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From: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
To: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>,
	x86@kernel.org, Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>,
	Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>, "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>,
	Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>,
	David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>,
	Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>,
	Kai Huang <kai.huang@linux.intel.com>,
	Jacob Pan <jacob.jun.pan@linux.intel.com>,
	Alison Schofield <alison.schofield@intel.com>,
	linux-mm@kvack.org, kvm@vger.kernel.org,
	keyrings@vger.kernel.org, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	"Kirill A . Shutemov" <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
Subject: [PATCH, RFC 58/62] x86/mktme: Document the MKTME provided security mitigations
Date: Wed,  8 May 2019 17:44:18 +0300
Message-ID: <20190508144422.13171-59-kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20190508144422.13171-1-kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>

From: Alison Schofield <alison.schofield@intel.com>

Describe the security benefits of Multi-Key Total Memory
Encryption (MKTME) over Total Memory Encryption (TME) alone.

Signed-off-by: Alison Schofield <alison.schofield@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
---
 Documentation/x86/mktme/index.rst             |   1 +
 Documentation/x86/mktme/mktme_mitigations.rst | 150 ++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 151 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/x86/mktme/mktme_mitigations.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/x86/mktme/index.rst b/Documentation/x86/mktme/index.rst
index 1614b52dd3e9..a3a29577b013 100644
--- a/Documentation/x86/mktme/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/x86/mktme/index.rst
@@ -6,3 +6,4 @@ Multi-Key Total Memory Encryption (MKTME)
 .. toctree::
 
