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* [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests
@ 2021-04-21  0:02 Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 1/5] blk-mq: Move the elevator_exit() definition Bart Van Assche
                   ` (5 more replies)
  0 siblings, 6 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-21  0:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jens Axboe; +Cc: linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner, Bart Van Assche

Hi Jens,

This patch series fixes the race between iterating over requests and
freeing requests that has been reported by multiple different users over
the past two years. Please consider this patch series for kernel v5.13.

Thanks,

Bart.

Changes between v6 and v7:
- Changed one comment.
- Updated Reviewed-by / Tested-by tags.

Changes between v5 and v6:
- Fixed an additional race between iterating over tags and freeing scheduler
  requests that was spotted by Khazhy.
- Added two patches to fix the race conditions between updating the number of
  hardware queues and iterating over a tag set.

Changes between v4 and v5:
- Addressed Khazhy's review comments. Note: the changes that have been made
  in v5 only change behavior in case CONFIG_PROVE_RCU=y.

Changes between v3 and v4:
- Fixed support for tag sets shared across hardware queues.
- Renamed blk_mq_wait_for_tag_readers() into blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter().
- Removed the fourth argument of blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter() again.

Changes between v2 and v3:
- Converted the single v2 patch into a series of three patches.
- Switched from SRCU to a combination of RCU and semaphores.

Changes between v1 and v2:
- Reformatted patch description.
- Added Tested-by/Reviewed-by tags.
- Changed srcu_barrier() calls into synchronize_srcu() calls.

Bart Van Assche (5):
  blk-mq: Move the elevator_exit() definition
  blk-mq: Introduce atomic variants of blk_mq_(all_tag|tagset_busy)_iter
  blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  blk-mq: Make it safe to use RCU to iterate over
    blk_mq_tag_set.tag_list
  blk-mq: Fix races between blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues() and iterating
    over tags

 block/blk-core.c          |  34 +++++++++-
 block/blk-mq-tag.c        | 128 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
 block/blk-mq-tag.h        |   6 +-
 block/blk-mq.c            |  31 ++++++---
 block/blk-mq.h            |   1 +
 block/blk.h               |  11 +---
 block/elevator.c          |   9 +++
 drivers/scsi/hosts.c      |  16 ++---
 drivers/scsi/ufs/ufshcd.c |   4 +-
 include/linux/blk-mq.h    |   2 +
 10 files changed, 202 insertions(+), 40 deletions(-)


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v7 1/5] blk-mq: Move the elevator_exit() definition
  2021-04-21  0:02 [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-21  0:02 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 2/5] blk-mq: Introduce atomic variants of blk_mq_(all_tag|tagset_busy)_iter Bart Van Assche
                   ` (4 subsequent siblings)
  5 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-21  0:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jens Axboe
  Cc: linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner, Bart Van Assche,
	Martin K . Petersen, Khazhismel Kumykov,
	Shin'ichiro Kawasaki, Ming Lei, Hannes Reinecke,
	Johannes Thumshirn, John Garry

Since elevator_exit() has only one caller, move its definition from
block/blk.h into block/elevator.c. Remove the inline keyword since modern
compilers are smart enough to decide when to inline functions that occur
in the same compilation unit.

Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Acked-by: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Daniel Wagner <dwagner@suse.de>
Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
---
 block/blk.h      | 9 ---------
 block/elevator.c | 8 ++++++++
 2 files changed, 8 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk.h b/block/blk.h
index 8b3591aee0a5..529233957207 100644
--- a/block/blk.h
+++ b/block/blk.h
@@ -199,15 +199,6 @@ void __elevator_exit(struct request_queue *, struct elevator_queue *);
 int elv_register_queue(struct request_queue *q, bool uevent);
 void elv_unregister_queue(struct request_queue *q);
 
-static inline void elevator_exit(struct request_queue *q,
-		struct elevator_queue *e)
-{
-	lockdep_assert_held(&q->sysfs_lock);
-
-	blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
-	__elevator_exit(q, e);
-}
-
 ssize_t part_size_show(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
 		char *buf);
 ssize_t part_stat_show(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
diff --git a/block/elevator.c b/block/elevator.c
index 440699c28119..7c486ce858e0 100644
--- a/block/elevator.c
+++ b/block/elevator.c
@@ -197,6 +197,14 @@ void __elevator_exit(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_queue *e)
 	kobject_put(&e->kobj);
 }
 
+static void elevator_exit(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_queue *e)
+{
+	lockdep_assert_held(&q->sysfs_lock);
+
+	blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
+	__elevator_exit(q, e);
+}
+
 static inline void __elv_rqhash_del(struct request *rq)
 {
 	hash_del(&rq->hash);

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v7 2/5] blk-mq: Introduce atomic variants of blk_mq_(all_tag|tagset_busy)_iter
  2021-04-21  0:02 [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 1/5] blk-mq: Move the elevator_exit() definition Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-21  0:02 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
                   ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  5 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-21  0:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jens Axboe
  Cc: linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner, Bart Van Assche,
	Martin K . Petersen, Khazhismel Kumykov,
	Shin'ichiro Kawasaki, Ming Lei, Hannes Reinecke,
	Johannes Thumshirn, John Garry

Since in the next patch knowledge is required of whether or not it is
allowed to sleep inside the tag iteration functions, pass this context
information to the tag iteration functions. I have reviewed all callers of
tag iteration functions to verify these annotations by starting from the
output of the following grep command:

    git grep -nHE 'blk_mq_(all_tag|tagset_busy)_iter'

My conclusions from that analysis are as follows:
- Sleeping is allowed in the blk-mq-debugfs code that iterates over tags.
- The nbd_clear_req() callback that is passed to blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter()
  by the nbd driver may sleep.
- Since the blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls in the mtip32xx driver are
  preceded by a function that sleeps (blk_mq_quiesce_queue()), sleeping is
  safe in the context of the blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls.
- The same reasoning also applies to the nbd driver.
- All blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls in the NVMe drivers are followed by a
  call to a function that sleeps so sleeping inside blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter()
  when called from the NVMe driver is fine.
- scsi_host_busy(), scsi_host_complete_all_commands() and
  scsi_host_busy_iter() are used by multiple SCSI LLDs so analyzing whether
  or not these functions may sleep is hard. Instead of performing that
  analysis, make it safe to call these functions from atomic context.

Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Acked-by: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Daniel Wagner <dwagner@suse.de>
Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
---
 block/blk-mq-tag.c        | 38 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
 block/blk-mq-tag.h        |  2 +-
 block/blk-mq.c            |  2 +-
 drivers/scsi/hosts.c      | 16 ++++++++--------
 drivers/scsi/ufs/ufshcd.c |  4 ++--
 include/linux/blk-mq.h    |  2 ++
 6 files changed, 47 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.c b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
index 2a37731e8244..d8eaa38a1bd1 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq-tag.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
@@ -322,18 +322,19 @@ static void __blk_mq_all_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tags *tags,
 }
 
 /**
- * blk_mq_all_tag_iter - iterate over all requests in a tag map
+ * blk_mq_all_tag_iter_atomic - iterate over all requests in a tag map
  * @tags:	Tag map to iterate over.
  * @fn:		Pointer to the function that will be called for each
  *		request. @fn will be called as follows: @fn(rq, @priv,
  *		reserved) where rq is a pointer to a request. 'reserved'
  *		indicates whether or not @rq is a reserved request. Return
- *		true to continue iterating tags, false to stop.
+ *		true to continue iterating tags, false to stop. Must not
+ *		sleep.
  * @priv:	Will be passed as second argument to @fn.
  *
- * Caller has to pass the tag map from which requests are allocated.
+ * Does not sleep.
  */
-void blk_mq_all_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, busy_tag_iter_fn *fn,
+void blk_mq_all_tag_iter_atomic(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, busy_tag_iter_fn *fn,
 		void *priv)
 {
 	__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tags, fn, priv, BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS);
@@ -348,6 +349,8 @@ void blk_mq_all_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, busy_tag_iter_fn *fn,
  *		indicates whether or not @rq is a reserved request. Return
  *		true to continue iterating tags, false to stop.
  * @priv:	Will be passed as second argument to @fn.
+ *
+ * May sleep.
  */
 void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
 		busy_tag_iter_fn *fn, void *priv)
@@ -362,6 +365,31 @@ void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter);
 
+/**
+ * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic - iterate over all started requests in a tag set
+ * @tagset:	Tag set to iterate over.
+ * @fn:		Pointer to the function that will be called for each started
+ *		request. @fn will be called as follows: @fn(rq, @priv,
+ *		reserved) where rq is a pointer to a request. 'reserved'
+ *		indicates whether or not @rq is a reserved request. Return
+ *		true to continue iterating tags, false to stop. Must not sleep.
+ * @priv:	Will be passed as second argument to @fn.
+ *
+ * Does not sleep.
+ */
+void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
+		busy_tag_iter_fn *fn, void *priv)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < tagset->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
+		if (tagset->tags && tagset->tags[i])
+			__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tagset->tags[i], fn, priv,
+					      BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED);
+	}
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic);
+
 static bool blk_mq_tagset_count_completed_rqs(struct request *rq,
 		void *data, bool reserved)
 {
@@ -384,7 +412,7 @@ void blk_mq_tagset_wait_completed_request(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset)
 	while (true) {
 		unsigned count = 0;
 
-		blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(tagset,
+		blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(tagset,
 				blk_mq_tagset_count_completed_rqs, &count);
 		if (!count)
 			break;
diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.h b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
index 7d3e6b333a4a..0290c308ece9 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq-tag.h
+++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ extern void blk_mq_tag_resize_shared_sbitmap(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set,
 extern void blk_mq_tag_wakeup_all(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, bool);
 void blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(struct request_queue *q, busy_iter_fn *fn,
 		void *priv);
-void blk_mq_all_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, busy_tag_iter_fn *fn,
+void blk_mq_all_tag_iter_atomic(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, busy_tag_iter_fn *fn,
 		void *priv);
 
 static inline struct sbq_wait_state *bt_wait_ptr(struct sbitmap_queue *bt,
diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
index 927189a55575..79c01b1f885c 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq.c
@@ -2484,7 +2484,7 @@ static bool blk_mq_hctx_has_requests(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
 		.hctx	= hctx,
 	};
 
-	blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tags, blk_mq_has_request, &data);
+	blk_mq_all_tag_iter_atomic(tags, blk_mq_has_request, &data);
 	return data.has_rq;
 }
 
diff --git a/drivers/scsi/hosts.c b/drivers/scsi/hosts.c
index 697c09ef259b..f8863aa88642 100644
--- a/drivers/scsi/hosts.c
+++ b/drivers/scsi/hosts.c
@@ -573,8 +573,8 @@ int scsi_host_busy(struct Scsi_Host *shost)
 {
 	int cnt = 0;
 
-	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(&shost->tag_set,
-				scsi_host_check_in_flight, &cnt);
+	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(&shost->tag_set,
+				       scsi_host_check_in_flight, &cnt);
 	return cnt;
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(scsi_host_busy);
@@ -672,8 +672,8 @@ static bool complete_all_cmds_iter(struct request *rq, void *data, bool rsvd)
  */
 void scsi_host_complete_all_commands(struct Scsi_Host *shost, int status)
 {
-	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(&shost->tag_set, complete_all_cmds_iter,
-				&status);
+	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(&shost->tag_set, complete_all_cmds_iter,
+				       &status);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(scsi_host_complete_all_commands);
 
