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* [PATCH] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
@ 2019-08-20 19:43 Nathan Huckleberry
  2019-08-20 21:39 ` Nick Desaulniers
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nathan Huckleberry @ 2019-08-20 19:43 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linux
  Cc: Tri Vo, ndesaulniers, linux-kernel, Nathan Huckleberry,
	clang-built-linux, miles.chen, linux-arm-kernel

The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
clang stackframe setup.

Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
---
Changes from RFC
* Push extra register to satisfy 8 byte alignment requirement
* Add clarifying comments
* Separate code into its own file

 arch/arm/Kconfig.debug         |   4 +-
 arch/arm/Makefile              |   5 +-
 arch/arm/lib/Makefile          |   8 +-
 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 224 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 237 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S

diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
index 85710e078afb..92fca7463e21 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
 
 config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
 	bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
-	depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
+	depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
 	select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
 	select FRAME_POINTER
 	help
@@ -1872,7 +1872,7 @@ config DEBUG_UNCOMPRESS
 	  When this option is set, the selected DEBUG_LL output method
 	  will be re-used for normal decompressor output on multiplatform
 	  kernels.
-	  
+
 
 config UNCOMPRESS_INCLUDE
 	string
diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
index c3624ca6c0bc..729e223b83fe 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
@@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS	+= $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
 endif
 
 ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
-KBUILD_CFLAGS	+=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
+KBUILD_CFLAGS	+=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
+  ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
+  KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
+  endif
 endif
 
 ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
index b25c54585048..e10a769c72ec 100644
--- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
 # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
 #
 
-lib-y		:= backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
+lib-y		:= changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o               \
 		   csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
 		   delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o   \
 		   memmove.o memset.o setbit.o                        \
@@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y		:= backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
 mmu-y		:= clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o       \
 		   copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
 
+ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
+  lib-y += backtrace-clang.o
+else
+  lib-y += backtrace.o
+endif
+
 # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
 obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
 
diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2b02014dbdd1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
@@ -0,0 +1,224 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
+/*
+ *  linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
+ *
+ *  Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
+ *
+ */
+#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
+#include <linux/linkage.h>
+#include <asm/assembler.h>
+		.text
+
+/* fp is 0 or stack frame */
+
+#define frame	r4
+#define sv_fp	r5
+#define sv_pc	r6
+#define mask	r7
+#define sv_lr   r8
+
+ENTRY(c_backtrace)
+
+#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
+		ret	lr
+ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
+#else
+
+
+/*
+ * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues
+ * 		so we don't know exactly where the function
+ * 		starts.
+ * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the
+ * 		preceding frame's lr as the lr, but we can't
+ * 		trace the most recent call.
+ * Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the
+ * 		function called last in the stacktrace.
+ * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers
+ * 		branch instruction to calculate the saved pc.
+ * We can recover the pc in most cases, but in cases such as
+ * 		calling function pointers we cannot. In this
+ * 		case, default to using the lr. This will be
+ * 		some address in the function, but will not
+ * 		be the function start.
+ * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump
+ *              r0 - r3, but these are less frequently saved.
+ *
+ * Stack frame layout:
+ *             <larger addresses>
+ *             saved lr
+ *    frame => saved fp
+ *             optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
+ *             optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
+ *             <top of stack frame>
+ *             <smaller addresses>
+ *
+ * Functions start with the following code sequence:
+ * corrected pc =>  stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
+ *		    add fp, sp, #x
+ *		    stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ * The diagram below shows an example stack setup
+ * 	for dump_stack.
+ *
+ * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the
+ * 	code of dump_stack. This is why the frame of
+ * 	c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation
+ * 	of dump_stack. This is why we must move back
+ * 	a frame to print dump_stack.
+ *
+ * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's
+ * 	frame. This means that to fully print dump_stack's frame
+ * 	we need the both the frame for dump_stack (for locals) and the
+ * 	frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
+ *
+ * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If
+ * 	we read the function prologue opcodes we can determine
+ * 	which variables are stored in the stack frame.
+ *
+ * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the
+ * 	stored LR of show_stack. It points at the instruction
+ * 	directly after the bl dump_stack. We can then read the
+ * 	offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch takes us.
+ * 	The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
+ *
+ * c_backtrace frame           dump_stack:
+ * {[LR]    }  ============|   ...
+ * {[FP]    }  =======|    |   bl c_backtrace
+ *                    |    |=> ...
+ * {[R4-R10]}         |
+ * {[R0-R3] }         |        show_stack:
+ * dump_stack frame   |        ...
+ * {[LR]    } =============|   bl dump_stack
+ * {[FP]    } <=======|    |=> ...
+ * {[R4-R10]}
+ * {[R0-R3] }
+ */
+
+stmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr}	@ Save an extra register
+				@ to ensure 8 byte alignment
+movs	frame, r0		@ if frame pointer is zero
+beq	no_frame		@ we have no stack frames
+
+tst	r1, #0x10		@ 26 or 32-bit mode?
+moveq	mask, #0xfc000003
+movne	mask, #0		@ mask for 32-bit
+
+/*
+ * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
+ */
+		add     frame, sp, #24          @ switch to false frame
+for_each_frame:	tst	frame, mask		@ Check for address exceptions
+		bne	no_frame
+
+/*
+ * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
+ * 	function.
+ * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a
+ * 	code address within the current considered function, but
+ * 	it is not the function start. This value gets updated to be
+ * 	the function start later if it is possible.
+ */
+1001:		ldr	sv_pc, [frame, #4]	@ get saved 'pc'
+1002:		ldr	sv_fp, [frame, #0]	@ get saved fp
+
+		teq     sv_fp, #0               @ make sure next frame exists
+		beq     no_frame
+
+/*
+ * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This
+ * 	is a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.
+ * 	sv_lr-4 is the instruction used to call the current function.
+ * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function
+ * 	was called using a bl instruction. If the function start
+ * 	can be recovered sv_pc is overwritten with the function start.
+ * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
+ * 	recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as
+ * 	an arbitrary value within the current function. If this is the case
+ * 	we cannot print registers for the current function, but the stacktrace
+ * 	is still printed properly.
+ */
+1003:		ldr     sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get saved lr from next frame
+
+		ldr     r0, [sv_lr, #-4]        @ get call instruction
+		ldr     r3, .Ldsi+8
+		and     r2, r3, r0              @ is this a bl call
+		teq     r2, r3
+		bne     finished_setup          @ give up if it's not
+		and     r0, #0xffffff           @ get call offset 24-bit int
+		lsl     r0, r0, #8              @ sign extend offset
+		asr     r0, r0, #8
+		ldr     sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get lr address
+		add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4	@ get call instruction address
+		add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #8        @ take care of prefetch
+		add     sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2 @ find function start
+
+finished_setup:
+
+		bic	sv_pc, sv_pc, mask	@ mask PC/LR for the mode
+
+/*
+ * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called
+ * 	from (sv_lr).
+ */
+1004:		mov     r0, sv_pc
+
+		mov     r1, sv_lr
+		mov	r2, frame
+		bic	r1, r1, mask		@ mask PC/LR for the mode
+		bl	dump_backtrace_entry
+
+/*
+ * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction
+ * 	to determine which registers were stored in the function
+ * 	prologue.
+ * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through
+ * 	a function pointer the comparison will fail and no registers
+ * 	will print.
+ */
+1005:		ldr	r1, [sv_pc, #0]		@ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
+		ldr	r3, .Ldsi		@ instruction exists,
+		teq	r3, r1, lsr #11
+		ldr     r0, [frame]             @ locals are stored in
+						@ the preceding frame
+		subeq	r0, r0, #4
+		bleq	dump_backtrace_stm	@ dump saved registers
+
+/*
+ * If we are out of frames or if the next frame
+ * 	is invalid.
+ */
+		teq	sv_fp, #0		@ zero saved fp means
+		beq	no_frame		@ no further frames
+
+		cmp	sv_fp, frame		@ next frame must be
+		mov	frame, sv_fp		@ above the current frame
+		bhi	for_each_frame
+
+1006:		adr	r0, .Lbad
+		mov	r1, frame
+		bl	printk
+no_frame:	ldmfd	sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
+ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
+		.pushsection __ex_table,"a"
+		.align	3
+		.long	1001b, 1006b
+		.long	1002b, 1006b
+		.long	1003b, 1006b
+		.long	1004b, 1006b
+		.long   1005b, 1006b
+		.popsection
+
+.Lbad:		.asciz	"Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
+		.align
+.Ldsi:		.word	0xe92d4800 >> 11	@ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
+		.word	0xe92d0000 >> 11	@ stmfd sp!, {}
+		.word   0x0b000000              @ bl if these bits are set
+
+#endif
-- 
2.23.0.rc1.153.gdeed80330f-goog


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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-20 19:43 [PATCH] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang Nathan Huckleberry
@ 2019-08-20 21:39 ` Nick Desaulniers
  2019-08-21 17:43   ` Nathan Huckleberry
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nick Desaulniers @ 2019-08-20 21:39 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nathan Huckleberry
  Cc: Tri Vo, Russell King, LKML, clang-built-linux,
	Miles Chen (陳民樺),
	Linux ARM

On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 12:44 PM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
>
> The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
> Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
> fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
> clang stackframe setup.
>
> Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
> Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
> Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
> Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
> ---
> Changes from RFC
> * Push extra register to satisfy 8 byte alignment requirement
> * Add clarifying comments
> * Separate code into its own file

Thanks for the patch! The added comments and moving the implementation
to its own file make it easier to review.

>
>  arch/arm/Kconfig.debug         |   4 +-
>  arch/arm/Makefile              |   5 +-
>  arch/arm/lib/Makefile          |   8 +-
>  arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 224 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  4 files changed, 237 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> index 85710e078afb..92fca7463e21 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> @@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
>
>  config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
>         bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
> -       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
> +       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
>         select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
>         select FRAME_POINTER
>         help
> @@ -1872,7 +1872,7 @@ config DEBUG_UNCOMPRESS
>           When this option is set, the selected DEBUG_LL output method
>           will be re-used for normal decompressor output on multiplatform
>           kernels.
> -
> +

Probably can drop the added newline?