    mktme_overview
+   mktme_mitigations
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/mktme/mktme_mitigations.rst b/Documentation/x86/mktme/mktme_mitigations.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..90699c38750a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/x86/mktme/mktme_mitigations.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+MKTME-Provided Mitigations
+==========================
+
+MKTME adds a few mitigations against attacks that are not
+mitigated when using TME alone.  The first set are mitigations
+against software attacks that are familiar today:
+
+ * Kernel Mapping Attacks: information disclosures that leverage
+   the kernel direct map are mitigated against disclosing user
+   data.
+ * Freed Data Leak Attacks: removing an encryption key from the
+   hardware mitigates future user information disclosure.
+
+The next set are attacks that depend on specialized hardware,
+such as an “evil DIMM” or a DDR interposer:
+
+ * Cross-Domain Replay Attack: data is captured from one domain
+(guest) and replayed to another at a later time.
+ * Cross-Domain Capture and Delayed Compare Attack: data is
+   captured and later analyzed to discover secrets.
+ * Key Wear-out Attack: data is captured and analyzed in order
+   to Weaken the AES encryption itself.
+
+More details on these attacks are below.
+
+Kernel Mapping Attacks
+----------------------
+Information disclosure vulnerabilities leverage the kernel direct
+map because many vulnerabilities involve manipulation of kernel
+data structures (examples: CVE-2017-7277, CVE-2017-9605).  We
+normally think of these bugs as leaking valuable *kernel* data,
+but they can leak application data when application pages are
+recycled for kernel use.
+
+With this MKTME implementation, there is a direct map created for
+each MKTME KeyID which is used whenever the kernel needs to
+access plaintext.  But, all kernel data structures are accessed
+via the direct map for KeyID-0.  Thus, memory reads which are not
+coordinated with the KeyID get garbage (for example, accessing
+KeyID-4 data with the KeyID-0 mapping).
+
+This means that if sensitive data encrypted using MKTME is leaked
+via the KeyID-0 direct map, ciphertext decrypted with the wrong
+key will be disclosed.  To disclose plaintext, an attacker must
+“pivot” to the correct direct mapping, which is non-trivial
+because there are no kernel data structures in the KeyID!=0
+direct mapping.
+
+Freed Data Leak Attack
+----------------------
+The kernel has a history of bugs around uninitialized data.
+Usually, we think of these bugs as leaking sensitive kernel data,
+but they can also be used to leak application secrets.
+
+MKTME can help mitigate the case where application secrets are
+leaked:
+
+ * App (or VM) places a secret in a page * App exits or frees
+memory to kernel allocator * Page added to allocator free list *
+Attacker reallocates page to a purpose where it can read the page
+
+Now, imagine MKTME was in use on the memory being leaked.  The
+data can only be leaked as long as the key is programmed in the
+hardware.  If the key is de-programmed, like after all pages are
+freed after a guest is shut down, any future reads will just see
+ciphertext.
+
+Basically, the key is a convenient choke-point: you can be more
+confident that data encrypted with it is inaccessible once the
+key is removed.
+
+Cross-Domain Replay Attack
+--------------------------
+MKTME mitigates cross-domain replay attacks where an attacker
+replaces an encrypted block owned by one domain with a block
+owned by another domain.  MKTME does not prevent this replacement
+from occurring, but it does mitigate plaintext from being
+disclosed if the domains use different keys.
+
+With TME, the attack could be executed by:
+ * A victim places secret in memory, at a given physical address.
+   Note: AES-XTS is what restricts the attack to being performed
+   at a single physical address instead of across different
+   physical addresses
+ * Attacker captures victim secret’s ciphertext * Later on, after
+   victim frees the physical address, attacker gains ownership 
+ * Attacker puts the ciphertext at the address and get the secret
+   plaintext
+
+But, due to the presumably different keys used by the attacker
+and the victim, the attacker can not successfully decrypt old
+ciphertext.
+
+Cross-Domain Capture and Delayed Compare Attack
+-----------------------------------------------
+This is also referred to as a kind of dictionary attack.
+
+Similarly, MKTME protects against cross-domain capture-and-compare
+attacks.  Consider the following scenario:
+ * A victim places a secret in memory, at a known physical address
+ * Attacker captures victim’s ciphertext
+ * Attacker gains control of the target physical address, perhaps
+   after the victim’s VM is shut down or its memory reclaimed.
+ * Attacker computes and writes many possible plaintexts until new
+   ciphertext matches content captured previously.
+
+Secrets which have low (plaintext) entropy are more vulnerable to
+this attack because they reduce the number of possible plaintexts
+an attacker has to compute and write.
+
+The attack will not work if attacker and victim uses different
+keys.
+
+Key Wear-out Attack
+-------------------
+Repeated use of an encryption key might be used by an attacker to
+infer information about the key or the plaintext, weakening the
+encryption.  The higher the bandwidth of the encryption engine,
+the more vulnerable the key is to wear-out.  The MKTME memory
+encryption hardware works at the speed of the memory bus, which
+has high bandwidth.
+
+Such a weakness has been demonstrated[1] on a theoretical cipher
+with similar properties as AES-XTS.
+
+An attack would take the following steps:
+ * Victim system is using TME with AES-XTS-128
+ * Attacker repeatedly captures ciphertext/plaintext pairs (can
+   be Performed with online hardware attack like an interposer).
+ * Attacker compels repeated use of the key under attack for a
+   sustained time period without a system reboot[2].
+ * Attacker discovers a cipertext collision (two plaintexts
+   translating to the same ciphertext)
+ * Attacker can induce controlled modifications to the targeted
+   plaintext by modifying the colliding ciphertext
+
+MKTME mitigates key wear-out in two ways:
+ * Keys can be rotated periodically to mitigate wear-out.  Since
+   TME keys are generated at boot, rotation of TME keys requires a
+   reboot.  In contrast, MKTME allows rotation while the system is
+   booted.  An application could implement a policy to rotate keys
+   at a frequency which is not feasible to attack.
+ * In the case that MKTME is used to encrypt two guests’ memory
+   with two different keys, an attack on one guest’s key would not
+   weaken the key used in the second guest.
+
+--
+1. http://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf
+2. This sustained time required for an attack could vary from days
+   to years depending on the attacker’s goals.
-- 
2.20.1