@@ -694,11 +694,11 @@ static bool __scsi_host_busy_iter_fn(struct request *req, void *priv,
 /**
  * scsi_host_busy_iter - Iterate over all busy commands
  * @shost:	Pointer to Scsi_Host.
- * @fn:		Function to call on each busy command
+ * @fn:		Function to call on each busy command. Must not sleep.
  * @priv:	Data pointer passed to @fn
  *
  * If locking against concurrent command completions is required
- * ithas to be provided by the caller
+ * it has to be provided by the caller.
  **/
 void scsi_host_busy_iter(struct Scsi_Host *shost,
 			 bool (*fn)(struct scsi_cmnd *, void *, bool),
@@ -709,7 +709,7 @@ void scsi_host_busy_iter(struct Scsi_Host *shost,
 		.priv = priv,
 	};
 
-	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(&shost->tag_set, __scsi_host_busy_iter_fn,
-				&iter_data);
+	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(&shost->tag_set,
+				       __scsi_host_busy_iter_fn, &iter_data);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(scsi_host_busy_iter);
diff --git a/drivers/scsi/ufs/ufshcd.c b/drivers/scsi/ufs/ufshcd.c
index d3d05e997c13..d6975c501e44 100644
--- a/drivers/scsi/ufs/ufshcd.c
+++ b/drivers/scsi/ufs/ufshcd.c
@@ -1380,7 +1380,7 @@ static bool ufshcd_any_tag_in_use(struct ufs_hba *hba)
 	struct request_queue *q = hba->cmd_queue;
 	int busy = 0;
 
-	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(q->tag_set, ufshcd_is_busy, &busy);
+	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(q->tag_set, ufshcd_is_busy, &busy);
 	return busy;
 }
 
@@ -6269,7 +6269,7 @@ static irqreturn_t ufshcd_tmc_handler(struct ufs_hba *hba)
 		.pending = ufshcd_readl(hba, REG_UTP_TASK_REQ_DOOR_BELL),
 	};
 
-	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(q->tag_set, ufshcd_compl_tm, &ci);
+	blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(q->tag_set, ufshcd_compl_tm, &ci);
 	return ci.ncpl ? IRQ_HANDLED : IRQ_NONE;
 }
 
diff --git a/include/linux/blk-mq.h b/include/linux/blk-mq.h
index 2c473c9b8990..dfa0114a49fd 100644
--- a/include/linux/blk-mq.h
+++ b/include/linux/blk-mq.h
@@ -526,6 +526,8 @@ void blk_mq_run_hw_queues(struct request_queue *q, bool async);
 void blk_mq_delay_run_hw_queues(struct request_queue *q, unsigned long msecs);
 void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
 		busy_tag_iter_fn *fn, void *priv);
+void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
+		busy_tag_iter_fn *fn, void *priv);
 void blk_mq_tagset_wait_completed_request(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset);
 void blk_mq_freeze_queue(struct request_queue *q);
 void blk_mq_unfreeze_queue(struct request_queue *q);

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-21  0:02 [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 1/5] blk-mq: Move the elevator_exit() definition Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 2/5] blk-mq: Introduce atomic variants of blk_mq_(all_tag|tagset_busy)_iter Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-21  0:02 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-22  2:25   ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-22  3:15   ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 4/5] blk-mq: Make it safe to use RCU to iterate over blk_mq_tag_set.tag_list Bart Van Assche
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  5 siblings, 2 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-21  0:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jens Axboe
  Cc: linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner, Bart Van Assche,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Ming Lei, Hannes Reinecke,
	Johannes Thumshirn, John Garry

When multiple request queues share a tag set and when switching the I/O
scheduler for one of the request queues associated with that tag set, the
following race can happen:
* blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls bt_tags_iter() and bt_tags_iter() assigns
  a pointer to a scheduler request to the local variable 'rq'.
* blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
* blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() dereferences 'rq' and triggers a use-after-free.

Fix this race as follows:
* Use rcu_assign_pointer() and rcu_dereference() to access hctx->tags->rqs[].
  The performance impact of the assignments added to the hot path is minimal
  (about 1% according to one particular test).
* Protect hctx->tags->rqs[] reads with an RCU read-side lock or with a
  semaphore. Which mechanism is used depends on whether or not it is allowed
  to sleep and also on whether or not the callback function may sleep.
* Wait for all preexisting readers to finish before freeing scheduler
  requests.

Another race is as follows:
* blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
* blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter() iterates over the same tag set but for another
  request queue than the queue for which scheduler tags are being freed.
* bt_iter() examines rq->q after *rq has been freed.

Fix this race by protecting the rq->q read in bt_iter() with an RCU read
lock and by calling synchronize_rcu() before freeing scheduler tags.

Multiple users have reported use-after-free complaints similar to the
following (from https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block/1545261885.185366.488.camel@acm.org/ ):

BUG: KASAN: use-after-free in bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
Read of size 8 at addr ffff88803b335240 by task fio/21412

CPU: 0 PID: 21412 Comm: fio Tainted: G        W         4.20.0-rc6-dbg+ #3
Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.10.2-1 04/01/2014
Call Trace:
 dump_stack+0x86/0xca
 print_address_description+0x71/0x239
 kasan_report.cold.5+0x242/0x301
 __asan_load8+0x54/0x90
 bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
 blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter+0x373/0x5e0
 blk_mq_in_flight+0x96/0xb0
 part_in_flight+0x40/0x140
 part_round_stats+0x18e/0x370
 blk_account_io_start+0x3d7/0x670
 blk_mq_bio_to_request+0x19c/0x3a0
 blk_mq_make_request+0x7a9/0xcb0
 generic_make_request+0x41d/0x960
 submit_bio+0x9b/0x250
 do_blockdev_direct_IO+0x435c/0x4c70
 __blockdev_direct_IO+0x79/0x88
 ext4_direct_IO+0x46c/0xc00
 generic_file_direct_write+0x119/0x210
 __generic_file_write_iter+0x11c/0x280
 ext4_file_write_iter+0x1b8/0x6f0
 aio_write+0x204/0x310
 io_submit_one+0x9d3/0xe80
 __x64_sys_io_submit+0x115/0x340
 do_syscall_64+0x71/0x210

Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Cc: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Cc: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
---
 block/blk-core.c   | 34 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 block/blk-mq-tag.c | 51 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
 block/blk-mq-tag.h |  4 +++-
 block/blk-mq.c     | 21 +++++++++++++++----
 block/blk-mq.h     |  1 +
 block/blk.h        |  2 ++
 block/elevator.c   |  1 +
 7 files changed, 102 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
index 9bcdae93f6d4..ca7f833e25a8 100644
--- a/block/blk-core.c
+++ b/block/blk-core.c
@@ -279,6 +279,36 @@ void blk_dump_rq_flags(struct request *rq, char *msg)
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_dump_rq_flags);
 
+/**
+ * blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter - wait for preexisting tag iteration functions to finish
+ * @set: Tag set to wait on.
+ *
+ * Waits for preexisting calls of blk_mq_all_tag_iter(),
+ * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() and also for their atomic variants to finish
+ * accessing hctx->tags->rqs[]. New readers may start while this function is
+ * in progress or after this function has returned. Use this function to make
+ * sure that hctx->tags->rqs[] changes have become globally visible.
+ *
+ * Waits for preexisting blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(q, fn, priv) calls to
+ * finish accessing requests associated with other request queues than 'q'.
+ */
+void blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set)
+{
+	struct blk_mq_tags *tags;
+	int i;
+
+	if (set->tags) {
+		for (i = 0; i < set->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
+			tags = set->tags[i];
+			if (!tags)
+				continue;
+			down_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
+			up_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
+		}
+	}
+	synchronize_rcu();
+}
+
 /**
  * blk_sync_queue - cancel any pending callbacks on a queue
  * @q: the queue
@@ -412,8 +442,10 @@ void blk_cleanup_queue(struct request_queue *q)
 	 * it is safe to free requests now.
 	 */
 	mutex_lock(&q->sysfs_lock);
-	if (q->elevator)
+	if (q->elevator) {
+		blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(q->tag_set);
 		blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
+	}
 	mutex_unlock(&q->sysfs_lock);
 
 	percpu_ref_exit(&q->q_usage_counter);
diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.c b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
index d8eaa38a1bd1..39d5c9190a6b 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq-tag.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
@@ -209,14 +209,24 @@ static bool bt_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
 
 	if (!reserved)
 		bitnr += tags->nr_reserved_tags;
-	rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
-
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	/*
+	 * The request 'rq' points at is protected by an RCU read lock until
+	 * its queue pointer has been verified and by q_usage_count while the
+	 * callback function is being invoked. See also the
+	 * percpu_ref_tryget() and blk_queue_exit() calls in
+	 * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter().
+	 */
+	rq = rcu_dereference(tags->rqs[bitnr]);
 	/*
 	 * We can hit rq == NULL here, because the tagging functions
 	 * test and set the bit before assigning ->rqs[].
 	 */
-	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx)
+	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx) {
+		rcu_read_unlock();
 		return iter_data->fn(hctx, rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
+	}
+	rcu_read_unlock();
 	return true;
 }
 
@@ -254,11 +264,17 @@ struct bt_tags_iter_data {
 	unsigned int flags;
 };
 
+/* Include reserved tags. */
 #define BT_TAG_ITER_RESERVED		(1 << 0)
+/* Only include started requests. */
 #define BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED		(1 << 1)
+/* Iterate over tags->static_rqs[] instead of tags->rqs[]. */
 #define BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS		(1 << 2)
+/* The callback function may sleep. */
+#define BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP		(1 << 3)
 
-static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
+static bool __bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr,
+			   void *data)
 {
 	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
 	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
@@ -275,7 +291,8 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
 	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS)
 		rq = tags->static_rqs[bitnr];
 	else
-		rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
+		rq = rcu_dereference_check(tags->rqs[bitnr],
+					   lockdep_is_held(&tags->iter_rwsem));
 	if (!rq)
 		return true;
 	if ((iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED) &&
@@ -284,6 +301,25 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
 	return iter_data->fn(rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
 }
 
+static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
+{
+	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
+	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
+	bool res;
+
+	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
+		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
+		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
+		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
+	} else {
+		rcu_read_lock();
+		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
+		rcu_read_unlock();
+	}
+
+	return res;
+}
+
 /**
  * bt_tags_for_each - iterate over the requests in a tag map
  * @tags:	Tag map to iterate over.
@@ -357,10 +393,12 @@ void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
 {
 	int i;
 
+	might_sleep();
+
 	for (i = 0; i < tagset->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
 		if (tagset->tags && tagset->tags[i])
 			__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tagset->tags[i], fn, priv,
-					      BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED);
+				BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED | BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP);
 	}
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter);
@@ -544,6 +582,7 @@ struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int total_tags,
 
 	tags->nr_tags = total_tags;
 	tags->nr_reserved_tags = reserved_tags;
+	init_rwsem(&tags->iter_rwsem);
 
 	if (blk_mq_is_sbitmap_shared(flags))
 		return tags;
diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.h b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
index 0290c308ece9..d1d73d7cc7df 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq-tag.h
+++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
@@ -17,9 +17,11 @@ struct blk_mq_tags {
 	struct sbitmap_queue __bitmap_tags;
 	struct sbitmap_queue __breserved_tags;
 