>
>  config UNCOMPRESS_INCLUDE
>         string
> diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
> index c3624ca6c0bc..729e223b83fe 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
> @@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS        += $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
>  endif
>
>  ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
> -KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> +KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
> +  ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
> +  KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> +  endif

While I can appreciate the indentation, it's unusual to indent
additional depths of kernel Makefiles.  At least the rest of this file
does not do so.  Of course, the other Makefile you touch below does
two spaces.  At least try to keep the file internally consistent, even
if the kernel itself is inconsistent.

>  endif
>
>  ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
> diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> index b25c54585048..e10a769c72ec 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> @@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
>  # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
>  #
>
> -lib-y          := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
> +lib-y          := changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o               \
>                    csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
>                    delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o   \
>                    memmove.o memset.o setbit.o                        \
> @@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y                := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
>  mmu-y          := clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o       \
>                    copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
>
> +ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
> +  lib-y += backtrace-clang.o
> +else
> +  lib-y += backtrace.o
> +endif

The indentation should match the above (from this file).  Looks like 1
tab after lib-y.  See L34(CONFIG_CPU_32v3) for what I would have
expected.

> +
>  # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
>  obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..2b02014dbdd1
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> @@ -0,0 +1,224 @@
> +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
> +/*
> + *  linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> + *
> + *  Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
> + *
> + */
> +#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
> +#include <linux/linkage.h>
> +#include <asm/assembler.h>
> +               .text
> +
> +/* fp is 0 or stack frame */

ah, I see that the reference implementation uses an assembly comment
here. Ok (sorry for the noise).

> +
> +#define frame  r4
> +#define sv_fp  r5
> +#define sv_pc  r6
> +#define mask   r7
> +#define sv_lr   r8
> +
> +ENTRY(c_backtrace)
> +
> +#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
> +               ret     lr
> +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> +#else
> +
> +
> +/*
> + * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues
> + *             so we don't know exactly where the function
> + *             starts.
> + * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the
> + *             preceding frame's lr as the lr, but we can't

preceding frame's lr as the current frame's lr, ...

> + *             trace the most recent call.
> + * Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the
> + *             function called last in the stacktrace.
> + * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers
> + *             branch instruction to calculate the saved pc.
> + * We can recover the pc in most cases, but in cases such as
> + *             calling function pointers we cannot. In this
> + *             case, default to using the lr. This will be
> + *             some address in the function, but will not
> + *             be the function start.
> + * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump
> + *              r0 - r3, but these are less frequently saved.

The use of tabs vs spaces in these comments is inconsistent.  Not that
I can see whitespace, but:
https://github.com/nickdesaulniers/dotfiles/blob/37359525f5a403b4ed2d3f9d1bbbee2da8ec8115/.vimrc#L35-L41
Also, I don't think you need to tab indent every line after the first.
Where did that format come from?

> + *
> + * Stack frame layout:
> + *             <larger addresses>
> + *             saved lr
> + *    frame => saved fp
> + *             optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
> + *             optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
> + *             <top of stack frame>
> + *             <smaller addresses>
> + *
> + * Functions start with the following code sequence:
> + * corrected pc =>  stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> + *                 add fp, sp, #x
> + *                 stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + * The diagram below shows an example stack setup
> + *     for dump_stack.
> + *
> + * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the
> + *     code of dump_stack. This is why the frame of
> + *     c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation
> + *     of dump_stack. This is why we must move back
> + *     a frame to print dump_stack.
> + *
> + * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's
> + *     frame. This means that to fully print dump_stack's frame
> + *     we need the both the frame for dump_stack (for locals) and the

we need both the ...
(There's an extra `the` in the sentence).

> + *     frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
> + *
> + * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If
> + *     we read the function prologue opcodes we can determine
> + *     which variables are stored in the stack frame.
> + *
> + * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the
> + *     stored LR of show_stack. It points at the instruction
> + *     directly after the bl dump_stack. We can then read the
> + *     offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch takes us.
> + *     The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
> + *
> + * c_backtrace frame           dump_stack:
> + * {[LR]    }  ============|   ...
> + * {[FP]    }  =======|    |   bl c_backtrace
> + *                    |    |=> ...
> + * {[R4-R10]}         |
> + * {[R0-R3] }         |        show_stack:
> + * dump_stack frame   |        ...
> + * {[LR]    } =============|   bl dump_stack
> + * {[FP]    } <=======|    |=> ...
> + * {[R4-R10]}
> + * {[R0-R3] }
> + */
> +
> +stmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr} @ Save an extra register
> +                               @ to ensure 8 byte alignment
> +movs   frame, r0               @ if frame pointer is zero
> +beq    no_frame                @ we have no stack frames
> +
> +tst    r1, #0x10               @ 26 or 32-bit mode?
> +moveq  mask, #0xfc000003

Should we be using different masks for ARM vs THUMB as per the
reference implementation?

> +movne  mask, #0                @ mask for 32-bit
> +
> +/*
> + * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
> + */
> +               add     frame, sp, #24          @ switch to false frame
> +for_each_frame:        tst     frame, mask             @ Check for address exceptions
> +               bne     no_frame
> +
> +/*
> + * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
> + *     function.
> + * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a
> + *     code address within the current considered function, but
> + *     it is not the function start. This value gets updated to be
> + *     the function start later if it is possible.
> + */
> +1001:          ldr     sv_pc, [frame, #4]      @ get saved 'pc'
> +1002:          ldr     sv_fp, [frame, #0]      @ get saved fp

The reference implementation applies the mask to sv_pc and sv_fp.  I
assume we want to, too?

> +
> +               teq     sv_fp, #0               @ make sure next frame exists
> +               beq     no_frame
> +
> +/*
> + * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This
> + *     is a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.
> + *     sv_lr-4 is the instruction used to call the current function.
> + * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function
> + *     was called using a bl instruction. If the function start
> + *     can be recovered sv_pc is overwritten with the function start.
> + * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
> + *     recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as
> + *     an arbitrary value within the current function. If this is the case
> + *     we cannot print registers for the current function, but the stacktrace
> + *     is still printed properly.
> + */
> +1003:          ldr     sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get saved lr from next frame
> +
> +               ldr     r0, [sv_lr, #-4]        @ get call instruction
> +               ldr     r3, .Ldsi+8

I wonder what `dsi` stands for, it could use a better name.  Maybe put
that mask in a more descriptively named section and use that instead
of `.Ldsi+8`?

> +               and     r2, r3, r0              @ is this a bl call
> +               teq     r2, r3
> +               bne     finished_setup          @ give up if it's not
> +               and     r0, #0xffffff           @ get call offset 24-bit int
> +               lsl     r0, r0, #8              @ sign extend offset
> +               asr     r0, r0, #8

It's too bad this should work for older ARM versions, v6 added
dedicated instructions for this:
http://infocenter.arm.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.arm.doc.dui0489c/Cihfifdd.html

> +               ldr     sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get lr address
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4       @ get call instruction address
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #8        @ take care of prefetch
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2 @ find function start
> +
> +finished_setup:
> +
> +               bic     sv_pc, sv_pc, mask      @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> +
> +/*
> + * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called
> + *     from (sv_lr).
> + */
> +1004:          mov     r0, sv_pc
> +
> +               mov     r1, sv_lr
> +               mov     r2, frame
> +               bic     r1, r1, mask            @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> +               bl      dump_backtrace_entry
> +
> +/*
> + * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction
> + *     to determine which registers were stored in the function
> + *     prologue.
> + * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through
> + *     a function pointer the comparison will fail and no registers
> + *     will print.
> + */
> +1005:          ldr     r1, [sv_pc, #0]         @ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> +               ldr     r3, .Ldsi               @ instruction exists,
> +               teq     r3, r1, lsr #11
> +               ldr     r0, [frame]             @ locals are stored in
> +                                               @ the preceding frame
> +               subeq   r0, r0, #4
> +               bleq    dump_backtrace_stm      @ dump saved registers

Do we need to do anything to test .Ldsi+4? Otherwise looks like we
define it but don't use it?

> +
> +/*
> + * If we are out of frames or if the next frame
> + *     is invalid.
> + */
> +               teq     sv_fp, #0               @ zero saved fp means
> +               beq     no_frame                @ no further frames
> +
> +               cmp     sv_fp, frame            @ next frame must be
> +               mov     frame, sv_fp            @ above the current frame
> +               bhi     for_each_frame
> +
> +1006:          adr     r0, .Lbad
> +               mov     r1, frame
> +               bl      printk
> +no_frame:      ldmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
> +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> +               .pushsection __ex_table,"a"
> +               .align  3
> +               .long   1001b, 1006b
> +               .long   1002b, 1006b
> +               .long   1003b, 1006b
> +               .long   1004b, 1006b
> +               .long   1005b, 1006b
> +               .popsection
> +
> +.Lbad:         .asciz  "Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
> +               .align
> +.Ldsi:         .word   0xe92d4800 >> 11        @ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
> +               .word   0xe92d0000 >> 11        @ stmfd sp!, {}
> +               .word   0x0b000000              @ bl if these bits are set
> +
> +#endif
> --
> 2.23.0.rc1.153.gdeed80330f-goog
>


-- 
Thanks,
~Nick Desaulniers

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http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/linux-arm-kernel

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-20 21:39 ` Nick Desaulniers
@ 2019-08-21 17:43   ` Nathan Huckleberry
  2019-08-21 17:46     ` [PATCH v2] " Nathan Huckleberry
  2019-08-22  2:33     ` [PATCH] " Nick Desaulniers
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nathan Huckleberry @ 2019-08-21 17:43 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nick Desaulniers
  Cc: Tri Vo, Russell King, LKML, clang-built-linux,
	Miles Chen (陳民樺),
	Linux ARM

