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* [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
@ 2019-08-07  5:50 Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-07  7:28 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
                   ` (2 more replies)
  0 siblings, 3 replies; 23+ messages in thread
From: Ard Biesheuvel @ 2019-08-07  5:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linux-crypto
  Cc: herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland, Ard Biesheuvel

Instead of instantiating a separate cipher to perform the encryption
needed to produce the IV, reuse the skcipher used for the block data
and invoke it one additional time for each block to encrypt a zero
vector and use the output as the IV.

For CBC mode, this is equivalent to using the bare block cipher, but
without the risk of ending up with a non-time invariant implementation
of AES when the skcipher itself is time variant (e.g., arm64 without
Crypto Extensions has a NEON based time invariant implementation of
cbc(aes) but no time invariant implementation of the core cipher other
than aes-ti, which is not enabled by default)

This approach is a compromise between dm-crypt API flexibility and
reducing dependence on parts of the crypto API that should not usually
be exposed to other subsystems, such as the bare cipher API.

Signed-off-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
---
 drivers/md/dm-crypt.c | 70 ++++++++++++++-----------------------------
 1 file changed, 22 insertions(+), 48 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
index d5216bcc4649..48cd76c88d77 100644
--- a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
+++ b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
@@ -120,10 +120,6 @@ struct iv_tcw_private {
 	u8 *whitening;
 };
 
-struct iv_eboiv_private {
-	struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
-};
-
 /*
  * Crypt: maps a linear range of a block device
  * and encrypts / decrypts at the same time.
@@ -163,7 +159,6 @@ struct crypt_config {
 		struct iv_benbi_private benbi;
 		struct iv_lmk_private lmk;
 		struct iv_tcw_private tcw;
-		struct iv_eboiv_private eboiv;
 	} iv_gen_private;
 	u64 iv_offset;
 	unsigned int iv_size;
@@ -847,65 +842,47 @@ static int crypt_iv_random_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static void crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr(struct crypt_config *cc)
-{
-	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
-
-	crypto_free_cipher(eboiv->tfm);
-	eboiv->tfm = NULL;
-}
-
 static int crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr(struct crypt_config *cc, struct dm_target *ti,
 			    const char *opts)
 {
-	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
-	struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
-
-	tfm = crypto_alloc_cipher(cc->cipher, 0, 0);
-	if (IS_ERR(tfm)) {
-		ti->error = "Error allocating crypto tfm for EBOIV";
-		return PTR_ERR(tfm);
+	if (test_bit(CRYPT_MODE_INTEGRITY_AEAD, &cc->cipher_flags)) {
+		ti->error = "AEAD transforms not supported for EBOIV";
+		return -EINVAL;
 	}
 
-	if (crypto_cipher_blocksize(tfm) != cc->iv_size) {
+	if (crypto_skcipher_blocksize(any_tfm(cc)) != cc->iv_size) {
 		ti->error = "Block size of EBOIV cipher does "
 			    "not match IV size of block cipher";
-		crypto_free_cipher(tfm);
 		return -EINVAL;
 	}
 
-	eboiv->tfm = tfm;
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int crypt_iv_eboiv_init(struct crypt_config *cc)
+static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
+			    struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
 {
-	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
+	u8 buf[MAX_CIPHER_BLOCKSIZE] __aligned(__alignof__(__le64));
+	struct skcipher_request *req;
+	struct scatterlist src, dst;
+	struct crypto_wait wait;
 	int err;
 
-	err = crypto_cipher_setkey(eboiv->tfm, cc->key, cc->key_size);
-	if (err)
-		return err;
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe(struct crypt_config *cc)
-{
-	/* Called after cc->key is set to random key in crypt_wipe() */
-	return crypt_iv_eboiv_init(cc);
-}
+	req = skcipher_request_alloc(any_tfm(cc), GFP_KERNEL | GFP_NOFS);
+	if (!req)
+		return -ENOMEM;
 
-static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
-			    struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
-{
-	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
+	memset(buf, 0, cc->iv_size);
+	*(__le64 *)buf = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
 
-	memset(iv, 0, cc->iv_size);
-	*(__le64 *)iv = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
-	crypto_cipher_encrypt_one(eboiv->tfm, iv, iv);
+	sg_init_one(&src, page_address(ZERO_PAGE(0)), cc->iv_size);
+	sg_init_one(&dst, iv, cc->iv_size);
+	skcipher_request_set_crypt(req, &src, &dst, cc->iv_size, buf);
+	skcipher_request_set_callback(req, 0, crypto_req_done, &wait);
+	err = crypto_wait_req(crypto_skcipher_encrypt(req), &wait);
+	skcipher_request_free(req);
 