-	struct request **rqs;
+	struct request __rcu **rqs;
 	struct request **static_rqs;
 	struct list_head page_list;
+
+	struct rw_semaphore iter_rwsem;
 };
 
 extern struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int nr_tags,
diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
index 79c01b1f885c..8b59f6b4ec8e 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq.c
@@ -496,8 +496,10 @@ static void __blk_mq_free_request(struct request *rq)
 	blk_crypto_free_request(rq);
 	blk_pm_mark_last_busy(rq);
 	rq->mq_hctx = NULL;
-	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG)
+	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG) {
 		blk_mq_put_tag(hctx->tags, ctx, rq->tag);
+		rcu_assign_pointer(hctx->tags->rqs[rq->tag], NULL);
+	}
 	if (sched_tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG)
 		blk_mq_put_tag(hctx->sched_tags, ctx, sched_tag);
 	blk_mq_sched_restart(hctx);
@@ -839,9 +841,20 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_delay_kick_requeue_list);
 
 struct request *blk_mq_tag_to_rq(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, unsigned int tag)
 {
+	struct request *rq;
+
 	if (tag < tags->nr_tags) {
-		prefetch(tags->rqs[tag]);
-		return tags->rqs[tag];
+		/*
+		 * Freeing tags happens with the request queue frozen so the
+		 * rcu dereference below is protected by the request queue
+		 * usage count. We can only verify that usage count after
+		 * having read the request pointer.
+		 */
+		rq = rcu_dereference_check(tags->rqs[tag], true);
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_PROVE_RCU) && rq &&
+			     percpu_ref_is_zero(&rq->q->q_usage_counter));
+		prefetch(rq);
+		return rq;
 	}
 
 	return NULL;
@@ -1112,7 +1125,7 @@ static bool blk_mq_get_driver_tag(struct request *rq)
 		rq->rq_flags |= RQF_MQ_INFLIGHT;
 		__blk_mq_inc_active_requests(hctx);
 	}
-	hctx->tags->rqs[rq->tag] = rq;
+	rcu_assign_pointer(hctx->tags->rqs[rq->tag], rq);
 	return true;
 }
 
diff --git a/block/blk-mq.h b/block/blk-mq.h
index 3616453ca28c..9ccb1818303b 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq.h
+++ b/block/blk-mq.h
@@ -226,6 +226,7 @@ static inline void __blk_mq_put_driver_tag(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx,
 					   struct request *rq)
 {
 	blk_mq_put_tag(hctx->tags, rq->mq_ctx, rq->tag);
+	rcu_assign_pointer(hctx->tags->rqs[rq->tag], NULL);
 	rq->tag = BLK_MQ_NO_TAG;
 
 	if (rq->rq_flags & RQF_MQ_INFLIGHT) {
diff --git a/block/blk.h b/block/blk.h
index 529233957207..d88b0823738c 100644
--- a/block/blk.h
+++ b/block/blk.h
@@ -185,6 +185,8 @@ bool blk_bio_list_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct list_head *list,
 void blk_account_io_start(struct request *req);
 void blk_account_io_done(struct request *req, u64 now);
 
+void blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set);
+
 /*
  * Internal elevator interface
  */
diff --git a/block/elevator.c b/block/elevator.c
index 7c486ce858e0..aae9cff6d5ae 100644
--- a/block/elevator.c
+++ b/block/elevator.c
@@ -201,6 +201,7 @@ static void elevator_exit(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_queue *e)
 {
 	lockdep_assert_held(&q->sysfs_lock);
 
+	blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(q->tag_set);
 	blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
 	__elevator_exit(q, e);
 }

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v7 4/5] blk-mq: Make it safe to use RCU to iterate over blk_mq_tag_set.tag_list
  2021-04-21  0:02 [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-21  0:02 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 5/5] blk-mq: Fix races between blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues() and iterating over tags Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21 14:40 ` [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Jens Axboe
  5 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-21  0:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jens Axboe
  Cc: linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner, Bart Van Assche,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Ming Lei, Hannes Reinecke,
	Johannes Thumshirn, John Garry

Since the next patch in this series will use RCU to iterate over tag_list,
make this safe. Note: call_rcu() is already used to free the request queue.
From blk-sysfs.c:

	call_rcu(&q->rcu_head, blk_free_queue_rcu);

See also:
* Commit 705cda97ee3a ("blk-mq: Make it safe to use RCU to iterate over
  blk_mq_tag_set.tag_list"; v4.12).
* Commit 08c875cbf481 ("block: Use non _rcu version of list functions for
  tag_set_list"; v5.9).

Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Cc: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Cc: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
Cc: Daniel Wagner <dwagner@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
---
 block/blk-mq.c | 8 ++++++--
 1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
index 8b59f6b4ec8e..7d2ea6357c7d 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq.c
@@ -2947,7 +2947,7 @@ static void blk_mq_del_queue_tag_set(struct request_queue *q)
 	struct blk_mq_tag_set *set = q->tag_set;
 
 	mutex_lock(&set->tag_list_lock);
-	list_del(&q->tag_set_list);
+	list_del_rcu(&q->tag_set_list);
 	if (list_is_singular(&set->tag_list)) {
 		/* just transitioned to unshared */
 		set->flags &= ~BLK_MQ_F_TAG_QUEUE_SHARED;
@@ -2955,7 +2955,11 @@ static void blk_mq_del_queue_tag_set(struct request_queue *q)
 		blk_mq_update_tag_set_shared(set, false);
 	}
 	mutex_unlock(&set->tag_list_lock);
-	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&q->tag_set_list);
+	/*
+	 * Calling synchronize_rcu() and INIT_LIST_HEAD(&q->tag_set_list) is
+	 * not necessary since blk_mq_del_queue_tag_set() is only called from
+	 * blk_cleanup_queue().
+	 */
 }
 
 static void blk_mq_add_queue_tag_set(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set,

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v7 5/5] blk-mq: Fix races between blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues() and iterating over tags
  2021-04-21  0:02 [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
                   ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 4/5] blk-mq: Make it safe to use RCU to iterate over blk_mq_tag_set.tag_list Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-21  0:02 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-21 14:40 ` [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Jens Axboe
  5 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-21  0:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jens Axboe
  Cc: linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner, Bart Van Assche,
	Khazhy Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki, Martin K . Petersen,
	Ming Lei, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn, John Garry

Serialize the tag set modifications performed by blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues()
and iterating over a tag set to prevent that iterating over a tag set crashes
due to a tag set being examined while it is being modified.

Reported-by: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Cc: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Cc: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
---
 block/blk-mq-tag.c | 39 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 39 insertions(+)

diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.c b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
index 39d5c9190a6b..b0e0f074a864 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq-tag.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
@@ -376,6 +376,31 @@ void blk_mq_all_tag_iter_atomic(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, busy_tag_iter_fn *fn,
 	__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tags, fn, priv, BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS);
 }
 
+/*
+ * Iterate over all request queues in a tag set, find the first queue with a
+ * non-zero usage count, increment its usage count and return the pointer to
+ * that request queue. This prevents that blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues() will
+ * modify @set->nr_hw_queues while iterating over tags since
+ * blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues() only modifies @set->nr_hw_queues while the
+ * usage count of all queues associated with a tag set is zero.
+ */
+static struct request_queue *
+blk_mq_get_any_tagset_queue(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set)
+{
+	struct request_queue *q;
+
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	list_for_each_entry_rcu(q, &set->tag_list, tag_set_list) {
+		if (percpu_ref_tryget(&q->q_usage_counter)) {
+			rcu_read_unlock();
+			return q;
+		}
+	}
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+
+	return NULL;
+}
+
 /**
  * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter - iterate over all started requests in a tag set
  * @tagset:	Tag set to iterate over.
@@ -391,15 +416,22 @@ void blk_mq_all_tag_iter_atomic(struct blk_mq_tags *tags, busy_tag_iter_fn *fn,
 void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
 		busy_tag_iter_fn *fn, void *priv)
 {
+	struct request_queue *q;
 	int i;
 
 	might_sleep();
 
+	q = blk_mq_get_any_tagset_queue(tagset);
+	if (!q)
+		return;
+
 	for (i = 0; i < tagset->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
 		if (tagset->tags && tagset->tags[i])
 			__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tagset->tags[i], fn, priv,
 				BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED | BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP);
 	}
+
+	blk_queue_exit(q);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter);
 
@@ -418,13 +450,20 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter);
 void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
 		busy_tag_iter_fn *fn, void *priv)
 {
+	struct request_queue *q;
 	int i;
 
+	q = blk_mq_get_any_tagset_queue(tagset);
+	if (!q)
+		return;
+
 	for (i = 0; i < tagset->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
 		if (tagset->tags && tagset->tags[i])
 			__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tagset->tags[i], fn, priv,
 					      BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED);
 	}
+
+	blk_queue_exit(q);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter_atomic);
 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-21  0:02 [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
                   ` (4 preceding siblings ...)
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 5/5] blk-mq: Fix races between blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues() and iterating over tags Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-21 14:40 ` Jens Axboe
  5 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Jens Axboe @ 2021-04-21 14:40 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche; +Cc: linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner

On 4/20/21 6:02 PM, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> Hi Jens,
> 
> This patch series fixes the race between iterating over requests and
> freeing requests that has been reported by multiple different users over
> the past two years. Please consider this patch series for kernel v5.13.
> 

Applied, thanks Bart.

-- 
Jens Axboe


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-22  2:25   ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-22  4:01     ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-22  3:15   ` Ming Lei
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-22  2:25 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry

On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> When multiple request queues share a tag set and when switching the I/O
> scheduler for one of the request queues associated with that tag set, the
> following race can happen:
> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls bt_tags_iter() and bt_tags_iter() assigns
>   a pointer to a scheduler request to the local variable 'rq'.
> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() dereferences 'rq' and triggers a use-after-free.
> 
> Fix this race as follows:
> * Use rcu_assign_pointer() and rcu_dereference() to access hctx->tags->rqs[].
>   The performance impact of the assignments added to the hot path is minimal
>   (about 1% according to one particular test).
> * Protect hctx->tags->rqs[] reads with an RCU read-side lock or with a
>   semaphore. Which mechanism is used depends on whether or not it is allowed
>   to sleep and also on whether or not the callback function may sleep.
> * Wait for all preexisting readers to finish before freeing scheduler
>   requests.
> 
> Another race is as follows:
> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
> * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter() iterates over the same tag set but for another
>   request queue than the queue for which scheduler tags are being freed.
> * bt_iter() examines rq->q after *rq has been freed.
> 
> Fix this race by protecting the rq->q read in bt_iter() with an RCU read
> lock and by calling synchronize_rcu() before freeing scheduler tags.
> 
> Multiple users have reported use-after-free complaints similar to the
> following (from https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block/1545261885.185366.488.camel@acm.org/ ):
> 
> BUG: KASAN: use-after-free in bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
> Read of size 8 at addr ffff88803b335240 by task fio/21412
> 
> CPU: 0 PID: 21412 Comm: fio Tainted: G        W         4.20.0-rc6-dbg+ #3
> Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.10.2-1 04/01/2014
> Call Trace:
>  dump_stack+0x86/0xca
>  print_address_description+0x71/0x239
>  kasan_report.cold.5+0x242/0x301
>  __asan_load8+0x54/0x90
>  bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
>  blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter+0x373/0x5e0
>  blk_mq_in_flight+0x96/0xb0
>  part_in_flight+0x40/0x140
>  part_round_stats+0x18e/0x370
>  blk_account_io_start+0x3d7/0x670
>  blk_mq_bio_to_request+0x19c/0x3a0
>  blk_mq_make_request+0x7a9/0xcb0
>  generic_make_request+0x41d/0x960
>  submit_bio+0x9b/0x250
>  do_blockdev_direct_IO+0x435c/0x4c70
>  __blockdev_direct_IO+0x79/0x88
>  ext4_direct_IO+0x46c/0xc00
>  generic_file_direct_write+0x119/0x210
>  __generic_file_write_iter+0x11c/0x280
>  ext4_file_write_iter+0x1b8/0x6f0
>  aio_write+0x204/0x310
>  io_submit_one+0x9d3/0xe80
>  __x64_sys_io_submit+0x115/0x340
>  do_syscall_64+0x71/0x210
> 
> Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
> Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
> Cc: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
> Cc: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
> Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
> Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
> Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
> Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
> Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
> Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
> ---
>  block/blk-core.c   | 34 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
>  block/blk-mq-tag.c | 51 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
>  block/blk-mq-tag.h |  4 +++-
>  block/blk-mq.c     | 21 +++++++++++++++----
>  block/blk-mq.h     |  1 +
>  block/blk.h        |  2 ++
>  block/elevator.c   |  1 +
>  7 files changed, 102 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
> index 9bcdae93f6d4..ca7f833e25a8 100644
> --- a/block/blk-core.c
> +++ b/block/blk-core.c
> @@ -279,6 +279,36 @@ void blk_dump_rq_flags(struct request *rq, char *msg)
>  }
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_dump_rq_flags);
>  
> +/**
> + * blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter - wait for preexisting tag iteration functions to finish
> + * @set: Tag set to wait on.
> + *
> + * Waits for preexisting calls of blk_mq_all_tag_iter(),
> + * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() and also for their atomic variants to finish
> + * accessing hctx->tags->rqs[]. New readers may start while this function is
> + * in progress or after this function has returned. Use this function to make
> + * sure that hctx->tags->rqs[] changes have become globally visible.
> + *
> + * Waits for preexisting blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(q, fn, priv) calls to
> + * finish accessing requests associated with other request queues than 'q'.
> + */
> +void blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set)
> +{
> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags;
> +	int i;
> +
> +	if (set->tags) {
> +		for (i = 0; i < set->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
> +			tags = set->tags[i];
> +			if (!tags)
> +				continue;
> +			down_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +			up_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +		}
> +	}
> +	synchronize_rcu();
> +}
> +
>  /**
>   * blk_sync_queue - cancel any pending callbacks on a queue
>   * @q: the queue
> @@ -412,8 +442,10 @@ void blk_cleanup_queue(struct request_queue *q)
>  	 * it is safe to free requests now.
>  	 */
>  	mutex_lock(&q->sysfs_lock);
> -	if (q->elevator)
> +	if (q->elevator) {
> +		blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(q->tag_set);
>  		blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
> +	}
>  	mutex_unlock(&q->sysfs_lock);
>  
>  	percpu_ref_exit(&q->q_usage_counter);
> diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.c b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> index d8eaa38a1bd1..39d5c9190a6b 100644
> --- a/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> +++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> @@ -209,14 +209,24 @@ static bool bt_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>  
>  	if (!reserved)
>  		bitnr += tags->nr_reserved_tags;
> -	rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
> -
> +	rcu_read_lock();
> +	/*
> +	 * The request 'rq' points at is protected by an RCU read lock until
> +	 * its queue pointer has been verified and by q_usage_count while the
> +	 * callback function is being invoked. See also the
> +	 * percpu_ref_tryget() and blk_queue_exit() calls in
> +	 * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter().
> +	 */
> +	rq = rcu_dereference(tags->rqs[bitnr]);
>  	/*
>  	 * We can hit rq == NULL here, because the tagging functions
>  	 * test and set the bit before assigning ->rqs[].
>  	 */
> -	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx)
> +	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx) {
> +		rcu_read_unlock();
>  		return iter_data->fn(hctx, rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
> +	}
> +	rcu_read_unlock();
>  	return true;
>  }
>  
> @@ -254,11 +264,17 @@ struct bt_tags_iter_data {
>  	unsigned int flags;
>  };
>  
> +/* Include reserved tags. */
>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_RESERVED		(1 << 0)
> +/* Only include started requests. */
>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED		(1 << 1)
> +/* Iterate over tags->static_rqs[] instead of tags->rqs[]. */
>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS		(1 << 2)
> +/* The callback function may sleep. */
> +#define BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP		(1 << 3)
>  
> -static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> +static bool __bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr,
> +			   void *data)
>  {
>  	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
>  	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> @@ -275,7 +291,8 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>  	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS)
>  		rq = tags->static_rqs[bitnr];
>  	else
> -		rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
> +		rq = rcu_dereference_check(tags->rqs[bitnr],
> +					   lockdep_is_held(&tags->iter_rwsem));
>  	if (!rq)
>  		return true;
>  	if ((iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED) &&
> @@ -284,6 +301,25 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>  	return iter_data->fn(rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
>  }
>  
> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> +{
> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> +	bool res;
> +
> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +	} else {
> +		rcu_read_lock();
> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> +		rcu_read_unlock();
> +	}
> +
> +	return res;
> +}
> +
>  /**
>   * bt_tags_for_each - iterate over the requests in a tag map
>   * @tags:	Tag map to iterate over.
> @@ -357,10 +393,12 @@ void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
>  {
>  	int i;
>  
> +	might_sleep();
> +
>  	for (i = 0; i < tagset->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
>  		if (tagset->tags && tagset->tags[i])
>  			__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tagset->tags[i], fn, priv,
> -					      BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED);
> +				BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED | BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP);
>  	}
>  }
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter);
> @@ -544,6 +582,7 @@ struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int total_tags,
>  
>  	tags->nr_tags = total_tags;
>  	tags->nr_reserved_tags = reserved_tags;
> +	init_rwsem(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>  
>  	if (blk_mq_is_sbitmap_shared(flags))
>  		return tags;
> diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.h b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
> index 0290c308ece9..d1d73d7cc7df 100644
> --- a/block/blk-mq-tag.h
> +++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
> @@ -17,9 +17,11 @@ struct blk_mq_tags {
>  	struct sbitmap_queue __bitmap_tags;
>  	struct sbitmap_queue __breserved_tags;
>  
> -	struct request **rqs;
> +	struct request __rcu **rqs;
>  	struct request **static_rqs;
>  	struct list_head page_list;
> +
> +	struct rw_semaphore iter_rwsem;
>  };
>  
>  extern struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int nr_tags,
> diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
> index 79c01b1f885c..8b59f6b4ec8e 100644
> --- a/block/blk-mq.c
> +++ b/block/blk-mq.c
> @@ -496,8 +496,10 @@ static void __blk_mq_free_request(struct request *rq)
>  	blk_crypto_free_request(rq);
>  	blk_pm_mark_last_busy(rq);
>  	rq->mq_hctx = NULL;
> -	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG)
> +	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG) {
>  		blk_mq_put_tag(hctx->tags, ctx, rq->tag);
> +		rcu_assign_pointer(hctx->tags->rqs[rq->tag], NULL);

After the tag is released, it can be re-allocated from another context
immediately. And the above rcu_assign_pointer(NULL) could be run after
the re-allocation and new ->rqs[rq->tag] assignment in submission path,
is it one issue?


Thanks, 
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-22  2:25   ` Ming Lei
@ 2021-04-22  3:15   ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-22  3:54     ` Bart Van Assche
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-22  3:15 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry

On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> When multiple request queues share a tag set and when switching the I/O
> scheduler for one of the request queues associated with that tag set, the
> following race can happen:
> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls bt_tags_iter() and bt_tags_iter() assigns
>   a pointer to a scheduler request to the local variable 'rq'.
> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() dereferences 'rq' and triggers a use-after-free.
> 
> Fix this race as follows:
> * Use rcu_assign_pointer() and rcu_dereference() to access hctx->tags->rqs[].
>   The performance impact of the assignments added to the hot path is minimal
>   (about 1% according to one particular test).
> * Protect hctx->tags->rqs[] reads with an RCU read-side lock or with a
>   semaphore. Which mechanism is used depends on whether or not it is allowed
>   to sleep and also on whether or not the callback function may sleep.
> * Wait for all preexisting readers to finish before freeing scheduler
>   requests.
> 
> Another race is as follows:
> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
> * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter() iterates over the same tag set but for another
>   request queue than the queue for which scheduler tags are being freed.
> * bt_iter() examines rq->q after *rq has been freed.
> 
> Fix this race by protecting the rq->q read in bt_iter() with an RCU read
> lock and by calling synchronize_rcu() before freeing scheduler tags.
> 
> Multiple users have reported use-after-free complaints similar to the
> following (from https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block/1545261885.185366.488.camel@acm.org/ ):
> 
> BUG: KASAN: use-after-free in bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
> Read of size 8 at addr ffff88803b335240 by task fio/21412
> 
> CPU: 0 PID: 21412 Comm: fio Tainted: G        W         4.20.0-rc6-dbg+ #3
> Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.10.2-1 04/01/2014
> Call Trace:
>  dump_stack+0x86/0xca
>  print_address_description+0x71/0x239
>  kasan_report.cold.5+0x242/0x301
>  __asan_load8+0x54/0x90
>  bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
>  blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter+0x373/0x5e0
>  blk_mq_in_flight+0x96/0xb0
>  part_in_flight+0x40/0x140
>  part_round_stats+0x18e/0x370
>  blk_account_io_start+0x3d7/0x670
>  blk_mq_bio_to_request+0x19c/0x3a0
>  blk_mq_make_request+0x7a9/0xcb0
>  generic_make_request+0x41d/0x960
>  submit_bio+0x9b/0x250
>  do_blockdev_direct_IO+0x435c/0x4c70
>  __blockdev_direct_IO+0x79/0x88
>  ext4_direct_IO+0x46c/0xc00
>  generic_file_direct_write+0x119/0x210
>  __generic_file_write_iter+0x11c/0x280
>  ext4_file_write_iter+0x1b8/0x6f0
>  aio_write+0x204/0x310
>  io_submit_one+0x9d3/0xe80
>  __x64_sys_io_submit+0x115/0x340
>  do_syscall_64+0x71/0x210
> 
> Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
> Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
> Cc: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
> Cc: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
> Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
> Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
> Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
> Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
> Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
> Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
> ---
>  block/blk-core.c   | 34 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
>  block/blk-mq-tag.c | 51 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
>  block/blk-mq-tag.h |  4 +++-
>  block/blk-mq.c     | 21 +++++++++++++++----
>  block/blk-mq.h     |  1 +
>  block/blk.h        |  2 ++
>  block/elevator.c   |  1 +
>  7 files changed, 102 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
> index 9bcdae93f6d4..ca7f833e25a8 100644
> --- a/block/blk-core.c
> +++ b/block/blk-core.c
> @@ -279,6 +279,36 @@ void blk_dump_rq_flags(struct request *rq, char *msg)
>  }
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_dump_rq_flags);
>  
> +/**
> + * blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter - wait for preexisting tag iteration functions to finish
> + * @set: Tag set to wait on.
> + *
> + * Waits for preexisting calls of blk_mq_all_tag_iter(),
> + * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() and also for their atomic variants to finish
> + * accessing hctx->tags->rqs[]. New readers may start while this function is
> + * in progress or after this function has returned. Use this function to make
> + * sure that hctx->tags->rqs[] changes have become globally visible.
> + *
> + * Waits for preexisting blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(q, fn, priv) calls to
> + * finish accessing requests associated with other request queues than 'q'.
> + */
> +void blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set)
> +{
> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags;
> +	int i;
> +
> +	if (set->tags) {
> +		for (i = 0; i < set->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
> +			tags = set->tags[i];
> +			if (!tags)
> +				continue;
> +			down_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +			up_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +		}
> +	}
> +	synchronize_rcu();
> +}
> +
>  /**
>   * blk_sync_queue - cancel any pending callbacks on a queue
>   * @q: the queue
> @@ -412,8 +442,10 @@ void blk_cleanup_queue(struct request_queue *q)
>  	 * it is safe to free requests now.
>  	 */
>  	mutex_lock(&q->sysfs_lock);
> -	if (q->elevator)
> +	if (q->elevator) {
> +		blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(q->tag_set);
>  		blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
> +	}
>  	mutex_unlock(&q->sysfs_lock);
>  
>  	percpu_ref_exit(&q->q_usage_counter);
> diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.c b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> index d8eaa38a1bd1..39d5c9190a6b 100644
> --- a/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> +++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> @@ -209,14 +209,24 @@ static bool bt_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>  
>  	if (!reserved)
>  		bitnr += tags->nr_reserved_tags;
> -	rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
> -
> +	rcu_read_lock();
> +	/*
> +	 * The request 'rq' points at is protected by an RCU read lock until
> +	 * its queue pointer has been verified and by q_usage_count while the
> +	 * callback function is being invoked. See also the
> +	 * percpu_ref_tryget() and blk_queue_exit() calls in
> +	 * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter().
> +	 */
> +	rq = rcu_dereference(tags->rqs[bitnr]);
>  	/*
>  	 * We can hit rq == NULL here, because the tagging functions
>  	 * test and set the bit before assigning ->rqs[].
>  	 */
> -	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx)
> +	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx) {
> +		rcu_read_unlock();
>  		return iter_data->fn(hctx, rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
> +	}
> +	rcu_read_unlock();
>  	return true;
>  }
>  
> @@ -254,11 +264,17 @@ struct bt_tags_iter_data {
>  	unsigned int flags;
>  };
>  
> +/* Include reserved tags. */
>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_RESERVED		(1 << 0)
> +/* Only include started requests. */
>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED		(1 << 1)
> +/* Iterate over tags->static_rqs[] instead of tags->rqs[]. */
>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS		(1 << 2)
> +/* The callback function may sleep. */
> +#define BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP		(1 << 3)
>  
> -static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> +static bool __bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr,
> +			   void *data)
>  {
>  	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
>  	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> @@ -275,7 +291,8 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>  	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS)
>  		rq = tags->static_rqs[bitnr];
>  	else
> -		rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
> +		rq = rcu_dereference_check(tags->rqs[bitnr],
> +					   lockdep_is_held(&tags->iter_rwsem));
>  	if (!rq)
>  		return true;
>  	if ((iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED) &&
> @@ -284,6 +301,25 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>  	return iter_data->fn(rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
>  }
>  
> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> +{
> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> +	bool res;
> +
> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> +	} else {
> +		rcu_read_lock();
> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> +		rcu_read_unlock();
> +	}
> +
> +	return res;
> +}