On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 2:39 PM Nick Desaulniers
<ndesaulniers@google.com> wrote:
>
> On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 12:44 PM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
> >
> > The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
> > Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
> > fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
> > clang stackframe setup.
> >
> > Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
> > Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
> > Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
> > Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
> > ---
> > Changes from RFC
> > * Push extra register to satisfy 8 byte alignment requirement
> > * Add clarifying comments
> > * Separate code into its own file
>
> Thanks for the patch! The added comments and moving the implementation
> to its own file make it easier to review.
>
> >
> >  arch/arm/Kconfig.debug         |   4 +-
> >  arch/arm/Makefile              |   5 +-
> >  arch/arm/lib/Makefile          |   8 +-
> >  arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 224 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> >  4 files changed, 237 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
> >  create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> > index 85710e078afb..92fca7463e21 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> > +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> > @@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
> >
> >  config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
> >         bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
> > -       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
> > +       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
> >         select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
> >         select FRAME_POINTER
> >         help
> > @@ -1872,7 +1872,7 @@ config DEBUG_UNCOMPRESS
> >           When this option is set, the selected DEBUG_LL output method
> >           will be re-used for normal decompressor output on multiplatform
> >           kernels.
> > -
> > +
>
> Probably can drop the added newline?
>
> >
> >  config UNCOMPRESS_INCLUDE
> >         string
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
> > index c3624ca6c0bc..729e223b83fe 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm/Makefile
> > +++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
> > @@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS        += $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
> >  endif
> >
> >  ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
> > -KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> > +KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
> > +  ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
> > +  KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> > +  endif
>
> While I can appreciate the indentation, it's unusual to indent
> additional depths of kernel Makefiles.  At least the rest of this file
> does not do so.  Of course, the other Makefile you touch below does
> two spaces.  At least try to keep the file internally consistent, even
> if the kernel itself is inconsistent.
>
> >  endif
> >
> >  ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> > index b25c54585048..e10a769c72ec 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> > +++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> > @@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
> >  # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
> >  #
> >
> > -lib-y          := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
> > +lib-y          := changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o               \
> >                    csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
> >                    delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o   \
> >                    memmove.o memset.o setbit.o                        \
> > @@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y                := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
> >  mmu-y          := clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o       \
> >                    copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
> >
> > +ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
> > +  lib-y += backtrace-clang.o
> > +else
> > +  lib-y += backtrace.o
> > +endif
>
> The indentation should match the above (from this file).  Looks like 1
> tab after lib-y.  See L34(CONFIG_CPU_32v3) for what I would have
> expected.
>
> > +
> >  # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
> >  obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..2b02014dbdd1
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> > @@ -0,0 +1,224 @@
> > +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
> > +/*
> > + *  linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> > + *
> > + *  Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
> > + *
> > + */
> > +#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
> > +#include <linux/linkage.h>
> > +#include <asm/assembler.h>
> > +               .text
> > +
> > +/* fp is 0 or stack frame */
>
> ah, I see that the reference implementation uses an assembly comment
> here. Ok (sorry for the noise).
>
> > +
> > +#define frame  r4
> > +#define sv_fp  r5
> > +#define sv_pc  r6
> > +#define mask   r7
> > +#define sv_lr   r8
> > +
> > +ENTRY(c_backtrace)
> > +
> > +#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
> > +               ret     lr
> > +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> > +#else
> > +
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues
> > + *             so we don't know exactly where the function
> > + *             starts.
> > + * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the
> > + *             preceding frame's lr as the lr, but we can't
>
> preceding frame's lr as the current frame's lr, ...
>
> > + *             trace the most recent call.
> > + * Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the
> > + *             function called last in the stacktrace.
> > + * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers
> > + *             branch instruction to calculate the saved pc.
> > + * We can recover the pc in most cases, but in cases such as
> > + *             calling function pointers we cannot. In this
> > + *             case, default to using the lr. This will be
> > + *             some address in the function, but will not
> > + *             be the function start.
> > + * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump
> > + *              r0 - r3, but these are less frequently saved.
>
> The use of tabs vs spaces in these comments is inconsistent.  Not that
> I can see whitespace, but:
> https://github.com/nickdesaulniers/dotfiles/blob/37359525f5a403b4ed2d3f9d1bbbee2da8ec8115/.vimrc#L35-L41
> Also, I don't think you need to tab indent every line after the first.
> Where did that format come from?
>
> > + *
> > + * Stack frame layout:
> > + *             <larger addresses>
> > + *             saved lr
> > + *    frame => saved fp
> > + *             optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
> > + *             optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
> > + *             <top of stack frame>
> > + *             <smaller addresses>
> > + *
> > + * Functions start with the following code sequence:
> > + * corrected pc =>  stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> > + *                 add fp, sp, #x
> > + *                 stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + *
> > + * The diagram below shows an example stack setup
> > + *     for dump_stack.
> > + *
> > + * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the
> > + *     code of dump_stack. This is why the frame of
> > + *     c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation
> > + *     of dump_stack. This is why we must move back
> > + *     a frame to print dump_stack.
> > + *
> > + * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's
> > + *     frame. This means that to fully print dump_stack's frame
> > + *     we need the both the frame for dump_stack (for locals) and the
>
> we need both the ...
> (There's an extra `the` in the sentence).
>
> > + *     frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
> > + *
> > + * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If
> > + *     we read the function prologue opcodes we can determine
> > + *     which variables are stored in the stack frame.
> > + *
> > + * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the
> > + *     stored LR of show_stack. It points at the instruction
> > + *     directly after the bl dump_stack. We can then read the
> > + *     offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch takes us.
> > + *     The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
> > + *
> > + * c_backtrace frame           dump_stack:
> > + * {[LR]    }  ============|   ...
> > + * {[FP]    }  =======|    |   bl c_backtrace
> > + *                    |    |=> ...
> > + * {[R4-R10]}         |
> > + * {[R0-R3] }         |        show_stack:
> > + * dump_stack frame   |        ...
> > + * {[LR]    } =============|   bl dump_stack
> > + * {[FP]    } <=======|    |=> ...
> > + * {[R4-R10]}
> > + * {[R0-R3] }
> > + */
> > +
> > +stmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr} @ Save an extra register
> > +                               @ to ensure 8 byte alignment
> > +movs   frame, r0               @ if frame pointer is zero
> > +beq    no_frame                @ we have no stack frames
> > +
> > +tst    r1, #0x10               @ 26 or 32-bit mode?
> > +moveq  mask, #0xfc000003
>
> Should we be using different masks for ARM vs THUMB as per the
> reference implementation?
The change that introduces the arm/thumb code looked like a script
that was run over all arm in the kernel. Neither this code nor the
reference solution is compatible with arm, so there's no need for the
change.
>
> > +movne  mask, #0                @ mask for 32-bit
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
> > + */
> > +               add     frame, sp, #24          @ switch to false frame
> > +for_each_frame:        tst     frame, mask             @ Check for address exceptions
> > +               bne     no_frame
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
> > + *     function.
> > + * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a
> > + *     code address within the current considered function, but
> > + *     it is not the function start. This value gets updated to be
> > + *     the function start later if it is possible.
> > + */
> > +1001:          ldr     sv_pc, [frame, #4]      @ get saved 'pc'
> > +1002:          ldr     sv_fp, [frame, #0]      @ get saved fp
>
> The reference implementation applies the mask to sv_pc and sv_fp.  I
> assume we want to, too?
The mask is already applied to both. See for_each_frame:
>
> > +
> > +               teq     sv_fp, #0               @ make sure next frame exists
> > +               beq     no_frame
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This
> > + *     is a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.
> > + *     sv_lr-4 is the instruction used to call the current function.
> > + * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function
> > + *     was called using a bl instruction. If the function start
> > + *     can be recovered sv_pc is overwritten with the function start.
> > + * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
> > + *     recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as
> > + *     an arbitrary value within the current function. If this is the case
> > + *     we cannot print registers for the current function, but the stacktrace
> > + *     is still printed properly.
> > + */
> > +1003:          ldr     sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get saved lr from next frame
> > +
> > +               ldr     r0, [sv_lr, #-4]        @ get call instruction
> > +               ldr     r3, .Ldsi+8
>
> I wonder what `dsi` stands for, it could use a better name.  Maybe put
> that mask in a more descriptively named section and use that instead
> of `.Ldsi+8`?
>
> > +               and     r2, r3, r0              @ is this a bl call
> > +               teq     r2, r3
> > +               bne     finished_setup          @ give up if it's not
> > +               and     r0, #0xffffff           @ get call offset 24-bit int
> > +               lsl     r0, r0, #8              @ sign extend offset
> > +               asr     r0, r0, #8
>
> It's too bad this should work for older ARM versions, v6 added
> dedicated instructions for this:
> http://infocenter.arm.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.arm.doc.dui0489c/Cihfifdd.html
>
> > +               ldr     sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get lr address
> > +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4       @ get call instruction address
> > +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #8        @ take care of prefetch
> > +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2 @ find function start
> > +
> > +finished_setup:
> > +
> > +               bic     sv_pc, sv_pc, mask      @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called
> > + *     from (sv_lr).
> > + */
> > +1004:          mov     r0, sv_pc
> > +
> > +               mov     r1, sv_lr
> > +               mov     r2, frame
> > +               bic     r1, r1, mask            @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> > +               bl      dump_backtrace_entry
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction
> > + *     to determine which registers were stored in the function
> > + *     prologue.
> > + * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through
> > + *     a function pointer the comparison will fail and no registers
> > + *     will print.
> > + */
> > +1005:          ldr     r1, [sv_pc, #0]         @ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> > +               ldr     r3, .Ldsi               @ instruction exists,
> > +               teq     r3, r1, lsr #11
> > +               ldr     r0, [frame]             @ locals are stored in
> > +                                               @ the preceding frame
> > +               subeq   r0, r0, #4
> > +               bleq    dump_backtrace_stm      @ dump saved registers
>
> Do we need to do anything to test .Ldsi+4? Otherwise looks like we
> define it but don't use it?
>
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * If we are out of frames or if the next frame
> > + *     is invalid.
> > + */
> > +               teq     sv_fp, #0               @ zero saved fp means
> > +               beq     no_frame                @ no further frames
> > +
> > +               cmp     sv_fp, frame            @ next frame must be
> > +               mov     frame, sv_fp            @ above the current frame
> > +               bhi     for_each_frame
> > +
> > +1006:          adr     r0, .Lbad
> > +               mov     r1, frame
> > +               bl      printk
> > +no_frame:      ldmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
> > +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> > +               .pushsection __ex_table,"a"
> > +               .align  3
> > +               .long   1001b, 1006b
> > +               .long   1002b, 1006b
> > +               .long   1003b, 1006b
> > +               .long   1004b, 1006b
> > +               .long   1005b, 1006b
> > +               .popsection
> > +
> > +.Lbad:         .asciz  "Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
> > +               .align
> > +.Ldsi:         .word   0xe92d4800 >> 11        @ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
> > +               .word   0xe92d0000 >> 11        @ stmfd sp!, {}
> > +               .word   0x0b000000              @ bl if these bits are set
> > +
> > +#endif
> > --
> > 2.23.0.rc1.153.gdeed80330f-goog
> >
>
>
> --
> Thanks,
> ~Nick Desaulniers
Thanks for the review, will send a v2 with your suggestions.

