buggy address is located 0 bytes inside of
>      freed 192-byte region [ffff888004e85b00, ffff888004e85bc0)
>
>     The buggy address belongs to the physical page:
>     [...]
>
>     Memory state around the buggy address:
>      ffff888004e85a00: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
>      ffff888004e85a80: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 fc 00 00 fc fc fc fc fc
>     >ffff888004e85b00: fa fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb
>                        ^
>      ffff888004e85b80: fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fc 00 00 fc fc fc fc fc
>      ffff888004e85c00: fa fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb fb
>
>  include/linux/kasan.h    |  6 ++++
>  include/linux/slub_def.h |  3 ++
>  lib/Kconfig.kasan        |  2 ++
>  mm/Kconfig.debug         | 21 +++++++++++++
>  mm/kasan/common.c        | 15 ++++++++-
>  mm/slub.c                | 66 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---

Nice!

It'd be good to add a test case to lib/test_kasan module. I think you
could just copy/adjust the test case "test_memcache_typesafe_by_rcu"
from the KFENCE KUnit test suite.

>  6 files changed, 107 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/kasan.h b/include/linux/kasan.h
> index 819b6bc8ac08..45e07caf4704 100644
> --- a/include/linux/kasan.h
> +++ b/include/linux/kasan.h
> @@ -229,6 +229,8 @@ static __always_inline bool kasan_check_byte(const void *addr)
>         return true;
>  }
>
> +size_t kasan_align(size_t size);
> +
>  #else /* CONFIG_KASAN */
>
>  static inline void kasan_unpoison_range(const void *address, size_t size) {}
> @@ -278,6 +280,10 @@ static inline bool kasan_check_byte(const void *address)
>  {
>         return true;
>  }
> +static inline size_t kasan_align(size_t size)
> +{
> +       return size;
> +}
>
>  #endif /* CONFIG_KASAN */
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/slub_def.h b/include/linux/slub_def.h
> index deb90cf4bffb..b87be8fce64a 100644
> --- a/include/linux/slub_def.h
> +++ b/include/linux/slub_def.h
> @@ -120,6 +120,9 @@ struct kmem_cache {
>         int refcount;           /* Refcount for slab cache destroy */
>         void (*ctor)(void *);
>         unsigned int inuse;             /* Offset to metadata */
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +       unsigned int debug_rcu_head_offset;
> +#endif
>         unsigned int align;             /* Alignment */
>         unsigned int red_left_pad;      /* Left redzone padding size */
>         const char *name;       /* Name (only for display!) */
> diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.kasan b/lib/Kconfig.kasan
> index fdca89c05745..7ff7de96c6e4 100644
> --- a/lib/Kconfig.kasan
> +++ b/lib/Kconfig.kasan
> @@ -79,6 +79,7 @@ config KASAN_GENERIC
>         depends on HAVE_ARCH_KASAN && CC_HAS_KASAN_GENERIC
>         depends on CC_HAS_WORKING_NOSANITIZE_ADDRESS
>         select SLUB_DEBUG if SLUB
> +       select SLUB_RCU_DEBUG if SLUB_DEBUG
>         select CONSTRUCTORS
>         help
>           Enables Generic KASAN.
> @@ -96,6 +97,7 @@ config KASAN_SW_TAGS
>         depends on HAVE_ARCH_KASAN_SW_TAGS && CC_HAS_KASAN_SW_TAGS
>         depends on CC_HAS_WORKING_NOSANITIZE_ADDRESS
>         select SLUB_DEBUG if SLUB
> +       select SLUB_RCU_DEBUG if SLUB_DEBUG
>         select CONSTRUCTORS
>         help
>           Enables Software Tag-Based KASAN.
> diff --git a/mm/Kconfig.debug b/mm/Kconfig.debug
> index 018a5bd2f576..99cce7f0fbef 100644
> --- a/mm/Kconfig.debug
> +++ b/mm/Kconfig.debug
> @@ -78,6 +78,27 @@ config SLUB_DEBUG_ON
>           off in a kernel built with CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG_ON by specifying
>           "slub_debug=-".
>
> +config SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +       bool "Make use-after-free detection possible in TYPESAFE_BY_RCU caches"
> +       depends on SLUB && SLUB_DEBUG
> +       default n
> +       help
> +         Make SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU caches behave approximately as if the cache
> +         was not marked as SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU and every caller used
> +         kfree_rcu() instead.
> +
> +         This is intended for use in combination with KASAN, to enable KASAN to
> +         detect use-after-free accesses in such caches.
> +         (KFENCE is able to do that independent of this flag.)
> +
> +         This might degrade performance.