  parent reply index

Thread overview: 153+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2019-05-08 14:43 [PATCH, RFC 00/62] Intel MKTME enabling Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 01/62] mm: Do no merge VMAs with different encryption KeyIDs Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 02/62] mm: Add helpers to setup zero page mappings Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-29  7:21   ` Mike Rapoport
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 03/62] mm/ksm: Do not merge pages with different KeyIDs Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-10 18:07   ` Dave Hansen
2019-05-13 14:27     ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 04/62] mm/page_alloc: Unify alloc_hugepage_vma() Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 05/62] mm/page_alloc: Handle allocation for encrypted memory Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-29  7:21   ` Mike Rapoport
2019-05-29 12:47     ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 06/62] mm/khugepaged: Handle encrypted pages Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 07/62] x86/mm: Mask out KeyID bits from page table entry pfn Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 08/62] x86/mm: Introduce variables to store number, shift and mask of KeyIDs Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 09/62] x86/mm: Preserve KeyID on pte_modify() and pgprot_modify() Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14  9:15   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 13:03     ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 10/62] x86/mm: Detect MKTME early Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 11/62] x86/mm: Add a helper to retrieve KeyID for a page Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 12/62] x86/mm: Add a helper to retrieve KeyID for a VMA Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 13/62] x86/mm: Add hooks to allocate and free encrypted pages Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14  9:34   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 11:04     ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 13:28       ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 13:43         ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 22:41           ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-17  9:25             ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 13:14     ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 14/62] x86/mm: Map zero pages into encrypted mappings correctly Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 15/62] x86/mm: Rename CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_MEMORY_PHYSICAL_PADDING Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 16/62] x86/mm: Allow to disable MKTME after enumeration Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 17/62] x86/mm: Calculate direct mapping size Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 18/62] x86/mm: Implement syncing per-KeyID direct mappings Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14  9:51   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 22:43     ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-17  9:27       ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-17 14:43         ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-17 14:51           ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-17 15:17             ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 19/62] x86/mm: Handle encrypted memory in page_to_virt() and __pa() Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:10   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 20/62] mm/page_ext: Export lookup_page_ext() symbol Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:12   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 22:44     ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-17  9:30       ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-17 11:01         ` Kai Huang
2019-06-17 11:13           ` Huang, Kai
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 21/62] mm/rmap: Clear vma->anon_vma on unlink_anon_vmas() Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 22/62] x86/pconfig: Set a valid encryption algorithm for all MKTME commands Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 23/62] keys/mktme: Introduce a Kernel Key Service for MKTME Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 24/62] keys/mktme: Preparse the MKTME key payload Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 25/62] keys/mktme: Instantiate and destroy MKTME keys Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 26/62] keys/mktme: Move the MKTME payload into a cache aligned structure Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:35   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 17:10     ` Alison Schofield
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 27/62] keys/mktme: Strengthen the entropy of CPU generated MKTME keys Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 28/62] keys/mktme: Set up PCONFIG programming targets for " Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 29/62] keys/mktme: Program MKTME keys into the platform hardware Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 30/62] keys/mktme: Set up a percpu_ref_count for MKTME keys Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 31/62] keys/mktme: Require CAP_SYS_RESOURCE capability " Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 32/62] keys/mktme: Store MKTME payloads if cmdline parameter allows Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 33/62] acpi: Remove __init from acpi table parsing functions Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 34/62] acpi/hmat: Determine existence of an ACPI HMAT Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 35/62] keys/mktme: Require ACPI HMAT to register the MKTME Key Service Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 36/62] acpi/hmat: Evaluate topology presented in ACPI HMAT for MKTME Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 37/62] keys/mktme: Do not allow key creation in unsafe topologies Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 38/62] keys/mktme: Support CPU hotplug for MKTME key service Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:43 ` [PATCH, RFC 39/62] keys/mktme: Find new PCONFIG targets during memory hotplug Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 40/62] keys/mktme: Program new PCONFIG targets with MKTME keys Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 41/62] keys/mktme: Support memory hotplug for " Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 42/62] mm: Generalize the mprotect implementation to support extensions Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 43/62] syscall/x86: Wire up a system call for MKTME encryption keys Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-29  7:21   ` Mike Rapoport
