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From: "Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)" <>
To: David Howells <>
	Jeff Layton <>,
	lkml <>,
	Linux API <>,
	linux-man <>
Subject: Revised statx(2) man page for review
Date: Tue, 25 Apr 2017 13:14:26 +0200	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <> (raw)

Hello David, et al.,

I merged your statx(2) page, and edited somewhat heavily.
(The merged page source has been pushed to Git.)

Could you please carefully review the text below, in case 
I added any errors.

There is one question in a FIXME below. Could you please
take a look at that also.

Your proposed page duplicated a lot of content from stat(2).
I like to avoid such redundancy, so I move the common pieces
into a new page, inode(7), and reworked stat(2) and statx(2).



       statx - get file status (extended)

       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/stat.h>
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <fcntl.h>           /* Definition of AT_* constants */

       int statx(int dirfd, const char *pathname, int flags,
                 unsigned int mask, struct statx *buf);

       Note: There is no glibc wrapper for renameat2(); see NOTES.

       This  function  returns information about a file, storing it in
       the buffer pointed to by buf.  The returned buffer is a  struc‐
       ture of the following type:

           struct statx {
               __u32 stx_mask;        /* Mask of bits indicating
                                         filled fields */
               __u32 stx_blksize;     /* Block size for filesystem I/O */
               __u64 stx_attributes;  /* Extra file attribute indicators */
               __u32 stx_nlink;       /* Number of hard links */
               __u32 stx_uid;         /* User ID of owner */
               __u32 stx_gid;         /* Group ID of owner */
               __u16 stx_mode;        /* File type and mode */
               __u64 stx_ino;         /* Inode number */
               __u64 stx_size;        /* Total size in bytes */
               __u64 stx_blocks;      /* Number of 512B blocks allocated */

               /* The following fields are file timestamps */
               struct statx_timestamp stx_atime;  /* Last access */
               struct statx_timestamp stx_btime;  /* Creation */
               struct statx_timestamp stx_ctime;  /* Last status change */
               struct statx_timestamp stx_mtime;  /* Last modification */

               /* If this file represents a device, then the next two
                  fields contain the ID of the device */
               __u32 stx_rdev_major;  /* Major ID */
               __u32 stx_rdev_minor;  /* Minor ID */

               /* The next two fields contain the ID of the device
                  containing the filesystem where the file resides */
               __u32 stx_dev_major;   /* Major ID */
               __u32 stx_dev_minor;   /* Minor ID */

       The file timestamps are structures of the following type:

           struct statx_timestamp {
               __s64 tv_sec;    /* Seconds since the Epoch (UNIX time) */
               __s32 tv_nsec;   /* Nanoseconds before or since tv_sec */

       (Note that reserved space and padding is omitted.)

   Invoking statx():
       To  access  a file's status, no permissions are required on the
       file itself, but in the case of statx() with a  pathname,  exe‐
       cute  (search) permission is required on all of the directories
       in pathname that lead to the file.

       statx() uses pathname, dirfd, and  flags  identify  the  target
       file in one of the following ways:

       An absolute pathname
              If  pathname begins with a slash, then it is an absolute
              pathname that identifies the target file.  In this case,
              dirfd is ignored.

       A relative pathname
              If  pathname  is  a  string that begins with a character
              other than a slash and dirfd is AT_FDCWD, then  pathname
              is  a  relative pathname that is interpreted relative to
              the process's current working directory.

       A pathname interpreted relative to a directory file descriptor
              If pathname is a string that  begins  with  a  character
              other  than  a slash and dirfd is a file descriptor that
              refers to a directory, then pathname is a relative path‐
              name  that  is  interpreted  relative  to  the directory
              referred to by dirfd.