Holding one rwsem or rcu read lock won't avoid the issue completely
because request may be completed remotely in iter_data->fn(), such as
nbd_clear_req(), nvme_cancel_request(), complete_all_cmds_iter(),
mtip_no_dev_cleanup(), because blk_mq_complete_request() may complete
request in softirq, remote IPI, even wq, and the request is still
referenced in these contexts after bt_tags_iter() returns.


Thanks,
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-22  3:15   ` Ming Lei
@ 2021-04-22  3:54     ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-22  7:13       ` Ming Lei
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-22  3:54 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ming Lei
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry

On 4/21/21 8:15 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
>> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>> +{
>> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
>> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
>> +	bool res;
>> +
>> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
>> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
>> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>> +	} else {
>> +		rcu_read_lock();
>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
>> +		rcu_read_unlock();
>> +	}
>> +
>> +	return res;
>> +}
> 
> Holding one rwsem or rcu read lock won't avoid the issue completely
> because request may be completed remotely in iter_data->fn(), such as
> nbd_clear_req(), nvme_cancel_request(), complete_all_cmds_iter(),
> mtip_no_dev_cleanup(), because blk_mq_complete_request() may complete
> request in softirq, remote IPI, even wq, and the request is still
> referenced in these contexts after bt_tags_iter() returns.

The rwsem and RCU read lock are used to serialize iterating over
requests against blk_mq_sched_free_requests() calls. I don't think it
matters for this patch from which context requests are freed.

Bart.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-22  2:25   ` Ming Lei
@ 2021-04-22  4:01     ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-22  7:23       ` Ming Lei
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-22  4:01 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ming Lei
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry

On 4/21/21 7:25 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
>> When multiple request queues share a tag set and when switching the I/O
>> scheduler for one of the request queues associated with that tag set, the
>> following race can happen:
>> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls bt_tags_iter() and bt_tags_iter() assigns
>>   a pointer to a scheduler request to the local variable 'rq'.
>> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
>> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() dereferences 'rq' and triggers a use-after-free.
>>
>> Fix this race as follows:
>> * Use rcu_assign_pointer() and rcu_dereference() to access hctx->tags->rqs[].
>>   The performance impact of the assignments added to the hot path is minimal
>>   (about 1% according to one particular test).
>> * Protect hctx->tags->rqs[] reads with an RCU read-side lock or with a
>>   semaphore. Which mechanism is used depends on whether or not it is allowed
>>   to sleep and also on whether or not the callback function may sleep.
>> * Wait for all preexisting readers to finish before freeing scheduler
>>   requests.
>>
>> Another race is as follows:
>> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
>> * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter() iterates over the same tag set but for another
>>   request queue than the queue for which scheduler tags are being freed.
>> * bt_iter() examines rq->q after *rq has been freed.
>>
>> Fix this race by protecting the rq->q read in bt_iter() with an RCU read
>> lock and by calling synchronize_rcu() before freeing scheduler tags.
>>
>> Multiple users have reported use-after-free complaints similar to the
>> following (from https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block/1545261885.185366.488.camel@acm.org/ ):
>>
>> BUG: KASAN: use-after-free in bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
>> Read of size 8 at addr ffff88803b335240 by task fio/21412
>>
>> CPU: 0 PID: 21412 Comm: fio Tainted: G        W         4.20.0-rc6-dbg+ #3
>> Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.10.2-1 04/01/2014
>> Call Trace:
>>  dump_stack+0x86/0xca
>>  print_address_description+0x71/0x239
>>  kasan_report.cold.5+0x242/0x301
>>  __asan_load8+0x54/0x90
>>  bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
>>  blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter+0x373/0x5e0
>>  blk_mq_in_flight+0x96/0xb0
>>  part_in_flight+0x40/0x140
>>  part_round_stats+0x18e/0x370
>>  blk_account_io_start+0x3d7/0x670
>>  blk_mq_bio_to_request+0x19c/0x3a0
>>  blk_mq_make_request+0x7a9/0xcb0
>>  generic_make_request+0x41d/0x960
>>  submit_bio+0x9b/0x250
>>  do_blockdev_direct_IO+0x435c/0x4c70
>>  __blockdev_direct_IO+0x79/0x88
>>  ext4_direct_IO+0x46c/0xc00
>>  generic_file_direct_write+0x119/0x210
>>  __generic_file_write_iter+0x11c/0x280
>>  ext4_file_write_iter+0x1b8/0x6f0
>>  aio_write+0x204/0x310
>>  io_submit_one+0x9d3/0xe80
>>  __x64_sys_io_submit+0x115/0x340
>>  do_syscall_64+0x71/0x210
>>
>> Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
>> Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
>> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
>> Cc: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
>> Cc: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
>> Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
>> Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
>> Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
>> Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
>> Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
>> Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
>> ---
>>  block/blk-core.c   | 34 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
>>  block/blk-mq-tag.c | 51 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
>>  block/blk-mq-tag.h |  4 +++-
>>  block/blk-mq.c     | 21 +++++++++++++++----
>>  block/blk-mq.h     |  1 +
>>  block/blk.h        |  2 ++
>>  block/elevator.c   |  1 +
>>  7 files changed, 102 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
>> index 9bcdae93f6d4..ca7f833e25a8 100644
>> --- a/block/blk-core.c
>> +++ b/block/blk-core.c
>> @@ -279,6 +279,36 @@ void blk_dump_rq_flags(struct request *rq, char *msg)
>>  }
>>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_dump_rq_flags);
>>  
>> +/**
>> + * blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter - wait for preexisting tag iteration functions to finish
>> + * @set: Tag set to wait on.
>> + *
>> + * Waits for preexisting calls of blk_mq_all_tag_iter(),
>> + * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() and also for their atomic variants to finish
>> + * accessing hctx->tags->rqs[]. New readers may start while this function is
>> + * in progress or after this function has returned. Use this function to make
>> + * sure that hctx->tags->rqs[] changes have become globally visible.
>> + *
>> + * Waits for preexisting blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(q, fn, priv) calls to
>> + * finish accessing requests associated with other request queues than 'q'.
>> + */
>> +void blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set)
>> +{
>> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags;
>> +	int i;
>> +
>> +	if (set->tags) {
>> +		for (i = 0; i < set->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
>> +			tags = set->tags[i];
>> +			if (!tags)
>> +				continue;
>> +			down_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>> +			up_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>> +		}
>> +	}
>> +	synchronize_rcu();
>> +}
>> +
>>  /**
>>   * blk_sync_queue - cancel any pending callbacks on a queue
>>   * @q: the queue
>> @@ -412,8 +442,10 @@ void blk_cleanup_queue(struct request_queue *q)
>>  	 * it is safe to free requests now.
>>  	 */
>>  	mutex_lock(&q->sysfs_lock);
>> -	if (q->elevator)
>> +	if (q->elevator) {
>> +		blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(q->tag_set);
>>  		blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
>> +	}
>>  	mutex_unlock(&q->sysfs_lock);
>>  
>>  	percpu_ref_exit(&q->q_usage_counter);
>> diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.c b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
>> index d8eaa38a1bd1..39d5c9190a6b 100644
>> --- a/block/blk-mq-tag.c
>> +++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
>> @@ -209,14 +209,24 @@ static bool bt_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>>  
>>  	if (!reserved)
>>  		bitnr += tags->nr_reserved_tags;
>> -	rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
>> -
>> +	rcu_read_lock();
>> +	/*
>> +	 * The request 'rq' points at is protected by an RCU read lock until
>> +	 * its queue pointer has been verified and by q_usage_count while the
>> +	 * callback function is being invoked. See also the
>> +	 * percpu_ref_tryget() and blk_queue_exit() calls in
>> +	 * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter().
>> +	 */
>> +	rq = rcu_dereference(tags->rqs[bitnr]);
>>  	/*
>>  	 * We can hit rq == NULL here, because the tagging functions
>>  	 * test and set the bit before assigning ->rqs[].
>>  	 */
>> -	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx)
>> +	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx) {
>> +		rcu_read_unlock();
>>  		return iter_data->fn(hctx, rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
>> +	}
>> +	rcu_read_unlock();
>>  	return true;
>>  }
>>  
>> @@ -254,11 +264,17 @@ struct bt_tags_iter_data {
>>  	unsigned int flags;
>>  };
>>  
>> +/* Include reserved tags. */
>>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_RESERVED		(1 << 0)
>> +/* Only include started requests. */
>>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED		(1 << 1)
>> +/* Iterate over tags->static_rqs[] instead of tags->rqs[]. */
>>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS		(1 << 2)
>> +/* The callback function may sleep. */
>> +#define BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP		(1 << 3)
>>  
>> -static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>> +static bool __bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr,
>> +			   void *data)
>>  {
>>  	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
>>  	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
>> @@ -275,7 +291,8 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>>  	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS)
>>  		rq = tags->static_rqs[bitnr];
>>  	else
>> -		rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
>> +		rq = rcu_dereference_check(tags->rqs[bitnr],
>> +					   lockdep_is_held(&tags->iter_rwsem));
>>  	if (!rq)
>>  		return true;
>>  	if ((iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED) &&
>> @@ -284,6 +301,25 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>>  	return iter_data->fn(rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
>>  }
>>  
>> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>> +{
>> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
>> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
>> +	bool res;
>> +
>> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
>> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
>> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>> +	} else {
>> +		rcu_read_lock();
>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
>> +		rcu_read_unlock();
>> +	}
>> +
>> +	return res;
>> +}
>> +
>>  /**
>>   * bt_tags_for_each - iterate over the requests in a tag map
>>   * @tags:	Tag map to iterate over.
>> @@ -357,10 +393,12 @@ void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
>>  {
>>  	int i;
>>  
>> +	might_sleep();
>> +
>>  	for (i = 0; i < tagset->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
>>  		if (tagset->tags && tagset->tags[i])
>>  			__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tagset->tags[i], fn, priv,
>> -					      BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED);
>> +				BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED | BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP);
>>  	}
>>  }
>>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter);
>> @@ -544,6 +582,7 @@ struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int total_tags,
>>  
>>  	tags->nr_tags = total_tags;
>>  	tags->nr_reserved_tags = reserved_tags;
>> +	init_rwsem(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>>  
>>  	if (blk_mq_is_sbitmap_shared(flags))
>>  		return tags;
>> diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.h b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
>> index 0290c308ece9..d1d73d7cc7df 100644
>> --- a/block/blk-mq-tag.h
>> +++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
>> @@ -17,9 +17,11 @@ struct blk_mq_tags {
>>  	struct sbitmap_queue __bitmap_tags;
>>  	struct sbitmap_queue __breserved_tags;
>>  
>> -	struct request **rqs;
>> +	struct request __rcu **rqs;
>>  	struct request **static_rqs;
>>  	struct list_head page_list;
>> +
>> +	struct rw_semaphore iter_rwsem;
>>  };
>>  
>>  extern struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int nr_tags,
>> diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
>> index 79c01b1f885c..8b59f6b4ec8e 100644
>> --- a/block/blk-mq.c
>> +++ b/block/blk-mq.c
>> @@ -496,8 +496,10 @@ static void __blk_mq_free_request(struct request *rq)
>>  	blk_crypto_free_request(rq);
>>  	blk_pm_mark_last_busy(rq);
>>  	rq->mq_hctx = NULL;
>> -	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG)
>> +	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG) {
>>  		blk_mq_put_tag(hctx->tags, ctx, rq->tag);
>> +		rcu_assign_pointer(hctx->tags->rqs[rq->tag], NULL);
> 
> After the tag is released, it can be re-allocated from another context
> immediately. And the above rcu_assign_pointer(NULL) could be run after
> the re-allocation and new ->rqs[rq->tag] assignment in submission path,
> is it one issue?