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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-21 17:43   ` Nathan Huckleberry
@ 2019-08-21 17:46     ` " Nathan Huckleberry
  2019-08-22  3:26       ` Nick Desaulniers
  2019-08-22  2:33     ` [PATCH] " Nick Desaulniers
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nathan Huckleberry @ 2019-08-21 17:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linux
  Cc: Tri Vo, ndesaulniers, linux-kernel, Nathan Huckleberry,
	clang-built-linux, miles.chen, linux-arm-kernel

The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
clang stackframe setup.

Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
---
Changes from v1->v2
* Fix indentation in various files
* Swap spaces for tabs
* Rename Ldsi to Lopcode
* Remove unused Ldsi entry

 arch/arm/Kconfig.debug         |   2 +-
 arch/arm/Makefile              |   5 +-
 arch/arm/lib/Makefile          |   8 +-
 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 229 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 241 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S

diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
index 85710e078afb..b9c674ec19e0 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
 
 config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
 	bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
-	depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
+	depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
 	select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
 	select FRAME_POINTER
 	help
diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
index c3624ca6c0bc..6f251c201db0 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
@@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS	+= $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
 endif
 
 ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
-KBUILD_CFLAGS	+=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
+KBUILD_CFLAGS	+=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
+ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
+KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
+endif
 endif
 
 ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
index b25c54585048..6d2ba454f25b 100644
--- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
 # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
 #
 
-lib-y		:= backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
+lib-y		:= changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o               \
 		   csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
 		   delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o   \
 		   memmove.o memset.o setbit.o                        \
@@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y		:= backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
 mmu-y		:= clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o       \
 		   copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
 
+ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
+  lib-y	+= backtrace-clang.o
+else
+  lib-y	+= backtrace.o
+endif
+
 # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
 obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
 
diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6f2a8a57d0fb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
@@ -0,0 +1,229 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
+/*
+ *  linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
+ *
+ *  Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
+ *
+ */
+#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
+#include <linux/linkage.h>
+#include <asm/assembler.h>
+		.text
+
+/* fp is 0 or stack frame */
+
+#define frame	r4
+#define sv_fp	r5
+#define sv_pc	r6
+#define mask	r7
+#define sv_lr	r8
+
+ENTRY(c_backtrace)
+
+#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
+		ret	lr
+ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
+#else
+
+
+/*
+ * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues
+ * so we don't know exactly where the function
+ * starts.
+ *
+ * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the
+ * preceding frame's lr as the current frame's lr,
+ * but we can't trace the most recent call.
+ * Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the
+ * function called last in the stacktrace.
+ *
+ * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers
+ * branch instruction to calculate the saved pc.
+ * We can recover the pc in most cases, but in cases such as
+ * calling function pointers we cannot. In this
+ * case, default to using the lr. This will be
+ * some address in the function, but will not
+ * be the function start.
+ *
+ * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump
+ *              r0 - r3, but these are less frequently saved.
+ *
+ * Stack frame layout:
+ * 		<larger addresses>
+ * 		saved lr
+ * 	frame=> saved fp
+ * 		optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
+ * 		optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
+ * 		<top of stack frame>
+ * 		<smaller addresses>
+ *
+ * Functions start with the following code sequence:
+ * corrected pc =>  stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
+ *		add fp, sp, #x
+ *		stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ * The diagram below shows an example stack setup
+ * for dump_stack.
+ *
+ * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the
+ * code of dump_stack. This is why the frame of
+ * c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation
+ * of dump_stack. This is why we must move back
+ * a frame to print dump_stack.
+ *
+ * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's
+ * frame. This means that to fully print dump_stack's frame
+ * we need both the frame for dump_stack (for locals) and the
+ * frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
+ *
+ * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If
+ * we read the function prologue opcodes we can determine
+ * which variables are stored in the stack frame.
+ *
+ * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the
+ * stored LR of show_stack. It points at the instruction
+ * directly after the bl dump_stack. We can then read the
+ * offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch takes us.
+ * The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
+ *
+ * c_backtrace frame           dump_stack:
+ * {[LR]    }  ============|   ...
+ * {[FP]    }  =======|    |   bl c_backtrace
+ *                    |    |=> ...
+ * {[R4-R10]}         |
+ * {[R0-R3] }         |        show_stack:
+ * dump_stack frame   |        ...
+ * {[LR]    } =============|   bl dump_stack
+ * {[FP]    } <=======|    |=> ...
+ * {[R4-R10]}
+ * {[R0-R3] }
+ */
+
+stmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr}	@ Save an extra register
+				@ to ensure 8 byte alignment
+movs	frame, r0		@ if frame pointer is zero
+beq	no_frame		@ we have no stack frames
+
+tst	r1, #0x10		@ 26 or 32-bit mode?
+moveq	mask, #0xfc000003
+movne	mask, #0		@ mask for 32-bit
+
+/*
+ * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
+ */
+		add	frame, sp, #24		@ switch to false frame
+for_each_frame:	tst	frame, mask		@ Check for address exceptions
+		bne	no_frame
+
+/*
+ * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
+ * function.
+ *
+ * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a
+ * code address within the current considered function, but
+ * it is not the function start. This value gets updated to be
+ * the function start later if it is possible.
+ */
+1001:		ldr	sv_pc, [frame, #4]	@ get saved 'pc'
+1002:		ldr	sv_fp, [frame, #0]	@ get saved fp
+
+		teq	sv_fp, mask		@ make sure next frame exists
+		beq	no_frame
+
+/*
+ * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This
+ * is a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.
+ * sv_lr-4 is the instruction used to call the current function.
+ *
+ * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function
+ * was called using a bl instruction. If the function start
+ * can be recovered sv_pc is overwritten with the function start.
+ *
+ * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
+ * recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as
+ * an arbitrary value within the current function. If this is the case
+ * we cannot print registers for the current function, but the stacktrace
+ * is still printed properly.
+ */
+1003:		ldr	sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4]	@ get saved lr from next frame
+
+		ldr	r0, [sv_lr, #-4]	@ get call instruction
+		ldr	r3, .Lopcode+4
+		and	r2, r3, r0		@ is this a bl call
+		teq	r2, r3
+		bne	finished_setup		@ give up if it's not
+		and	r0, #0xffffff		@ get call offset 24-bit int
+		lsl	r0, r0, #8		@ sign extend offset
+		asr	r0, r0, #8
+		ldr	sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4]	@ get lr address
+		add	sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4	@ get call instruction address
+		add	sv_pc, sv_pc, #8	@ take care of prefetch
+		add	sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2@ find function start
+
+finished_setup:
+
+		bic	sv_pc, sv_pc, mask	@ mask PC/LR for the mode
+
+/*
+ * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called
+ * from (sv_lr).
+ */
+1004:		mov	r0, sv_pc
+
+		mov	r1, sv_lr
+		mov	r2, frame
+		bic	r1, r1, mask		@ mask PC/LR for the mode
+		bl	dump_backtrace_entry
+
+/*
+ * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction
+ * to determine which registers were stored in the function
+ * prologue.
+ *
+ * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through
+ * a function pointer the comparison will fail and no registers
+ * will print.
+ */
+1005:		ldr	r1, [sv_pc, #0]		@ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
+		ldr	r3, .Lopcode		@ instruction exists,
+		teq	r3, r1, lsr #11
+		ldr	r0, [frame]		@ locals are stored in
+						@ the preceding frame
+		subeq	r0, r0, #4
+		bleq	dump_backtrace_stm	@ dump saved registers
+
+/*
+ * If we are out of frames or if the next frame is invalid.
+ */
+		teq	sv_fp, #0		@ zero saved fp means
+		beq	no_frame		@ no further frames
+
+		cmp	sv_fp, frame		@ next frame must be
+		mov	frame, sv_fp		@ above the current frame
+		bhi	for_each_frame
+
+1006:		adr	r0, .Lbad
+		mov	r1, frame
+		bl	printk
+no_frame:	ldmfd	sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
+ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
+		.pushsection __ex_table,"a"
+		.align	3
+		.long	1001b, 1006b
+		.long	1002b, 1006b
+		.long	1003b, 1006b
+		.long	1004b, 1006b
+		.long   1005b, 1006b
+		.popsection
+
+.Lbad:		.asciz	"Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
+		.align
+.Lopcode:	.word	0xe92d4800 >> 11	@ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
+		.word	0x0b000000		@ bl if these bits are set
+
+#endif
-- 
2.23.0.rc1.153.gdeed80330f-goog


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http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/linux-arm-kernel

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-21 17:43   ` Nathan Huckleberry
  2019-08-21 17:46     ` [PATCH v2] " Nathan Huckleberry
@ 2019-08-22  2:33     ` " Nick Desaulniers
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nick Desaulniers @ 2019-08-22  2:33 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nathan Huckleberry, Catalin Marinas
  Cc: Tri Vo, Arnd Bergmann, Ard Biesheuvel, Russell King, LKML,
	clang-built-linux, Miles Chen (陳民樺),
	Linux ARM

On Wed, Aug 21, 2019 at 10:43 AM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
>
> On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 2:39 PM Nick Desaulniers
> <ndesaulniers@google.com> wrote:
> >
> > On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 12:44 PM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
...snip...
> > > +tst    r1, #0x10               @ 26 or 32-bit mode?
> > > +moveq  mask, #0xfc000003
> >
> > Should we be using different masks for ARM vs THUMB as per the
> > reference implementation?
> The change that introduces the arm/thumb code looked like a script
> that was run over all arm in the kernel. Neither this code nor the
> reference solution is compatible with arm, so there's no need for the
> change.