       By file descriptor
              If pathname is NULL, then the target  file  is  the  one
              referred  to  by  the  file descriptor dirfd.  dirfd may
              refer to any type of file, not just a  directory.   (The
              AT_EMPTY_PATH  flag  described  below  provides  similar

              │FIXME                                                │
              │It appears that there  are  two  different  ways  of │
              │doing  the  same  thing:  specifying  the file to be │
              │stat'ed via a file descriptor.  Either,  we  specify │
              │'pathname'  as  NULL, or we specify 'pathname' as an │
              │empty string and  include  the  AT_EMPTY_PATH  flag. │
              │What's  the  rationale  for having two ways of doing │
              │this?                                                │

       flags can be used to  influence  a  pathname-based  lookup.   A
       value  for  flags is constructed by ORing together zero or more
       of the following constants:

              If pathname is an empty  string,  operate  on  the  file
              referred to by dirfd (which may have been obtained using
              the open(2) O_PATH flag).  If  dirfd  is  AT_FDCWD,  the
              call operates on the current working directory.  In this
              case, dirfd can refer to any type of file,  not  just  a
              directory.    This   flag   is   Linux-specific;  define
              _GNU_SOURCE to obtain its definition.

              Don't automount the terminal ("basename")  component  of
              pathname  if  it  is  a  directory  that is an automount
              point.  This allows the caller to gather  attributes  of
              an  automount  point  (rather than the location it would
              mount).  This flag can be used in tools that scan direc‐
              tories  to  prevent  mass-automounting of a directory of
              automount  points.   The  AT_NO_AUTOMOUNT  flag  has  no
              effect if the mount point has already been mounted over.
              This  flag  is  Linux-specific;  define  _GNU_SOURCE  to
              obtain its definition.

              If  pathname  is a symbolic link, do not dereference it:
              instead return information about the link  itself,  like

       flags  can also be used to control what sort of synchronization
       the kernel will do when querying a file on a remote filesystem.
       This is done by ORing in one of the following values:

              Do  whatever  stat(2)  does.  This is the default and is
              very much filesystem specific.

              Force the attributes to be synchronized with the server.
              This  may  require  that  a network filesystem perform a
              data writeback to get the timestamps correct.

              Don't synchronize anything, but rather just  take  what‐
              ever  the  system has cached if possible.  This may mean
              that the information returned is approximate, but, on  a
              network  filesystem,  it may not involve a round trip to
              the server - even if no lease is held.

       The mask argument to statx() is used to tell the  kernel  which
       fields  the  caller is interested in.  mask is an ORed combina‐
       tion of the following constants:

           STATX_TYPE          Want stx_mode & S_IFMT
           STATX_MODE          Want stx_mode & ~S_IFMT
           STATX_NLINK         Want stx_nlink
           STATX_UID           Want stx_uid
           STATX_GID           Want stx_gid
           STATX_ATIME         Want stx_atime
           STATX_MTIME         Want stx_mtime
           STATX_CTIME         Want stx_ctime
           STATX_INO           Want stx_ino
           STATX_SIZE          Want stx_size
           STATX_BLOCKS        Want stx_blocks
           STATX_BASIC_STATS   [All of the above]
           STATX_BTIME         Want stx_btime
           STATX_ALL           [All currently available fields]

       Note the kernel does not reject values in mask other  than  the
       above.   Instead, it simply informs the caller which values are
       supported by this kernel and filesystem via the  statx.stx_mask
       field.  Therefore, do not simply set mask to UINT_MAX (all bits
       set), as one or more bits may, in the future, be used to  spec‐
       ify an extension to the buffer.

   The returned information
       The  status  information for the target file is returned in the
       statx structure  pointed  to  by  buf.   Included  in  this  is
       stx_mask  which  indicates  what  other  information  has  been
       returned.  stx_mask has the same format as  the  mask  argument
       and  bits  are  set  in  it  to indicate which fields have been
       filled in.

       It should be noted that  the  kernel  may  return  fields  that
       weren't  requested  and  may  fail  to  return fields that were
       requested, depending on what the backing  filesystem  supports.
       In either case, stx_mask will not be equal mask.

       If a filesystem does not support a field or if it has an unrep‐
       resentable value (for instance, a file with  an  exotic  type),
       then  the  mask bit corresponding to that field will be cleared
       in stx_mask even if the user asked for it  and  a  dummy  value
       will  be  filled in for compatibility purposes if one is avail‐
       able (e.g., a dummy UID and GID may be specified to mount under
       some circumstances).

       A filesystem may also fill in fields that the caller didn't ask
       for if it has values for them available and the information  is
       available at no extra cost.  If this happens, the corresponding
       bits will be set in stx_mask.