How about swapping the rcu_assign_pointer() and blk_mq_put_tag() calls?
That should be safe since the tag iteration functions check whether or
not hctx->tags->rqs[] is NULL.

There are already barriers in sbitmap_queue_clear() so I don't think
that any new barriers would need to be added.

Thanks,

Bart.


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-22  3:54     ` Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-22  7:13       ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-22 15:51         ` Bart Van Assche
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-22  7:13 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry

On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 08:54:30PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> On 4/21/21 8:15 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> > On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> >> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> >> +{
> >> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
> >> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> >> +	bool res;
> >> +
> >> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
> >> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> >> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >> +	} else {
> >> +		rcu_read_lock();
> >> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> >> +		rcu_read_unlock();
> >> +	}
> >> +
> >> +	return res;
> >> +}
> > 
> > Holding one rwsem or rcu read lock won't avoid the issue completely
> > because request may be completed remotely in iter_data->fn(), such as
> > nbd_clear_req(), nvme_cancel_request(), complete_all_cmds_iter(),
> > mtip_no_dev_cleanup(), because blk_mq_complete_request() may complete
> > request in softirq, remote IPI, even wq, and the request is still
> > referenced in these contexts after bt_tags_iter() returns.
> 
> The rwsem and RCU read lock are used to serialize iterating over
> requests against blk_mq_sched_free_requests() calls. I don't think it
> matters for this patch from which context requests are freed.

Requests still can be referred in other context after blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
returns, then follows freeing request pool. And use-after-free exists too, doesn't it?

Thanks,
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-22  4:01     ` Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-22  7:23       ` Ming Lei
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-22  7:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry

On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 09:01:50PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> On 4/21/21 7:25 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> > On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> >> When multiple request queues share a tag set and when switching the I/O
> >> scheduler for one of the request queues associated with that tag set, the
> >> following race can happen:
> >> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() calls bt_tags_iter() and bt_tags_iter() assigns
> >>   a pointer to a scheduler request to the local variable 'rq'.
> >> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
> >> * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() dereferences 'rq' and triggers a use-after-free.
> >>
> >> Fix this race as follows:
> >> * Use rcu_assign_pointer() and rcu_dereference() to access hctx->tags->rqs[].
> >>   The performance impact of the assignments added to the hot path is minimal
> >>   (about 1% according to one particular test).
> >> * Protect hctx->tags->rqs[] reads with an RCU read-side lock or with a
> >>   semaphore. Which mechanism is used depends on whether or not it is allowed
> >>   to sleep and also on whether or not the callback function may sleep.
> >> * Wait for all preexisting readers to finish before freeing scheduler
> >>   requests.
> >>
> >> Another race is as follows:
> >> * blk_mq_sched_free_requests() is called to free hctx->sched_tags.
> >> * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter() iterates over the same tag set but for another
> >>   request queue than the queue for which scheduler tags are being freed.
> >> * bt_iter() examines rq->q after *rq has been freed.
> >>
> >> Fix this race by protecting the rq->q read in bt_iter() with an RCU read
> >> lock and by calling synchronize_rcu() before freeing scheduler tags.
> >>
> >> Multiple users have reported use-after-free complaints similar to the
> >> following (from https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block/1545261885.185366.488.camel@acm.org/ ):
> >>
> >> BUG: KASAN: use-after-free in bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
> >> Read of size 8 at addr ffff88803b335240 by task fio/21412
> >>
> >> CPU: 0 PID: 21412 Comm: fio Tainted: G        W         4.20.0-rc6-dbg+ #3
> >> Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.10.2-1 04/01/2014
> >> Call Trace:
> >>  dump_stack+0x86/0xca
> >>  print_address_description+0x71/0x239
> >>  kasan_report.cold.5+0x242/0x301
> >>  __asan_load8+0x54/0x90
> >>  bt_iter+0x86/0xf0
> >>  blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter+0x373/0x5e0
> >>  blk_mq_in_flight+0x96/0xb0
> >>  part_in_flight+0x40/0x140
> >>  part_round_stats+0x18e/0x370
> >>  blk_account_io_start+0x3d7/0x670
> >>  blk_mq_bio_to_request+0x19c/0x3a0
> >>  blk_mq_make_request+0x7a9/0xcb0
> >>  generic_make_request+0x41d/0x960
> >>  submit_bio+0x9b/0x250
> >>  do_blockdev_direct_IO+0x435c/0x4c70
> >>  __blockdev_direct_IO+0x79/0x88
> >>  ext4_direct_IO+0x46c/0xc00
> >>  generic_file_direct_write+0x119/0x210
> >>  __generic_file_write_iter+0x11c/0x280
> >>  ext4_file_write_iter+0x1b8/0x6f0
> >>  aio_write+0x204/0x310
> >>  io_submit_one+0x9d3/0xe80
> >>  __x64_sys_io_submit+0x115/0x340
> >>  do_syscall_64+0x71/0x210
> >>
> >> Reviewed-by: Khazhismel Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
> >> Tested-by: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
> >> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
> >> Cc: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
> >> Cc: Shin'ichiro Kawasaki <shinichiro.kawasaki@wdc.com>
> >> Cc: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
> >> Cc: Hannes Reinecke <hare@suse.de>
> >> Cc: Johannes Thumshirn <johannes.thumshirn@wdc.com>
> >> Cc: John Garry <john.garry@huawei.com>
> >> Cc: Khazhy Kumykov <khazhy@google.com>
> >> Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bvanassche@acm.org>
> >> ---
> >>  block/blk-core.c   | 34 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
> >>  block/blk-mq-tag.c | 51 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
> >>  block/blk-mq-tag.h |  4 +++-
> >>  block/blk-mq.c     | 21 +++++++++++++++----
> >>  block/blk-mq.h     |  1 +
> >>  block/blk.h        |  2 ++
> >>  block/elevator.c   |  1 +
> >>  7 files changed, 102 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
> >>
> >> diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
> >> index 9bcdae93f6d4..ca7f833e25a8 100644
> >> --- a/block/blk-core.c
> >> +++ b/block/blk-core.c
> >> @@ -279,6 +279,36 @@ void blk_dump_rq_flags(struct request *rq, char *msg)
> >>  }
> >>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_dump_rq_flags);
> >>  
> >> +/**
> >> + * blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter - wait for preexisting tag iteration functions to finish
> >> + * @set: Tag set to wait on.
> >> + *
> >> + * Waits for preexisting calls of blk_mq_all_tag_iter(),
> >> + * blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter() and also for their atomic variants to finish
> >> + * accessing hctx->tags->rqs[]. New readers may start while this function is
> >> + * in progress or after this function has returned. Use this function to make
> >> + * sure that hctx->tags->rqs[] changes have become globally visible.
> >> + *
> >> + * Waits for preexisting blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(q, fn, priv) calls to
> >> + * finish accessing requests associated with other request queues than 'q'.
> >> + */
> >> +void blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set)
> >> +{
> >> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags;
> >> +	int i;
> >> +
> >> +	if (set->tags) {
> >> +		for (i = 0; i < set->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
> >> +			tags = set->tags[i];
> >> +			if (!tags)
> >> +				continue;
> >> +			down_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >> +			up_write(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >> +		}
> >> +	}
> >> +	synchronize_rcu();
> >> +}
> >> +
> >>  /**
> >>   * blk_sync_queue - cancel any pending callbacks on a queue
> >>   * @q: the queue
> >> @@ -412,8 +442,10 @@ void blk_cleanup_queue(struct request_queue *q)
> >>  	 * it is safe to free requests now.
> >>  	 */
> >>  	mutex_lock(&q->sysfs_lock);
> >> -	if (q->elevator)
> >> +	if (q->elevator) {
> >> +		blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter(q->tag_set);
> >>  		blk_mq_sched_free_requests(q);
> >> +	}
> >>  	mutex_unlock(&q->sysfs_lock);
> >>  
> >>  	percpu_ref_exit(&q->q_usage_counter);
> >> diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.c b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> >> index d8eaa38a1bd1..39d5c9190a6b 100644
> >> --- a/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> >> +++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.c
> >> @@ -209,14 +209,24 @@ static bool bt_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> >>  
> >>  	if (!reserved)
> >>  		bitnr += tags->nr_reserved_tags;
> >> -	rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
> >> -
> >> +	rcu_read_lock();
> >> +	/*
> >> +	 * The request 'rq' points at is protected by an RCU read lock until
> >> +	 * its queue pointer has been verified and by q_usage_count while the
> >> +	 * callback function is being invoked. See also the
> >> +	 * percpu_ref_tryget() and blk_queue_exit() calls in
> >> +	 * blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter().
> >> +	 */
> >> +	rq = rcu_dereference(tags->rqs[bitnr]);
> >>  	/*
> >>  	 * We can hit rq == NULL here, because the tagging functions
> >>  	 * test and set the bit before assigning ->rqs[].
> >>  	 */
> >> -	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx)
> >> +	if (rq && rq->q == hctx->queue && rq->mq_hctx == hctx) {
> >> +		rcu_read_unlock();
> >>  		return iter_data->fn(hctx, rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
> >> +	}
> >> +	rcu_read_unlock();
> >>  	return true;
> >>  }
> >>  
> >> @@ -254,11 +264,17 @@ struct bt_tags_iter_data {
> >>  	unsigned int flags;
> >>  };
> >>  
> >> +/* Include reserved tags. */
> >>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_RESERVED		(1 << 0)
> >> +/* Only include started requests. */
> >>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED		(1 << 1)
> >> +/* Iterate over tags->static_rqs[] instead of tags->rqs[]. */
> >>  #define BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS		(1 << 2)
> >> +/* The callback function may sleep. */
> >> +#define BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP		(1 << 3)
> >>  
> >> -static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> >> +static bool __bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr,
> >> +			   void *data)
> >>  {
> >>  	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
> >>  	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> >> @@ -275,7 +291,8 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> >>  	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STATIC_RQS)
> >>  		rq = tags->static_rqs[bitnr];
> >>  	else
> >> -		rq = tags->rqs[bitnr];
> >> +		rq = rcu_dereference_check(tags->rqs[bitnr],
> >> +					   lockdep_is_held(&tags->iter_rwsem));
> >>  	if (!rq)
> >>  		return true;
> >>  	if ((iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED) &&
> >> @@ -284,6 +301,25 @@ static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> >>  	return iter_data->fn(rq, iter_data->data, reserved);
> >>  }
> >>  
> >> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> >> +{
> >> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
> >> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> >> +	bool res;
> >> +
> >> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
> >> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> >> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >> +	} else {
> >> +		rcu_read_lock();
> >> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> >> +		rcu_read_unlock();
> >> +	}
> >> +
> >> +	return res;
> >> +}
> >> +
> >>  /**
> >>   * bt_tags_for_each - iterate over the requests in a tag map
> >>   * @tags:	Tag map to iterate over.
> >> @@ -357,10 +393,12 @@ void blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter(struct blk_mq_tag_set *tagset,
> >>  {
> >>  	int i;
> >>  
> >> +	might_sleep();
> >> +
> >>  	for (i = 0; i < tagset->nr_hw_queues; i++) {
> >>  		if (tagset->tags && tagset->tags[i])
> >>  			__blk_mq_all_tag_iter(tagset->tags[i], fn, priv,
> >> -					      BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED);
> >> +				BT_TAG_ITER_STARTED | BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP);
> >>  	}
> >>  }
> >>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tagset_busy_iter);
> >> @@ -544,6 +582,7 @@ struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int total_tags,
> >>  
> >>  	tags->nr_tags = total_tags;
> >>  	tags->nr_reserved_tags = reserved_tags;
> >> +	init_rwsem(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >>  
> >>  	if (blk_mq_is_sbitmap_shared(flags))
> >>  		return tags;
> >> diff --git a/block/blk-mq-tag.h b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
> >> index 0290c308ece9..d1d73d7cc7df 100644
> >> --- a/block/blk-mq-tag.h
> >> +++ b/block/blk-mq-tag.h
> >> @@ -17,9 +17,11 @@ struct blk_mq_tags {
> >>  	struct sbitmap_queue __bitmap_tags;
> >>  	struct sbitmap_queue __breserved_tags;
> >>  
> >> -	struct request **rqs;
> >> +	struct request __rcu **rqs;
> >>  	struct request **static_rqs;
> >>  	struct list_head page_list;
> >> +
> >> +	struct rw_semaphore iter_rwsem;
> >>  };
> >>  
> >>  extern struct blk_mq_tags *blk_mq_init_tags(unsigned int nr_tags,
> >> diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
> >> index 79c01b1f885c..8b59f6b4ec8e 100644
> >> --- a/block/blk-mq.c
> >> +++ b/block/blk-mq.c
> >> @@ -496,8 +496,10 @@ static void __blk_mq_free_request(struct request *rq)
> >>  	blk_crypto_free_request(rq);
> >>  	blk_pm_mark_last_busy(rq);
> >>  	rq->mq_hctx = NULL;
> >> -	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG)
> >> +	if (rq->tag != BLK_MQ_NO_TAG) {
> >>  		blk_mq_put_tag(hctx->tags, ctx, rq->tag);
> >> +		rcu_assign_pointer(hctx->tags->rqs[rq->tag], NULL);
> > 
> > After the tag is released, it can be re-allocated from another context
> > immediately. And the above rcu_assign_pointer(NULL) could be run after
> > the re-allocation and new ->rqs[rq->tag] assignment in submission path,
> > is it one issue?
> 
> How about swapping the rcu_assign_pointer() and blk_mq_put_tag() calls?
> That should be safe since the tag iteration functions check whether or
> not hctx->tags->rqs[] is NULL.
> 
> There are already barriers in sbitmap_queue_clear() so I don't think
> that any new barriers would need to be added.