Looks like you're referring to commit 8b592783a2e8 ("Thumb-2:
Implement the unified arch/arm/lib functions").

Currently, arch/arm/Kconfig.debug has:
  57 config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
  58   bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
  59   depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG

So it looks like UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER and THUMB2_KERNEL are mutually
exclusive.  Probably could send a patch cleaning that up. (ie.
removing the different masks; essentially removing the hunk from
arch/arm/lib/backtrace.S from 8b592783a2e8).

> > > +for_each_frame:        tst     frame, mask             @ Check for address exceptions
> > > +               bne     no_frame
> > > +
> > > +/*
> > > + * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
> > > + *     function.
> > > + * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a
> > > + *     code address within the current considered function, but
> > > + *     it is not the function start. This value gets updated to be
> > > + *     the function start later if it is possible.
> > > + */
> > > +1001:          ldr     sv_pc, [frame, #4]      @ get saved 'pc'
> > > +1002:          ldr     sv_fp, [frame, #0]      @ get saved fp
> >
> > The reference implementation applies the mask to sv_pc and sv_fp.  I
> > assume we want to, too?
> The mask is already applied to both. See for_each_frame:

ah, under the finished_setup label.
-- 
Thanks,
~Nick Desaulniers

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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-21 17:46     ` [PATCH v2] " Nathan Huckleberry
@ 2019-08-22  3:26       ` Nick Desaulniers
  2019-08-22 18:30         ` [PATCH v3] " Nathan Huckleberry
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nick Desaulniers @ 2019-08-22  3:26 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nathan Huckleberry
  Cc: Tri Vo, Arnd Bergmann, Ard Biesheuvel, Russell King, LKML,
	clang-built-linux, Miles Chen (陳民樺),
	Linux ARM

On Wed, Aug 21, 2019 at 10:46 AM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
>
> The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
> Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
> fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
> clang stackframe setup.
>
> Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
> Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
> Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
> Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
> ---
> Changes from v1->v2
> * Fix indentation in various files
> * Swap spaces for tabs
> * Rename Ldsi to Lopcode
> * Remove unused Ldsi entry
>
>  arch/arm/Kconfig.debug         |   2 +-
>  arch/arm/Makefile              |   5 +-
>  arch/arm/lib/Makefile          |   8 +-
>  arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 229 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  4 files changed, 241 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> index 85710e078afb..b9c674ec19e0 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> @@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
>
>  config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
>         bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
> -       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
> +       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
>         select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
>         select FRAME_POINTER
>         help
> diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
> index c3624ca6c0bc..6f251c201db0 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
> @@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS        += $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
>  endif
>
>  ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
> -KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> +KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
> +ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
> +KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> +endif
>  endif
>
>  ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
> diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> index b25c54585048..6d2ba454f25b 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> @@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
>  # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
>  #
>
> -lib-y          := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
> +lib-y          := changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o               \
>                    csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
>                    delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o   \
>                    memmove.o memset.o setbit.o                        \
> @@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y                := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
>  mmu-y          := clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o       \
>                    copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
>
> +ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
> +  lib-y        += backtrace-clang.o
> +else
> +  lib-y        += backtrace.o
> +endif
> +
>  # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
>  obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..6f2a8a57d0fb
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> @@ -0,0 +1,229 @@
> +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
> +/*
> + *  linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> + *
> + *  Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
> + *
> + */
> +#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
> +#include <linux/linkage.h>
> +#include <asm/assembler.h>
> +               .text
> +
> +/* fp is 0 or stack frame */
> +
> +#define frame  r4
> +#define sv_fp  r5
> +#define sv_pc  r6
> +#define mask   r7
> +#define sv_lr  r8
> +
> +ENTRY(c_backtrace)
> +
> +#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
> +               ret     lr
> +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> +#else
> +
> +
> +/*
> + * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues
> + * so we don't know exactly where the function
> + * starts.

To quickly re-wrap text (if you're using vim) such as with comments like these:
shift+v (VISUAL LINE MODE)
j or k to highlight lines
gq (to rewrap)
You may need `set cc=80` (not sure).

> + *
> + * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the
> + * preceding frame's lr as the current frame's lr,
> + * but we can't trace the most recent call.
> + * Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the
> + * function called last in the stacktrace.
> + *
> + * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers
> + * branch instruction to calculate the saved pc.
> + * We can recover the pc in most cases, but in cases such as
> + * calling function pointers we cannot. In this
> + * case, default to using the lr. This will be
> + * some address in the function, but will not
> + * be the function start.
> + *
> + * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump
> + *              r0 - r3, but these are less frequently saved.

I guess if they were spilled, but I'm ok with this; I'd rather have a
working unwinder than disabled config.  The printing is a debug
feature that's nice to have, but the main focus should be unwinding.
We can always revisit improving support.

> + *
> + * Stack frame layout:
> + *             <larger addresses>
> + *             saved lr
> + *     frame=> saved fp
> + *             optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
> + *             optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
> + *             <top of stack frame>
> + *             <smaller addresses>
> + *
> + * Functions start with the following code sequence:
> + * corrected pc =>  stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> + *             add fp, sp, #x
> + *             stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + * The diagram below shows an example stack setup
> + * for dump_stack.
> + *
> + * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the
> + * code of dump_stack. This is why the frame of
> + * c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation
> + * of dump_stack. This is why we must move back
> + * a frame to print dump_stack.
> + *
> + * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's
> + * frame. This means that to fully print dump_stack's frame
> + * we need both the frame for dump_stack (for locals) and the
> + * frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
> + *
> + * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If
> + * we read the function prologue opcodes we can determine
> + * which variables are stored in the stack frame.
> + *
> + * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the
> + * stored LR of show_stack. It points at the instruction
> + * directly after the bl dump_stack. We can then read the
> + * offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch takes us.
> + * The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
> + *
> + * c_backtrace frame           dump_stack:
> + * {[LR]    }  ============|   ...
> + * {[FP]    }  =======|    |   bl c_backtrace
> + *                    |    |=> ...
> + * {[R4-R10]}         |
> + * {[R0-R3] }         |        show_stack:
> + * dump_stack frame   |        ...
> + * {[LR]    } =============|   bl dump_stack
> + * {[FP]    } <=======|    |=> ...
> + * {[R4-R10]}
> + * {[R0-R3] }
> + */
> +

===>

> +stmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr} @ Save an extra register
> +                               @ to ensure 8 byte alignment
> +movs   frame, r0               @ if frame pointer is zero
> +beq    no_frame                @ we have no stack frames
> +
> +tst    r1, #0x10               @ 26 or 32-bit mode?
> +moveq  mask, #0xfc000003
> +movne  mask, #0                @ mask for 32-bit

<== this section of the patch has weird indentation. The rest uses 2
tabs, this has none.

> +
> +/*
> + * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
> + */
> +               add     frame, sp, #24          @ switch to false frame
> +for_each_frame:        tst     frame, mask             @ Check for address exceptions
> +               bne     no_frame
> +
> +/*
> + * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
> + * function.
> + *
> + * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a
> + * code address within the current considered function, but
> + * it is not the function start. This value gets updated to be
> + * the function start later if it is possible.
> + */
> +1001:          ldr     sv_pc, [frame, #4]      @ get saved 'pc'
> +1002:          ldr     sv_fp, [frame, #0]      @ get saved fp
> +
> +               teq     sv_fp, mask             @ make sure next frame exists
> +               beq     no_frame
> +
> +/*
> + * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This
> + * is a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.
> + * sv_lr-4 is the instruction used to call the current function.
> + *
> + * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function
> + * was called using a bl instruction. If the function start
> + * can be recovered sv_pc is overwritten with the function start.
> + *
> + * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
> + * recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as
> + * an arbitrary value within the current function. If this is the case
> + * we cannot print registers for the current function, but the stacktrace
> + * is still printed properly.
> + */
> +1003:          ldr     sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get saved lr from next frame
> +
> +               ldr     r0, [sv_lr, #-4]        @ get call instruction
> +               ldr     r3, .Lopcode+4
> +               and     r2, r3, r0              @ is this a bl call
> +               teq     r2, r3
> +               bne     finished_setup          @ give up if it's not
> +               and     r0, #0xffffff           @ get call offset 24-bit int
> +               lsl     r0, r0, #8              @ sign extend offset
> +               asr     r0, r0, #8
> +               ldr     sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get lr address
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4       @ get call instruction address
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #8        @ take care of prefetch
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2@ find function start
> +
> +finished_setup:
> +
> +               bic     sv_pc, sv_pc, mask      @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> +
> +/*
> + * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called
> + * from (sv_lr).
> + */
> +1004:          mov     r0, sv_pc
> +
> +               mov     r1, sv_lr
> +               mov     r2, frame
> +               bic     r1, r1, mask            @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> +               bl      dump_backtrace_entry
> +
> +/*
> + * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction
> + * to determine which registers were stored in the function
> + * prologue.
> + *
> + * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through
> + * a function pointer the comparison will fail and no registers
> + * will print.

Will we still unwind though?