2019-05-29 18:12     ` Alison Schofield
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 44/62] x86/mm: Set KeyIDs in encrypted VMAs for MKTME Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:44   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 17:33     ` Alison Schofield
2019-06-14 18:26       ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-14 18:46         ` Alison Schofield
2019-06-14 19:11           ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-17  9:10             ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 45/62] mm: Add the encrypt_mprotect() system call " Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:47   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 17:35     ` Alison Schofield
2019-06-14 11:51   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-15  0:32     ` Alison Schofield
2019-06-17  9:08       ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-17 15:07   ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-17 15:28     ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-17 15:46       ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-17 18:27         ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-17 19:12           ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-17 21:36             ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-18  0:48               ` Kai Huang
2019-06-18  1:50                 ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-18  2:11                   ` Kai Huang
2019-06-18  4:24                     ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-18 14:19                   ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-18  0:05             ` Kai Huang
2019-06-18  0:15               ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-18  1:35                 ` Kai Huang
2019-06-18  1:43                   ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-18  2:23                     ` Kai Huang
2019-06-18  9:12                       ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-18 14:09                         ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-18 16:15                           ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-18 16:22                             ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-18 16:36                               ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-18 16:48                                 ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-18 14:13                 ` Dave Hansen
2019-06-17 23:59           ` Kai Huang
2019-06-18  1:34             ` Lendacky, Thomas
2019-06-18  1:40               ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-06-18  2:02                 ` Lendacky, Thomas
2019-06-18  4:19                 ` Andy Lutomirski
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 46/62] x86/mm: Keep reference counts on encrypted VMAs " Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:54   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-14 18:39     ` Alison Schofield
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 47/62] mm: Restrict MKTME memory encryption to anonymous VMAs Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:55   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-15  0:07     ` Alison Schofield
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 48/62] selftests/x86/mktme: Test the MKTME APIs Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 17:09   ` Alison Schofield
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 49/62] mm, x86: export several MKTME variables Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 11:56   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-17  3:14     ` Kai Huang
2019-06-17  7:46       ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-06-17  8:39         ` Kai Huang
2019-06-17 11:25           ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 50/62] kvm, x86, mmu: setup MKTME keyID to spte for given PFN Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 51/62] iommu/vt-d: Support MKTME in DMA remapping Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-06-14 12:04   ` Peter Zijlstra
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 52/62] x86/mm: introduce common code for mem encryption Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 16:58   ` Christoph Hellwig
2019-05-08 20:52     ` Jacob Pan
2019-05-08 21:21       ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 53/62] x86/mm: Use common code for DMA memory encryption Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 54/62] x86/mm: Disable MKTME on incompatible platform configurations Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 55/62] x86/mm: Disable MKTME if not all system memory supports encryption Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 56/62] x86: Introduce CONFIG_X86_INTEL_MKTME Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 57/62] x86/mktme: Overview of Multi-Key Total Memory Encryption Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-29  7:21   ` Mike Rapoport
2019-05-29 18:13     ` Alison Schofield
2019-07-14 18:16   ` Randy Dunlap
2019-07-15  9:02     ` Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` Kirill A. Shutemov [this message]
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 59/62] x86/mktme: Document the MKTME kernel configuration requirements Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 60/62] x86/mktme: Document the MKTME Key Service API Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 61/62] x86/mktme: Document the MKTME API for anonymous memory encryption Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-08 14:44 ` [PATCH, RFC 62/62] x86/mktme: Demonstration program using the MKTME APIs Kirill A. Shutemov
2019-05-29  7:30 ` [PATCH, RFC 00/62] Intel MKTME enabling Mike Rapoport
2019-05-29 18:20   ` Alison Schofield
2019-06-14 12:15 ` Peter Zijlstra

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