> +
> +         If you're using this for testing bugs / fuzzing and care about
> +         catching all the bugs WAY more than performance, you might want to
> +         also turn on CONFIG_RCU_STRICT_GRACE_PERIOD.
> +
> +         If unsure, say N.
> +
>  config PAGE_OWNER
>         bool "Track page owner"
>         depends on DEBUG_KERNEL && STACKTRACE_SUPPORT
> diff --git a/mm/kasan/common.c b/mm/kasan/common.c
> index 256930da578a..b4a3504f9f5e 100644
> --- a/mm/kasan/common.c
> +++ b/mm/kasan/common.c
> @@ -191,6 +191,13 @@ void * __must_check __kasan_init_slab_obj(struct kmem_cache *cache,
>         if (kasan_requires_meta())
>                 kasan_init_object_meta(cache, object);
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +       if (cache->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU) {
> +               kasan_unpoison(object + cache->debug_rcu_head_offset,
> +                              sizeof(struct rcu_head), false);
> +       }
> +#endif /* CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG */
> +
>         /* Tag is ignored in set_tag() without CONFIG_KASAN_SW/HW_TAGS */
>         object = set_tag(object, assign_tag(cache, object, true));
>
> @@ -218,7 +225,8 @@ static inline bool ____kasan_slab_free(struct kmem_cache *cache, void *object,
>         }
>
>         /* RCU slabs could be legally used after free within the RCU period */
> -       if (unlikely(cache->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU))
> +       if (unlikely(cache->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU) &&
> +           !IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG))
>                 return false;
>
>         if (!kasan_byte_accessible(tagged_object)) {
> @@ -450,3 +458,8 @@ bool __kasan_check_byte(const void *address, unsigned long ip)
>         }
>         return true;
>  }
> +
> +size_t kasan_align(size_t size)
> +{
> +       return round_up(size, KASAN_GRANULE_SIZE);
> +}
> diff --git a/mm/slub.c b/mm/slub.c
> index e3b5d5c0eb3a..bae6c2bc1e5f 100644
> --- a/mm/slub.c
> +++ b/mm/slub.c
> @@ -1108,7 +1108,8 @@ static int check_bytes_and_report(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab,
>   *     A. Free pointer (if we cannot overwrite object on free)
>   *     B. Tracking data for SLAB_STORE_USER
>   *     C. Original request size for kmalloc object (SLAB_STORE_USER enabled)
> - *     D. Padding to reach required alignment boundary or at minimum
> + *     D. RCU head for CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG (with padding around it)
> + *     E. Padding to reach required alignment boundary or at minimum
>   *             one word if debugging is on to be able to detect writes
>   *             before the word boundary.
>   *
> @@ -1134,6 +1135,11 @@ static int check_pad_bytes(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab, u8 *p)
>                         off += sizeof(unsigned int);
>         }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +       if (s->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU)
> +               off = kasan_align(s->debug_rcu_head_offset + sizeof(struct rcu_head));
> +#endif /* CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG */
> +
>         off += kasan_metadata_size(s, false);
>
>         if (size_from_object(s) == off)
> @@ -1751,12 +1757,17 @@ static bool freelist_corrupted(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab,
>  #endif
>  #endif /* CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG */
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +static void slab_free_after_rcu_debug(struct rcu_head *rcu_head);
> +#endif
> +
>  /*
>   * Hooks for other subsystems that check memory allocations. In a typical
>   * production configuration these hooks all should produce no code at all.
>   */
>  static __always_inline bool slab_free_hook(struct kmem_cache *s,
> -                                               void *x, bool init)
> +                                               void *x, bool init,
> +                                               bool after_rcu_delay)
>  {
>         kmemleak_free_recursive(x, s->flags);
>         kmsan_slab_free(s, x);
> @@ -1766,8 +1777,18 @@ static __always_inline bool slab_free_hook(struct kmem_cache *s,
>         if (!(s->flags & SLAB_DEBUG_OBJECTS))
>                 debug_check_no_obj_freed(x, s->object_size);
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +       /* kfence does its own RCU delay */