> + */
> +1005:          ldr     r1, [sv_pc, #0]         @ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> +               ldr     r3, .Lopcode            @ instruction exists,
> +               teq     r3, r1, lsr #11
> +               ldr     r0, [frame]             @ locals are stored in
> +                                               @ the preceding frame
> +               subeq   r0, r0, #4
> +               bleq    dump_backtrace_stm      @ dump saved registers
> +
> +/*
> + * If we are out of frames or if the next frame is invalid.
> + */
> +               teq     sv_fp, #0               @ zero saved fp means
> +               beq     no_frame                @ no further frames
> +
> +               cmp     sv_fp, frame            @ next frame must be
> +               mov     frame, sv_fp            @ above the current frame
> +               bhi     for_each_frame
> +
> +1006:          adr     r0, .Lbad
> +               mov     r1, frame
> +               bl      printk
> +no_frame:      ldmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
> +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> +               .pushsection __ex_table,"a"
> +               .align  3
> +               .long   1001b, 1006b
> +               .long   1002b, 1006b
> +               .long   1003b, 1006b
> +               .long   1004b, 1006b
> +               .long   1005b, 1006b
> +               .popsection
> +
> +.Lbad:         .asciz  "Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
> +               .align
> +.Lopcode:      .word   0xe92d4800 >> 11        @ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
> +               .word   0x0b000000              @ bl if these bits are set
> +
> +#endif
> --
> 2.23.0.rc1.153.gdeed80330f-goog
>

OK, with you patch applied on today's Linux next,
CONFIG_UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER, and ToT Clang:

$ qemu-system-arm -kernel arch/arm/boot/zImage -nographic -m 2048
--append "console=ttyAMA0 root=/dev/ram0" -machine virt
[    0.000000] Linux version 5.3.0-rc5-07709-gac2d7d4a10c1-dirty
(ndesaulniers@ndesaulniers1.mtv.corp.google.com) (clang version 10.0.0
(https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project.git
da648ab8de3638ff82d6b9349c603b854a0224d6)) #53 SMP Wed Aug 21 20:05:15
PDT 2019
...
[    0.957046] Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to mount root
fs on unknown-block(1,0)
[    0.957490] CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper/0 Not tainted
5.3.0-rc5-07709-gac2d7d4a10c1-dirty #53
[    0.957808] Hardware name: Generic DT based system
[    0.958046] Backtrace:
[    0.958504] [<c030da98>] (dump_backtrace) from [<c030da94>]
(show_stack+0x14/0x18)
[    0.958844]  r10:c16f585c r6:00000000 r5:c198c7e4 r4:600000d3
[    0.959085] [<c030da80>] (show_stack) from [<c106c2c8>]
(dump_stack+0xac/0xd8)
[    0.959358] [<c106c21c>] (dump_stack) from [<c03504a0>] (panic+0x118/0x354)
[    0.959568]  r5:c19a61b5 r4:c1427ce5
[    0.959722] [<c0350388>] (panic) from [<c1601624>]
(mount_block_root+0x13c/0x1f0)
[    0.959947] [<c16014e8>] (mount_block_root) from [<c1601a48>]
(mount_root+0xb0/0xb4)
[    0.960210]  r10:00000000 r9:00000000 r8:00000000 r7:00000000
r6:00000000 r5:00100000
[    0.960492]  r4:c1427d49
[    0.960600] [<c1601998>] (mount_root) from [<c1601d0c>]
(prepare_namespace+0x1ec/0x1f0)
[    0.960886]  r5:c19a3d30 r4:c16f5868
[    0.961021] [<c1601b20>] (prepare_namespace) from [<c16011ac>]
(kernel_init_freeable+0xe0/0xf4)
[    0.961330]  r5:00000000 r4:c19a3d1c
[    0.961468] [<c16010cc>] (kernel_init_freeable) from [<c10868d8>]
(kernel_init+0xc/0x2ac)
[    0.961761]  r5:c10868cc r4:00000000
[    0.961913] [<c10868d8>] (kernel_init) from [<c03010e8>]
(ret_from_fork+0x14/0x2c)
[    0.962210] Exception stack(0xea09bf94 to 0xea09bfdc)
[    0.962490] bf80:
c10868d8 00000000 c10868cc
[    0.962883] bfa0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 c03010e8 00000000
00000000 00000000 00000000
[    0.963202] bfc0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000000
[    0.963936] ---[ end Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to
mount root fs on unknown-block(1,0) ]---

For comparison, the reference implementation:
[    0.000000] Linux version 5.3.0-rc5-07709-gac2d7d4a10c1-dirty
(ndesaulniers@ndesaulniers1.mtv.corp.google.com) (gcc version 8.2.0
(Debian 8.2.0-14+build1)) #54 SMP Wed Aug 21 20:15:27 PDT 2019
...
[    1.048134] Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to mount root
fs on unknown-block(1,0)
[    1.048617] CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper/0 Not tainted
5.3.0-rc5-07709-gac2d7d4a10c1-dirty #54
[    1.048935] Hardware name: Generic DT based system
[    1.049191] Backtrace:
[    1.049663] [<c030dff8>] (dump_backtrace) from [<c030e368>]
(show_stack+0x18/0x1c)
[    1.050038]  r7:c16ed85c r6:600000d3 r5:00000000 r4:c198f804
[    1.050292] [<c030e350>] (show_stack) from [<c0f550bc>]
(dump_stack+0xbc/0xd0)
[    1.050581] [<c0f55000>] (dump_stack) from [<c0349fe8>] (panic+0x118/0x330)
[    1.050834]  r7:c16ed85c r6:c13404fc r5:00000000 r4:c19a5870
[    1.051078] [<c0349ed4>] (panic) from [<c16017dc>]
(mount_block_root+0x264/0x284)
[    1.051344]  r3:0ed1c175 r2:0ed1c175 r1:ea09be84 r0:c13404fc
[    1.051553]  r7:c16ed85c
[    1.051661] [<c1601578>] (mount_block_root) from [<c1601a64>]
(mount_root+0x124/0x140)
[    1.051936]  r10:ffffe000 r9:c16ed858 r8:c19a3400 r7:c1809100
r6:00000008 r5:c1804c48
[    1.052238]  r4:00100000
[    1.052351] [<c1601940>] (mount_root) from [<c1601c04>]
(prepare_namespace+0x184/0x1cc)
[    1.052638]  r10:ffffe000 r9:c16ed858 r8:c19a3400 r7:c19a3400
r6:00000008 r5:c19a3430
[    1.052915]  r4:c16ed85c
[    1.053025] [<c1601a80>] (prepare_namespace) from [<c1601308>]
(kernel_init_freeable+0x2f8/0x308)
[    1.053337]  r6:00000008 r5:c177b7c0 r4:c16ed838
[    1.053507] [<c1601010>] (kernel_init_freeable) from [<c0f6ceb0>]
(kernel_init+0x10/0x118)
[    1.053798]  r10:00000000 r9:00000000 r8:00000000 r7:00000000
r6:00000000 r5:c0f6cea0
[    1.054083]  r4:00000000
[    1.054190] [<c0f6cea0>] (kernel_init) from [<c03010e8>]
(ret_from_fork+0x14/0x2c)
[    1.054501] Exception stack(0xea09bfb0 to 0xea09bff8)
[    1.054792] bfa0:                                     00000000
00000000 00000000 00000000
[    1.055169] bfc0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000000 00000000
[    1.055526] bfe0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000013 00000000
[    1.055795]  r5:c0f6cea0 r4:00000000
[    1.056410] ---[ end Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to
mount root fs on unknown-block(1,0) ]---

So the stack traces look comparable (same unwind "path").  Looks like
GCC spilled r0-r3 in panic(), but not much else.  I guess Clang could
have spilled these anywhere and we simply wont be able to print them.
Maybe making the comment about this in you patch ALL CAPS might draw
attention to it in case someone ever notices a difference between the
unwind printout and the disassembly, but I assume that's unlikely, but
I also don't know if this functionality is relied upon heavily for
debugging.

In that sense:
Tested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
(you can carry that on to v3)
With the above suggestions, I'd be happy to then add my reviewed by
tag.  Thanks for all of the work that went into this.
-- 
Thanks,
~Nick Desaulniers

_______________________________________________
linux-arm-kernel mailing list
linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/linux-arm-kernel

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v3] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-22  3:26       ` Nick Desaulniers
@ 2019-08-22 18:30         ` " Nathan Huckleberry
  2019-08-22 20:02           ` Nick Desaulniers
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nathan Huckleberry @ 2019-08-22 18:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linux
  Cc: Tri Vo, ndesaulniers, linux-kernel, Nathan Huckleberry,
	clang-built-linux, miles.chen, linux-arm-kernel

The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
clang stackframe setup.

Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
Tested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
---
Changes from v2->v3
* Fix indentation on code
* Fix comment formatting

 arch/arm/Kconfig.debug         |   2 +-
 arch/arm/Makefile              |   5 +-
 arch/arm/lib/Makefile          |   8 +-
 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 217 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 229 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S

diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
index 85710e078afb..b9c674ec19e0 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
 
 config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
 	bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
-	depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
+	depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
 	select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
 	select FRAME_POINTER
 	help
diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
index c3624ca6c0bc..6f251c201db0 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
@@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS	+= $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
 endif
 
 ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
-KBUILD_CFLAGS	+=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
+KBUILD_CFLAGS	+=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
+ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
+KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
+endif
 endif
 
 ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
index b25c54585048..6d2ba454f25b 100644
--- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
 # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
 #
 
-lib-y		:= backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
+lib-y		:= changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o               \
 		   csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
 		   delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o   \
 		   memmove.o memset.o setbit.o                        \
@@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y		:= backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
 mmu-y		:= clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o       \
 		   copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
 
+ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
+  lib-y	+= backtrace-clang.o
+else
+  lib-y	+= backtrace.o
+endif
+
 # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
 obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
 
diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2ff375144b55
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
@@ -0,0 +1,217 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
+/*
+ *  linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
+ *
+ *  Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
+ *
+ */
+#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
+#include <linux/linkage.h>
+#include <asm/assembler.h>
+		.text
+
+/* fp is 0 or stack frame */
+
+#define frame	r4
+#define sv_fp	r5
+#define sv_pc	r6
+#define mask	r7
+#define sv_lr	r8
+
+ENTRY(c_backtrace)
+
+#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
+		ret	lr
+ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
+#else
+
+
+/*
+ * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues so we don't know exactly
+ * where the function starts.
+ *
+ * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the preceding
+ * frame's lr as the current frame's lr, but we can't trace the most recent
+ * call.  Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the function
+ * called last in the stacktrace.
+ *
+ * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers branch
+ * instruction to calculate the saved pc.  We can recover the pc in most cases,
+ * but in cases such as calling function pointers we cannot. In this case,
+ * default to using the lr. This will be some address in the function, but will
+ * not be the function start.
+ *
+ * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump r0 - r3, but these
+ * are less frequently saved.
+ *
+ * Stack frame layout:
+ * 		<larger addresses>
+ * 		saved lr
+ * 	frame=> saved fp
+ * 		optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
+ * 		optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
+ * 		<top of stack frame>
+ * 		<smaller addresses>
+ *
+ * Functions start with the following code sequence:
+ * corrected pc =>  stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
+ *		add fp, sp, #x
+ *		stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ * The diagram below shows an example stack setup for dump_stack.
+ *
+ * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the code of dump_stack. This is
+ * why the frame of c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation of
+ * dump_stack. This is why we must move back a frame to print dump_stack.
+ *
+ * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's frame. This means that
+ * to fully print dump_stack's frame we need both the frame for dump_stack (for
+ * locals) and the frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
+ *
+ * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If we read the
+ * function prologue opcodes we can determine which variables are stored in the
+ * stack frame.
+ *
+ * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the stored LR of
+ * show_stack. It points at the instruction directly after the bl dump_stack.
+ * We can then read the offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch
+ * takes us.  The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
+ *
+ * c_backtrace frame           dump_stack:
+ * {[LR]    }  ============|   ...
+ * {[FP]    }  =======|    |   bl c_backtrace
+ *                    |    |=> ...
+ * {[R4-R10]}         |
+ * {[R0-R3] }         |        show_stack:
+ * dump_stack frame   |        ...
+ * {[LR]    } =============|   bl dump_stack
+ * {[FP]    } <=======|    |=> ...
+ * {[R4-R10]}
+ * {[R0-R3] }
+ */
+
+		stmfd	sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr}	@ Save an extra register
+						@ to ensure 8 byte alignment
+		movs	frame, r0		@ if frame pointer is zero
+		beq	no_frame		@ we have no stack frames
+		tst	r1, #0x10		@ 26 or 32-bit mode?
+		moveq	mask, #0xfc000003
+		movne	mask, #0		@ mask for 32-bit
+
+/*
+ * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
+ */
+		add	frame, sp, #24		@ switch to false frame
+for_each_frame:	tst	frame, mask		@ Check for address exceptions
+		bne	no_frame
+
+/*
+ * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
+ * function.
+ *
+ * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a code
+ * address within the current considered function, but it is not the function
+ * start. This value gets updated to be the function start later if it is
+ * possible.
+ */
+1001:		ldr	sv_pc, [frame, #4]	@ get saved 'pc'
+1002:		ldr	sv_fp, [frame, #0]	@ get saved fp
+
+		teq	sv_fp, mask		@ make sure next frame exists
+		beq	no_frame
+
+/*
+ * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This is
+ * a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.  sv_lr-4 is
+ * the instruction used to call the current function.
+ *
+ * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function was
+ * called using a bl instruction. If the function start can be recovered sv_pc
+ * is overwritten with the function start.
+ *
+ * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
+ * recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as an arbitrary
+ * value within the current function. If this is the case we cannot print
+ * registers for the current function, but the stacktrace is still printed
+ * properly.
+ */
+1003:		ldr	sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4]	@ get saved lr from next frame
+
+		ldr	r0, [sv_lr, #-4]	@ get call instruction
+		ldr	r3, .Lopcode+4
+		and	r2, r3, r0		@ is this a bl call
+		teq	r2, r3
+		bne	finished_setup		@ give up if it's not
+		and	r0, #0xffffff		@ get call offset 24-bit int
+		lsl	r0, r0, #8		@ sign extend offset
+		asr	r0, r0, #8
+		ldr	sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4]	@ get lr address
+		add	sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4	@ get call instruction address
+		add	sv_pc, sv_pc, #8	@ take care of prefetch
+		add	sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2@ find function start
+
+finished_setup:
+
+		bic	sv_pc, sv_pc, mask	@ mask PC/LR for the mode
+
+/*
+ * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called from (sv_lr).
+ */
+1004:		mov	r0, sv_pc
+
+		mov	r1, sv_lr
+		mov	r2, frame
+		bic	r1, r1, mask		@ mask PC/LR for the mode
+		bl	dump_backtrace_entry
+
+/*
+ * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction to determine which
+ * registers were stored in the function prologue.
+ *
+ * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through a function
+ * pointer the comparison will fail and no registers will print. Unwinding will
+ * continue as if there had been no registers stored in this frame.
+ */
+1005:		ldr	r1, [sv_pc, #0]		@ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
+		ldr	r3, .Lopcode		@ instruction exists,
+		teq	r3, r1, lsr #11
+		ldr	r0, [frame]		@ locals are stored in
+						@ the preceding frame
+		subeq	r0, r0, #4
+		bleq	dump_backtrace_stm	@ dump saved registers
+
+/*
+ * If we are out of frames or if the next frame is invalid.
+ */
+		teq	sv_fp, #0		@ zero saved fp means
+		beq	no_frame		@ no further frames
+
+		cmp	sv_fp, frame		@ next frame must be
+		mov	frame, sv_fp		@ above the current frame
+		bhi	for_each_frame
+
+1006:		adr	r0, .Lbad
+		mov	r1, frame
+		bl	printk
+no_frame:	ldmfd	sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
+ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
+		.pushsection __ex_table,"a"
+		.align	3
+		.long	1001b, 1006b
+		.long	1002b, 1006b
+		.long	1003b, 1006b
+		.long	1004b, 1006b
+		.long   1005b, 1006b
+		.popsection
+
+.Lbad:		.asciz	"Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
+		.align
+.Lopcode:	.word	0xe92d4800 >> 11	@ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
+		.word	0x0b000000		@ bl if these bits are set
+
+#endif
-- 
2.23.0.187.g17f5b7556c-goog


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http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/linux-arm-kernel

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v3] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-22 18:30         ` [PATCH v3] " Nathan Huckleberry
@ 2019-08-22 20:02           ` Nick Desaulniers
  2019-08-23  5:28             ` Nathan Chancellor
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nick Desaulniers @ 2019-08-22 20:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nathan Huckleberry
  Cc: Tri Vo, Russell King, LKML, clang-built-linux,
	Miles Chen (陳民樺),
	Linux ARM

On Thu, Aug 22, 2019 at 11:30 AM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
>
> The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
> Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
> fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
> clang stackframe setup.
>
> Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
> Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
> Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
> Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
> Tested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>

Great, thanks for following up on the suggestions from code review.
Since this is going to go up via the arm tree, which has its own
process, please add my:
Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
to the commit message, then submit the patch to the maintainer's patch
tracking system:
https://www.armlinux.org.uk/developer/patches/info.php
(create a login, sign in, then visit:
https://www.armlinux.org.uk/developer/patches/add.php . I think the
correct thing is to put the first line of the commit in the summary
field, next/master as the kernel version (I applied/tested off of
-next), then the rest of the commit message body in the Patch Notes
field.  Make sure to attach the patch file.  Finally, it should appear
at https://www.armlinux.org.uk/developer/patches/section.php?section=0
I think within 24hrs).