That looks fine, since the barrier pair is implied between allocating tag
and assigning ->tags[tag] too.

Thanks,
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-22  7:13       ` Ming Lei
@ 2021-04-22 15:51         ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-23  3:52           ` Ming Lei
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-22 15:51 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ming Lei
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry

On 4/22/21 12:13 AM, Ming Lei wrote:
> On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 08:54:30PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
>> On 4/21/21 8:15 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
>>> On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
>>>> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
>>>> +{
>>>> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
>>>> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
>>>> +	bool res;
>>>> +
>>>> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
>>>> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>>>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
>>>> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
>>>> +	} else {
>>>> +		rcu_read_lock();
>>>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
>>>> +		rcu_read_unlock();
>>>> +	}
>>>> +
>>>> +	return res;
>>>> +}
>>>
>>> Holding one rwsem or rcu read lock won't avoid the issue completely
>>> because request may be completed remotely in iter_data->fn(), such as
>>> nbd_clear_req(), nvme_cancel_request(), complete_all_cmds_iter(),
>>> mtip_no_dev_cleanup(), because blk_mq_complete_request() may complete
>>> request in softirq, remote IPI, even wq, and the request is still
>>> referenced in these contexts after bt_tags_iter() returns.
>>
>> The rwsem and RCU read lock are used to serialize iterating over
>> requests against blk_mq_sched_free_requests() calls. I don't think it
>> matters for this patch from which context requests are freed.
> 
> Requests still can be referred in other context after blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
> returns, then follows freeing request pool. And use-after-free exists too, doesn't it?

The request pool should only be freed after it has been guaranteed that
all pending requests have finished and also that no new requests will be
started. This patch series adds two blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() calls.
Both calls happen while the queue is frozen so I don't think that the
issue mentioned in your email can happen.

Bart.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-22 15:51         ` Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-23  3:52           ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-23 17:52             ` Bart Van Assche
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-23  3:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry, linux-scsi

On Thu, Apr 22, 2021 at 08:51:06AM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> On 4/22/21 12:13 AM, Ming Lei wrote:
> > On Wed, Apr 21, 2021 at 08:54:30PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> >> On 4/21/21 8:15 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> >>> On Tue, Apr 20, 2021 at 05:02:33PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> >>>> +static bool bt_tags_iter(struct sbitmap *bitmap, unsigned int bitnr, void *data)
> >>>> +{
> >>>> +	struct bt_tags_iter_data *iter_data = data;
> >>>> +	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = iter_data->tags;
> >>>> +	bool res;
> >>>> +
> >>>> +	if (iter_data->flags & BT_TAG_ITER_MAY_SLEEP) {
> >>>> +		down_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >>>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> >>>> +		up_read(&tags->iter_rwsem);
> >>>> +	} else {
> >>>> +		rcu_read_lock();
> >>>> +		res = __bt_tags_iter(bitmap, bitnr, data);
> >>>> +		rcu_read_unlock();
> >>>> +	}
> >>>> +
> >>>> +	return res;
> >>>> +}
> >>>
> >>> Holding one rwsem or rcu read lock won't avoid the issue completely
> >>> because request may be completed remotely in iter_data->fn(), such as
> >>> nbd_clear_req(), nvme_cancel_request(), complete_all_cmds_iter(),
> >>> mtip_no_dev_cleanup(), because blk_mq_complete_request() may complete
> >>> request in softirq, remote IPI, even wq, and the request is still
> >>> referenced in these contexts after bt_tags_iter() returns.
> >>
> >> The rwsem and RCU read lock are used to serialize iterating over
> >> requests against blk_mq_sched_free_requests() calls. I don't think it
> >> matters for this patch from which context requests are freed.
> > 
> > Requests still can be referred in other context after blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
> > returns, then follows freeing request pool. And use-after-free exists too, doesn't it?
> 
> The request pool should only be freed after it has been guaranteed that
> all pending requests have finished and also that no new requests will be
> started. This patch series adds two blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() calls.
> Both calls happen while the queue is frozen so I don't think that the
> issue mentioned in your email can happen.

For example, scsi aacraid normal completion vs. reset together with elevator
switch, aacraid is one single queue HBA, and the request will be completed
via IPI or softirq asynchronously, that said request isn't really completed
after blk_mq_complete_request() returns.

1) interrupt comes, and request A is completed via blk_mq_complete_request()
from aacraid's interrupt handler via ->scsi_done()

2) _aac_reset_adapter() comes because of reset event which can be
triggered by sysfs store or whatever, irq is drained in 
_aac_reset_adpter(), so blk_mq_complete_request(request A) from aacraid irq
context is done, but request A is just scheduled to be completed via IPI
or softirq asynchronously, not really done yet.

3) scsi_host_complete_all_commands() is called from _aac_reset_adapter() for
failing all pending requests. request A is still visible in
scsi_host_complete_all_commands, because its tag isn't freed yet. But the
tag & request A can be completed & freed exactly after scsi_host_complete_all_commands()
reads ->rqs[bitnr] in bt_tags_iter(), which calls complete_all_cmds_iter()
-> .scsi_done() -> blk_mq_complete_request(), and same request A is scheduled via
IPI or softirq, and request A is addded in ipi or softirq list.

4) meantime request A is freed from normal completion triggered by interrupt, one
pending elevator switch can move on since request A drops the last reference; and
bt_tags_iter() returns from reset path, so blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() can return
too, then the whole scheduler request pool is freed now.

5) request A in ipi/softirq list scheduled from _aac_reset_adapter is read , UAF
is triggered.

It is supposed that driver covers normal completion vs. error handling, but wrt.
remove completion, not sure driver is capable of covering that.

Thanks,
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-23  3:52           ` Ming Lei
@ 2021-04-23 17:52             ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-25  0:09               ` Ming Lei
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-23 17:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ming Lei
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry, linux-scsi

On 4/22/21 8:52 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> For example, scsi aacraid normal completion vs. reset together with elevator
> switch, aacraid is one single queue HBA, and the request will be completed
> via IPI or softirq asynchronously, that said request isn't really completed
> after blk_mq_complete_request() returns.
> 
> 1) interrupt comes, and request A is completed via blk_mq_complete_request()
> from aacraid's interrupt handler via ->scsi_done()
> 
> 2) _aac_reset_adapter() comes because of reset event which can be
> triggered by sysfs store or whatever, irq is drained in 
> _aac_reset_adpter(), so blk_mq_complete_request(request A) from aacraid irq
> context is done, but request A is just scheduled to be completed via IPI
> or softirq asynchronously, not really done yet.
> 
> 3) scsi_host_complete_all_commands() is called from _aac_reset_adapter() for
> failing all pending requests. request A is still visible in
> scsi_host_complete_all_commands, because its tag isn't freed yet. But the
> tag & request A can be completed & freed exactly after scsi_host_complete_all_commands()
> reads ->rqs[bitnr] in bt_tags_iter(), which calls complete_all_cmds_iter()
> -> .scsi_done() -> blk_mq_complete_request(), and same request A is scheduled via
> IPI or softirq, and request A is addded in ipi or softirq list.
> 
> 4) meantime request A is freed from normal completion triggered by interrupt, one
> pending elevator switch can move on since request A drops the last reference; and
> bt_tags_iter() returns from reset path, so blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() can return
> too, then the whole scheduler request pool is freed now.
> 
> 5) request A in ipi/softirq list scheduled from _aac_reset_adapter is read , UAF
> is triggered.
> 
> It is supposed that driver covers normal completion vs. error handling, but wrt.
> remove completion, not sure driver is capable of covering that.