> +       if ((s->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU) && !after_rcu_delay &&
> +           !is_kfence_address(x)) {
> +               call_rcu(kasan_reset_tag(x) + s->debug_rcu_head_offset,
> +                        slab_free_after_rcu_debug);
> +               return true;
> +       }
> +#endif /* CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG */
> +
>         /* Use KCSAN to help debug racy use-after-free. */
> -       if (!(s->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU))
> +       if (!(s->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU) || after_rcu_delay)
>                 __kcsan_check_access(x, s->object_size,
>                                      KCSAN_ACCESS_WRITE | KCSAN_ACCESS_ASSERT);
>
> @@ -1802,7 +1823,7 @@ static inline bool slab_free_freelist_hook(struct kmem_cache *s,
>         void *old_tail = *tail ? *tail : *head;
>
>         if (is_kfence_address(next)) {
> -               slab_free_hook(s, next, false);
> +               slab_free_hook(s, next, false, false);
>                 return true;
>         }
>
> @@ -1815,7 +1836,7 @@ static inline bool slab_free_freelist_hook(struct kmem_cache *s,
>                 next = get_freepointer(s, object);
>
>                 /* If object's reuse doesn't have to be delayed */
> -               if (!slab_free_hook(s, object, slab_want_init_on_free(s))) {
> +               if (!slab_free_hook(s, object, slab_want_init_on_free(s), false)) {
>                         /* Move object to the new freelist */
>                         set_freepointer(s, object, *head);
>                         *head = object;
> @@ -3802,6 +3823,31 @@ static __fastpath_inline void slab_free(struct kmem_cache *s, struct slab *slab,
>                 do_slab_free(s, slab, head, tail, cnt, addr);
>  }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +static void slab_free_after_rcu_debug(struct rcu_head *rcu_head)
> +{
> +       struct slab *slab = virt_to_slab(rcu_head);
> +       struct kmem_cache *s;
> +       void *object;
> +
> +       if (WARN_ON(is_kfence_address(rcu_head)))
> +               return;
> +
> +       /* find the object and the cache again */
> +       if (WARN_ON(!slab))
> +               return;
> +       s = slab->slab_cache;
> +       if (WARN_ON(!(s->flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU)))
> +               return;
> +       object = (void *)rcu_head - s->debug_rcu_head_offset;
> +
> +       /* resume freeing */
> +       if (slab_free_hook(s, object, slab_want_init_on_free(s), true))
> +               return;
> +       do_slab_free(s, slab, object, NULL, 1, _THIS_IP_);
> +}
> +#endif /* CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG */
> +
>  #ifdef CONFIG_KASAN_GENERIC
>  void ___cache_free(struct kmem_cache *cache, void *x, unsigned long addr)
>  {
> @@ -4443,6 +4489,16 @@ static int calculate_sizes(struct kmem_cache *s)
>                 if (flags & SLAB_KMALLOC)
>                         size += sizeof(unsigned int);
>         }
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG
> +       if (flags & SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU) {
> +               size = kasan_align(size);
> +               size = ALIGN(size, __alignof__(struct rcu_head));
> +               s->debug_rcu_head_offset = size;
> +               size += sizeof(struct rcu_head);
> +               size = kasan_align(size);
> +       }
> +#endif /* CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG */
>  #endif
>
>         kasan_cache_create(s, &size, &s->flags);
>
> base-commit: 4f9e7fabf8643003afefc172e62dd276686f016e
> --
> 2.42.0.rc1.204.g551eb34607-goog
>
> --
> You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "kasan-dev" group.
> To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to kasan-dev+unsubscribe@googlegroups.com.
> To view this discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/kasan-dev/20230825211426.3798691-1-jannh%40google.com.

      parent reply	other threads:[~2023-09-11 11:52 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 7+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2023-08-25 21:14 [PATCH] slub: Introduce CONFIG_SLUB_RCU_DEBUG Jann Horn
2023-08-26  3:32 ` Dmitry Vyukov
2023-08-28 14:39   ` Jann Horn
2023-09-11  9:50     ` Dmitry Vyukov
2023-09-16 16:18     ` Andrey Konovalov
2023-09-05  7:57 ` kernel test robot
2023-09-11 11:51 ` Marco Elver [this message]

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