       Note: for performance and simplicity reasons, different  fields
       in  the statx structure may contain state information from dif‐
       ferent moments during the execution of the  system  call.   For
       example,  if  stx_mode or stx_uid is changed by another process
       by calling chmod(2) or chown(2), stat() might  return  the  old
       stx_mode  together  with  the  new  stx_uid, or the old stx_uid
       together with the new stx_mode.

       Apart from stx_mask (which is described above), the  fields  in
       the statx structure are:

              The file type and mode.  See inode(7) for details.

              The  size of the file (if it is a regular file or a sym‐
              bolic link) in bytes.  The size of a  symbolic  link  is
              the length of the pathname it contains, without a termi‐
              nating null byte.

              The number of  blocks  allocated  to  the  file  on  the
              medium,  in  512-byte  units.  (This may be smaller than
              stx_size/512 when the file has holes.)

              The "preferred" block size for efficient filesystem I/O.
              (Writing  to a file in smaller chunks may cause an inef‐
              ficient read-modify-rewrite.)

              The number of hard links on a file.

              The user ID of the file's owner.

              The ID of the group that may access the file.

       stx_dev_major and stx_dev_minor
              The device on which this file (inode) resides.

       stx_rdev_major and stx_rdev_minor
              The device that this file (inode) represents if the file
              is of block or character device type.

              Further status information about the file (see below for
              more information).

              The file's last access timestamp.

              The file's creation timestamp.

              The file's last status change timestamp.

              The file's last modification timestamp.

       For further information on the above fields, see inode(7).

   File attributes
       The stx_attributes field contains a  set  of  ORed  flags  that
       indicate additional attributes of the file:

              The  file  is  compressed  by  the fs and may take extra
              resources to access.

              The file cannot be modified: it  cannot  be  deleted  or
              renamed,  no  hard links can be created to this file and
              no data can be written to it.  See chattr(1).

              The file can only be opened in append mode for  writing.
              Random access writing is not permitted.  See chattr(1).

              File is not a candidate for backup when a backup program
              such as dump(8) is run.  See chattr(1).

              A key is required for the file to be  encrypted  by  the

       On  success,  zero  is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and
       errno is set appropriately.

       EACCES Search permission is denied for one of  the  directories
              in  the path prefix of pathname.  (See also path_resolu‐

       EBADF  dirfd is not a valid open file descriptor.

       EFAULT Bad address.

       EINVAL Invalid flag specified in flags.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links encountered while traversing the

              pathname is too long.

       ENOENT A  component  of pathname does not exist, or pathname is
              an empty string and AT_EMPTY_PATH was not  specified  in

       ENOMEM Out of memory (i.e., kernel memory).

              A  component  of  the  path  prefix of pathname is not a
              directory or pathname is relative and dirfd  is  a  file
              descriptor referring to a file other than a directory.

       statx() was added to Linux in kernel 4.11.

       statx() is Linux specific.

       Glibc  does  not (yet) provide a wrapper for the statx() system
       call; call it using syscall(2).

       ls(1), stat(1), access(2), chmod(2), chown(2),  stat(2),  read‐
       link(2), utime(2), capabilities(7), inode(7), symlink(7)

Michael Kerrisk
Linux man-pages maintainer;
Linux/UNIX System Programming Training:
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             reply	other threads:[~2017-04-25 11:14 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 11+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2017-04-25 11:14 Michael Kerrisk (man-pages) [this message]
     [not found] ` <>
2017-04-25 18:50   ` Revised statx(2) man page for review Silvan Jegen
     [not found]     ` <>
2017-04-25 19:40       ` Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)
2017-04-25 20:06   ` Dmitry V. Levin
     [not found]     ` <20170425200656.GA30045-u2l5PoMzF/>
2017-04-26  5:42       ` Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)
     [not found]         ` <>
2017-04-26 10:43           ` G. Branden Robinson
2017-04-26 11:35   ` Revised statx(2) man page for review [and AT_EMPTY_PATH question] David Howells
     [not found]     ` <>
2017-04-26 12:13       ` Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)
2017-04-26 15:53       ` Al Viro
2017-04-26 15:10     ` David Howells
     [not found]       ` <>
2017-04-26 19:08         ` Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)

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