Hi Ming,

I agree that the scenario above can happen and also that a fix is
needed. However, I do not agree that this should be fixed by modifying
the tag iteration functions. I see scsi_host_complete_all_commands() as
a workaround for broken storage controllers - storage controllers that
do not have a facility for terminating all pending commands. NVMe
controllers can be told to terminate all pending I/O commands by e.g.
deleting all I/O submission queues. Many SCSI controllers also provide a
facility for aborting all pending commands. For SCSI controllers that do
not provide such a facility I propose to fix races like the race
described above in the SCSI LLD instead of modifying the block layer tag
iteration functions.

Thanks,

Bart.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-23 17:52             ` Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-25  0:09               ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-25 21:01                 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-26 16:29                 ` Bart Van Assche
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-25  0:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry, linux-scsi

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 10:52:43AM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> On 4/22/21 8:52 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> > For example, scsi aacraid normal completion vs. reset together with elevator
> > switch, aacraid is one single queue HBA, and the request will be completed
> > via IPI or softirq asynchronously, that said request isn't really completed
> > after blk_mq_complete_request() returns.
> > 
> > 1) interrupt comes, and request A is completed via blk_mq_complete_request()
> > from aacraid's interrupt handler via ->scsi_done()
> > 
> > 2) _aac_reset_adapter() comes because of reset event which can be
> > triggered by sysfs store or whatever, irq is drained in 
> > _aac_reset_adpter(), so blk_mq_complete_request(request A) from aacraid irq
> > context is done, but request A is just scheduled to be completed via IPI
> > or softirq asynchronously, not really done yet.
> > 
> > 3) scsi_host_complete_all_commands() is called from _aac_reset_adapter() for
> > failing all pending requests. request A is still visible in
> > scsi_host_complete_all_commands, because its tag isn't freed yet. But the
> > tag & request A can be completed & freed exactly after scsi_host_complete_all_commands()
> > reads ->rqs[bitnr] in bt_tags_iter(), which calls complete_all_cmds_iter()
> > -> .scsi_done() -> blk_mq_complete_request(), and same request A is scheduled via
> > IPI or softirq, and request A is addded in ipi or softirq list.
> > 
> > 4) meantime request A is freed from normal completion triggered by interrupt, one
> > pending elevator switch can move on since request A drops the last reference; and
> > bt_tags_iter() returns from reset path, so blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() can return
> > too, then the whole scheduler request pool is freed now.
> > 
> > 5) request A in ipi/softirq list scheduled from _aac_reset_adapter is read , UAF
> > is triggered.
> > 
> > It is supposed that driver covers normal completion vs. error handling, but wrt.
> > remove completion, not sure driver is capable of covering that.
> 
> Hi Ming,
> 
> I agree that the scenario above can happen and also that a fix is
> needed. However, I do not agree that this should be fixed by modifying
> the tag iteration functions. I see scsi_host_complete_all_commands() as
> a workaround for broken storage controllers - storage controllers that
> do not have a facility for terminating all pending commands. NVMe
> controllers can be told to terminate all pending I/O commands by e.g.
> deleting all I/O submission queues. Many SCSI controllers also provide a
> facility for aborting all pending commands. For SCSI controllers that do
> not provide such a facility I propose to fix races like the race
> described above in the SCSI LLD instead of modifying the block layer tag
> iteration functions.

Hi Bart,

Terminating all pending commands can't avoid the issue wrt. request UAF,
so far blk_mq_tagset_wait_completed_request() is used for making sure
that all pending requests are really aborted.

However, blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() still may return before
blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() is done because blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
supposes all request reference is just done inside bt_tags_iter(),
especially .iter_rwsem and read rcu lock is added in bt_tags_iter().

What I really meant is that .iter_rwsem/read rcu added or blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter
can't do what is expected.


Thanks,
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-25  0:09               ` Ming Lei
@ 2021-04-25 21:01                 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-26  0:55                   ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-26 16:29                 ` Bart Van Assche
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-25 21:01 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ming Lei
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry, linux-scsi

On 4/24/21 5:09 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> However, blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() still may return before
> blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() is done because blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
> supposes all request reference is just done inside bt_tags_iter(),
> especially .iter_rwsem and read rcu lock is added in bt_tags_iter().

The comment above blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() needs to be updated but I
believe that the code is fine. Waiting for bt_tags_iter() to finish
should be sufficient to fix the UAF. What matters is that the pointer
read by rcu_dereference(tags->rqs[bitnr]) remains valid until the
callback function has finished. I think that is guaranteed by the
current implementation.

Bart.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-25 21:01                 ` Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-26  0:55                   ` Ming Lei
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-26  0:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry, linux-scsi

On Sun, Apr 25, 2021 at 02:01:11PM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> On 4/24/21 5:09 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> > However, blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() still may return before
> > blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() is done because blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
> > supposes all request reference is just done inside bt_tags_iter(),
> > especially .iter_rwsem and read rcu lock is added in bt_tags_iter().
> 
> The comment above blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() needs to be updated but I
> believe that the code is fine. Waiting for bt_tags_iter() to finish
> should be sufficient to fix the UAF. What matters is that the pointer
> read by rcu_dereference(tags->rqs[bitnr]) remains valid until the
> callback function has finished. I think that is guaranteed by the
> current implementation.

It depends if 'rq' will be passed to another new context from ->fn(),
since 'rq' still can be USEed in the new context after ->fn() returns.


thanks,
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-25  0:09               ` Ming Lei
  2021-04-25 21:01                 ` Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-26 16:29                 ` Bart Van Assche
  2021-04-27  0:11                   ` Ming Lei
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 21+ messages in thread
From: Bart Van Assche @ 2021-04-26 16:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ming Lei
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry, linux-scsi

On 4/24/21 5:09 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> Terminating all pending commands can't avoid the issue wrt. request UAF,
> so far blk_mq_tagset_wait_completed_request() is used for making sure
> that all pending requests are really aborted.
> 
> However, blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() still may return before
> blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() is done because blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
> supposes all request reference is just done inside bt_tags_iter(),
> especially .iter_rwsem and read rcu lock is added in bt_tags_iter().

Hi Ming,

I think that we agree that completing a request from inside a tag
iteration callback function may cause the request completion to happen
after tag iteration has finished. This can happen because
blk_mq_complete_request() may redirect completion processing to another
CPU via an IPI.

But can this mechanism trigger a use-after-free by itself? If request
completion is redirected to another CPU, the request is still considered
pending and request queue freezing won't complete. Request queue
freezing will only succeed after __blk_mq_free_request() has been called
because it is __blk_mq_free_request() that calls blk_queue_exit().

In other words, do we really need the new
blk_mq_complete_request_locally() function?

Did I perhaps miss something?

Thanks,

Bart.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests
  2021-04-26 16:29                 ` Bart Van Assche
@ 2021-04-27  0:11                   ` Ming Lei
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 21+ messages in thread
From: Ming Lei @ 2021-04-27  0:11 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Bart Van Assche
  Cc: Jens Axboe, linux-block, Christoph Hellwig, Daniel Wagner,
	Khazhismel Kumykov, Shin'ichiro Kawasaki,
	Martin K . Petersen, Hannes Reinecke, Johannes Thumshirn,
	John Garry, linux-scsi

On Mon, Apr 26, 2021 at 09:29:54AM -0700, Bart Van Assche wrote:
> On 4/24/21 5:09 PM, Ming Lei wrote:
> > Terminating all pending commands can't avoid the issue wrt. request UAF,
> > so far blk_mq_tagset_wait_completed_request() is used for making sure
> > that all pending requests are really aborted.
> > 
> > However, blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() still may return before
> > blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter() is done because blk_mq_wait_for_tag_iter()
> > supposes all request reference is just done inside bt_tags_iter(),
> > especially .iter_rwsem and read rcu lock is added in bt_tags_iter().
> 
> Hi Ming,
> 
> I think that we agree that completing a request from inside a tag
> iteration callback function may cause the request completion to happen
> after tag iteration has finished. This can happen because
> blk_mq_complete_request() may redirect completion processing to another
> CPU via an IPI.
> 
> But can this mechanism trigger a use-after-free by itself? If request
> completion is redirected to another CPU, the request is still considered
> pending and request queue freezing won't complete. Request queue
> freezing will only succeed after __blk_mq_free_request() has been called
> because it is __blk_mq_free_request() that calls blk_queue_exit().
> 
> In other words, do we really need the new
> blk_mq_complete_request_locally() function?
> 
> Did I perhaps miss something?

Please see the example in the following link:

https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block/20210421000235.2028-4-bvanassche@acm.org/T/#m4d7bc9aa01108f03d5b4b7ee102eb26eb0c778aa

In short:

1) One async completion from interrupt context is pending, and one request
isn't really freed yet because its driver tag isn't released.

2) Meantime iterating code still can visit this request, and ->fn() schedules
a new remote completion, and returns.

3) The scheduled async completion in 1) is really done now,
but the scheduled async completion in 2) isn't started or done yet

4) queue becomes frozen because of one pending elevator switching, so
sched request pool is freed since there isn't any pending iterator ->fn()

5) request UAF is caused when running the scheduled async completion in 2)
now.


Thanks,
Ming


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 21+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 21+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2021-04-21  0:02 [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 1/5] blk-mq: Move the elevator_exit() definition Bart Van Assche
2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 2/5] blk-mq: Introduce atomic variants of blk_mq_(all_tag|tagset_busy)_iter Bart Van Assche
2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 3/5] blk-mq: Fix races between iterating over requests and freeing requests Bart Van Assche
2021-04-22  2:25   ` Ming Lei
2021-04-22  4:01     ` Bart Van Assche
2021-04-22  7:23       ` Ming Lei
2021-04-22  3:15   ` Ming Lei
2021-04-22  3:54     ` Bart Van Assche
2021-04-22  7:13       ` Ming Lei
2021-04-22 15:51         ` Bart Van Assche
2021-04-23  3:52           ` Ming Lei
2021-04-23 17:52             ` Bart Van Assche
2021-04-25  0:09               ` Ming Lei
2021-04-25 21:01                 ` Bart Van Assche
2021-04-26  0:55                   ` Ming Lei
2021-04-26 16:29                 ` Bart Van Assche
2021-04-27  0:11                   ` Ming Lei
2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 4/5] blk-mq: Make it safe to use RCU to iterate over blk_mq_tag_set.tag_list Bart Van Assche
2021-04-21  0:02 ` [PATCH v7 5/5] blk-mq: Fix races between blk_mq_update_nr_hw_queues() and iterating over tags Bart Van Assche
2021-04-21 14:40 ` [PATCH v7 0/5] blk-mq: Fix a race between iterating over requests and freeing requests Jens Axboe

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