> ---
> Changes from v2->v3
> * Fix indentation on code
> * Fix comment formatting
>
>  arch/arm/Kconfig.debug         |   2 +-
>  arch/arm/Makefile              |   5 +-
>  arch/arm/lib/Makefile          |   8 +-
>  arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S | 217 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  4 files changed, 229 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> index 85710e078afb..b9c674ec19e0 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
> @@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ choice
>
>  config UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER
>         bool "Frame pointer unwinder"
> -       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL && !CC_IS_CLANG
> +       depends on !THUMB2_KERNEL
>         select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
>         select FRAME_POINTER
>         help
> diff --git a/arch/arm/Makefile b/arch/arm/Makefile
> index c3624ca6c0bc..6f251c201db0 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm/Makefile
> @@ -36,7 +36,10 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS        += $(call cc-option,-mno-unaligned-access)
>  endif
>
>  ifeq ($(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER),y)
> -KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> +KBUILD_CFLAGS  +=-fno-omit-frame-pointer
> +ifeq ($(CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC),y)
> +KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mapcs -mno-sched-prolog
> +endif
>  endif
>
>  ifeq ($(CONFIG_CPU_BIG_ENDIAN),y)
> diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> index b25c54585048..6d2ba454f25b 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm/lib/Makefile
> @@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
>  # Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Russell King
>  #
>
> -lib-y          := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
> +lib-y          := changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o               \
>                    csumpartialcopy.o csumpartialcopyuser.o clearbit.o \
>                    delay.o delay-loop.o findbit.o memchr.o memcpy.o   \
>                    memmove.o memset.o setbit.o                        \
> @@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ lib-y                := backtrace.o changebit.o csumipv6.o csumpartial.o   \
>  mmu-y          := clear_user.o copy_page.o getuser.o putuser.o       \
>                    copy_from_user.o copy_to_user.o
>
> +ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
> +  lib-y        += backtrace-clang.o
> +else
> +  lib-y        += backtrace.o
> +endif
> +
>  # using lib_ here won't override already available weak symbols
>  obj-$(CONFIG_UACCESS_WITH_MEMCPY) += uaccess_with_memcpy.o
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..2ff375144b55
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> @@ -0,0 +1,217 @@
> +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only */
> +/*
> + *  linux/arch/arm/lib/backtrace-clang.S
> + *
> + *  Copyright (C) 2019 Nathan Huckleberry
> + *
> + */
> +#include <linux/kern_levels.h>
> +#include <linux/linkage.h>
> +#include <asm/assembler.h>
> +               .text
> +
> +/* fp is 0 or stack frame */
> +
> +#define frame  r4
> +#define sv_fp  r5
> +#define sv_pc  r6
> +#define mask   r7
> +#define sv_lr  r8
> +
> +ENTRY(c_backtrace)
> +
> +#if !defined(CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER) || !defined(CONFIG_PRINTK)
> +               ret     lr
> +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> +#else
> +
> +
> +/*
> + * Clang does not store pc or sp in function prologues so we don't know exactly
> + * where the function starts.
> + *
> + * We can treat the current frame's lr as the saved pc and the preceding
> + * frame's lr as the current frame's lr, but we can't trace the most recent
> + * call.  Inserting a false stack frame allows us to reference the function
> + * called last in the stacktrace.
> + *
> + * If the call instruction was a bl we can look at the callers branch
> + * instruction to calculate the saved pc.  We can recover the pc in most cases,
> + * but in cases such as calling function pointers we cannot. In this case,
> + * default to using the lr. This will be some address in the function, but will
> + * not be the function start.
> + *
> + * Unfortunately due to the stack frame layout we can't dump r0 - r3, but these
> + * are less frequently saved.
> + *
> + * Stack frame layout:
> + *             <larger addresses>
> + *             saved lr
> + *     frame=> saved fp
> + *             optionally saved caller registers (r4 - r10)
> + *             optionally saved arguments (r0 - r3)
> + *             <top of stack frame>
> + *             <smaller addresses>
> + *
> + * Functions start with the following code sequence:
> + * corrected pc =>  stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> + *             add fp, sp, #x
> + *             stmfd sp!, {r0 - r3} (optional)
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + *
> + * The diagram below shows an example stack setup for dump_stack.
> + *
> + * The frame for c_backtrace has pointers to the code of dump_stack. This is
> + * why the frame of c_backtrace is used to for the pc calculation of
> + * dump_stack. This is why we must move back a frame to print dump_stack.
> + *
> + * The stored locals for dump_stack are in dump_stack's frame. This means that
> + * to fully print dump_stack's frame we need both the frame for dump_stack (for
> + * locals) and the frame that was called by dump_stack (for pc).
> + *
> + * To print locals we must know where the function start is. If we read the
> + * function prologue opcodes we can determine which variables are stored in the
> + * stack frame.
> + *
> + * To find the function start of dump_stack we can look at the stored LR of
> + * show_stack. It points at the instruction directly after the bl dump_stack.
> + * We can then read the offset from the bl opcode to determine where the branch
> + * takes us.  The address calculated must be the start of dump_stack.
> + *
> + * c_backtrace frame           dump_stack:
> + * {[LR]    }  ============|   ...
> + * {[FP]    }  =======|    |   bl c_backtrace
> + *                    |    |=> ...
> + * {[R4-R10]}         |
> + * {[R0-R3] }         |        show_stack:
> + * dump_stack frame   |        ...
> + * {[LR]    } =============|   bl dump_stack
> + * {[FP]    } <=======|    |=> ...
> + * {[R4-R10]}
> + * {[R0-R3] }
> + */
> +
> +               stmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, lr}  @ Save an extra register
> +                                               @ to ensure 8 byte alignment
> +               movs    frame, r0               @ if frame pointer is zero
> +               beq     no_frame                @ we have no stack frames
> +               tst     r1, #0x10               @ 26 or 32-bit mode?
> +               moveq   mask, #0xfc000003
> +               movne   mask, #0                @ mask for 32-bit
> +
> +/*
> + * Switches the current frame to be the frame for dump_stack.
> + */
> +               add     frame, sp, #24          @ switch to false frame
> +for_each_frame:        tst     frame, mask             @ Check for address exceptions
> +               bne     no_frame
> +
> +/*
> + * sv_fp is the stack frame with the locals for the current considered
> + * function.
> + *
> + * sv_pc is the saved lr frame the frame above. This is a pointer to a code
> + * address within the current considered function, but it is not the function
> + * start. This value gets updated to be the function start later if it is
> + * possible.
> + */
> +1001:          ldr     sv_pc, [frame, #4]      @ get saved 'pc'
> +1002:          ldr     sv_fp, [frame, #0]      @ get saved fp
> +
> +               teq     sv_fp, mask             @ make sure next frame exists
> +               beq     no_frame
> +
> +/*
> + * sv_lr is the lr from the function that called the current function. This is
> + * a pointer to a code address in the current function's caller.  sv_lr-4 is
> + * the instruction used to call the current function.
> + *
> + * This sv_lr can be used to calculate the function start if the function was
> + * called using a bl instruction. If the function start can be recovered sv_pc
> + * is overwritten with the function start.
> + *
> + * If the current function was called using a function pointer we cannot
> + * recover the function start and instead continue with sv_pc as an arbitrary
> + * value within the current function. If this is the case we cannot print
> + * registers for the current function, but the stacktrace is still printed
> + * properly.
> + */
> +1003:          ldr     sv_lr, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get saved lr from next frame
> +
> +               ldr     r0, [sv_lr, #-4]        @ get call instruction
> +               ldr     r3, .Lopcode+4
> +               and     r2, r3, r0              @ is this a bl call
> +               teq     r2, r3
> +               bne     finished_setup          @ give up if it's not
> +               and     r0, #0xffffff           @ get call offset 24-bit int
> +               lsl     r0, r0, #8              @ sign extend offset
> +               asr     r0, r0, #8
> +               ldr     sv_pc, [sv_fp, #4]      @ get lr address
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #-4       @ get call instruction address
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, #8        @ take care of prefetch
> +               add     sv_pc, sv_pc, r0, lsl #2@ find function start
> +
> +finished_setup:
> +
> +               bic     sv_pc, sv_pc, mask      @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> +
> +/*
> + * Print the function (sv_pc) and where it was called from (sv_lr).
> + */
> +1004:          mov     r0, sv_pc
> +
> +               mov     r1, sv_lr
> +               mov     r2, frame
> +               bic     r1, r1, mask            @ mask PC/LR for the mode
> +               bl      dump_backtrace_entry
> +
> +/*
> + * Test if the function start is a stmfd instruction to determine which
> + * registers were stored in the function prologue.
> + *
> + * If we could not recover the sv_pc because we were called through a function
> + * pointer the comparison will fail and no registers will print. Unwinding will
> + * continue as if there had been no registers stored in this frame.
> + */
> +1005:          ldr     r1, [sv_pc, #0]         @ if stmfd sp!, {..., fp, lr}
> +               ldr     r3, .Lopcode            @ instruction exists,
> +               teq     r3, r1, lsr #11
> +               ldr     r0, [frame]             @ locals are stored in
> +                                               @ the preceding frame
> +               subeq   r0, r0, #4
> +               bleq    dump_backtrace_stm      @ dump saved registers
> +
> +/*
> + * If we are out of frames or if the next frame is invalid.
> + */
> +               teq     sv_fp, #0               @ zero saved fp means
> +               beq     no_frame                @ no further frames
> +
> +               cmp     sv_fp, frame            @ next frame must be
> +               mov     frame, sv_fp            @ above the current frame
> +               bhi     for_each_frame
> +
> +1006:          adr     r0, .Lbad
> +               mov     r1, frame
> +               bl      printk
> +no_frame:      ldmfd   sp!, {r4 - r9, fp, pc}
> +ENDPROC(c_backtrace)
> +               .pushsection __ex_table,"a"
> +               .align  3
> +               .long   1001b, 1006b
> +               .long   1002b, 1006b
> +               .long   1003b, 1006b
> +               .long   1004b, 1006b
> +               .long   1005b, 1006b
> +               .popsection
> +
> +.Lbad:         .asciz  "Backtrace aborted due to bad frame pointer <%p>\n"
> +               .align
> +.Lopcode:      .word   0xe92d4800 >> 11        @ stmfd sp!, {... fp, lr}
> +               .word   0x0b000000              @ bl if these bits are set
> +
> +#endif
> --
> 2.23.0.187.g17f5b7556c-goog
>


-- 
Thanks,
~Nick Desaulniers

_______________________________________________
linux-arm-kernel mailing list
linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/linux-arm-kernel

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v3] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang
  2019-08-22 20:02           ` Nick Desaulniers
@ 2019-08-23  5:28             ` Nathan Chancellor
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 9+ messages in thread
From: Nathan Chancellor @ 2019-08-23  5:28 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nick Desaulniers
  Cc: Tri Vo, LKML, Russell King, clang-built-linux,
	Miles Chen (陳民樺),
	Nathan Huckleberry, Linux ARM

On Thu, Aug 22, 2019 at 01:02:05PM -0700, 'Nick Desaulniers' via Clang Built Linux wrote:
> On Thu, Aug 22, 2019 at 11:30 AM Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com> wrote:
> >
> > The stackframe setup when compiled with clang is different.
> > Since the stack unwinder expects the gcc stackframe setup it
> > fails to print backtraces. This patch adds support for the
> > clang stackframe setup.
> >
> > Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/35
> > Cc: clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com
> > Suggested-by: Tri Vo <trong@google.com>
> > Signed-off-by: Nathan Huckleberry <nhuck@google.com>
> > Tested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
> 
> Great, thanks for following up on the suggestions from code review.
> Since this is going to go up via the arm tree, which has its own
> process, please add my:
> Reviewed-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>
> to the commit message, then submit the patch to the maintainer's patch
> tracking system:
> https://www.armlinux.org.uk/developer/patches/info.php
> (create a login, sign in, then visit:
> https://www.armlinux.org.uk/developer/patches/add.php . I think the
> correct thing is to put the first line of the commit in the summary
> field, next/master as the kernel version (I applied/tested off of
> -next), then the rest of the commit message body in the Patch Notes
> field.  Make sure to attach the patch file.  Finally, it should appear
> at https://www.armlinux.org.uk/developer/patches/section.php?section=0
> I think within 24hrs).

Also for the record, I came across this a couple of months ago, Catalin
Marinas had a git config alias that could be used for sending one patch
to the patches email address so that you don't have to muck around the
web interface:

https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20190624144924.GE29120@arrakis.emea.arm.com/

Web interface works fine but I prefer everything via the command line :)

Cheers,
Nathan

_______________________________________________
linux-arm-kernel mailing list
linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/linux-arm-kernel

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 9+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 9+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2019-08-20 19:43 [PATCH] ARM: UNWINDER_FRAME_POINTER implementation for Clang Nathan Huckleberry
2019-08-20 21:39 ` Nick Desaulniers
2019-08-21 17:43   ` Nathan Huckleberry
2019-08-21 17:46     ` [PATCH v2] " Nathan Huckleberry
2019-08-22  3:26       ` Nick Desaulniers
2019-08-22 18:30         ` [PATCH v3] " Nathan Huckleberry
2019-08-22 20:02           ` Nick Desaulniers
2019-08-23  5:28             ` Nathan Chancellor
2019-08-22  2:33     ` [PATCH] " Nick Desaulniers

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