-	return 0;
+	return err;
 }
 
 static const struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_plain_ops = {
@@ -962,9 +939,6 @@ static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_random_ops = {
 
 static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_eboiv_ops = {
 	.ctr	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr,
-	.dtr	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr,
-	.init	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_init,
-	.wipe	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe,
 	.generator = crypt_iv_eboiv_gen
 };
 
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07  5:50 [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation Ard Biesheuvel
@ 2019-08-07  7:28 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-07 13:17   ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-07  8:08 ` Milan Broz
  2019-08-08 11:53 ` Milan Broz
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-07  7:28 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto
  Cc: herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland

Ard,

I've actually been following this discussion with some interest, as it has
some relevance for some of the things I am doing at the moment as well.

For example, for my CTS implementation I need to crypt one or two 
seperate blocks and for the inside-secure driver I sometimes need to do
some single crypto block precomputes. (the XTS driver additionally
also already did such a single block encrypt for the tweak, also using
a seperate (non-sk)cipher instance - very similar to your IV case)

Long story short, the current approach is to allocate a seperate 
cipher instance so you can conveniently do crypto_cipher_en/decrypt_one.
(it would be nice to have a matching crypto_skcipher_en/decrypt_one
function available from the crypto API for these purposes?)
But if I understand you correctly, you may end up with an insecure
table-based implementation if you do that. Not what I want :-(

However, in many cases there would actually be a very good reason
NOT to want to use the main skcipher for this. As that is some
hardware accelerator with terrible latency that you wouldn't want
to use to process just one cipher block. For that, you want to have
some SW implementation that is efficient on a single block instead.

In my humble opinion, such insecure table based implementations just
shouldn't exist at all - you can always do better, possibly at the
expense of some performance degradation. Or you should at least have 
some flag  available to specify you have some security requirements 
and such an implementation is not an acceptable response.

Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com

> -----Original Message-----
> From: linux-crypto-owner@vger.kernel.org <linux-crypto-owner@vger.kernel.org> On Behalf Of
> Ard Biesheuvel
> Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 7:50 AM
> To: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org
> Cc: herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com;
> dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com; Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> Subject: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> Instead of instantiating a separate cipher to perform the encryption
> needed to produce the IV, reuse the skcipher used for the block data
> and invoke it one additional time for each block to encrypt a zero
> vector and use the output as the IV.
> 
> For CBC mode, this is equivalent to using the bare block cipher, but
> without the risk of ending up with a non-time invariant implementation
> of AES when the skcipher itself is time variant (e.g., arm64 without
> Crypto Extensions has a NEON based time invariant implementation of
> cbc(aes) but no time invariant implementation of the core cipher other
> than aes-ti, which is not enabled by default)
> 
> This approach is a compromise between dm-crypt API flexibility and
> reducing dependence on parts of the crypto API that should not usually
> be exposed to other subsystems, such as the bare cipher API.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> ---
>  drivers/md/dm-crypt.c | 70 ++++++++++++++-----------------------------
>  1 file changed, 22 insertions(+), 48 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> index d5216bcc4649..48cd76c88d77 100644
> --- a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> +++ b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> @@ -120,10 +120,6 @@ struct iv_tcw_private {
>  	u8 *whitening;
>  };
> 
> -struct iv_eboiv_private {
> -	struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> -};
> -
>  /*
>   * Crypt: maps a linear range of a block device
>   * and encrypts / decrypts at the same time.
> @@ -163,7 +159,6 @@ struct crypt_config {
>  		struct iv_benbi_private benbi;
>  		struct iv_lmk_private lmk;
>  		struct iv_tcw_private tcw;
> -		struct iv_eboiv_private eboiv;
>  	} iv_gen_private;
>  	u64 iv_offset;
>  	unsigned int iv_size;
> @@ -847,65 +842,47 @@ static int crypt_iv_random_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
>  	return 0;
>  }
> 
> -static void crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr(struct crypt_config *cc)
> -{
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> -
> -	crypto_free_cipher(eboiv->tfm);
> -	eboiv->tfm = NULL;
> -}
> -
>  static int crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr(struct crypt_config *cc, struct dm_target *ti,
>  			    const char *opts)
>  {
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> -	struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> -
> -	tfm = crypto_alloc_cipher(cc->cipher, 0, 0);
> -	if (IS_ERR(tfm)) {
> -		ti->error = "Error allocating crypto tfm for EBOIV";
> -		return PTR_ERR(tfm);
> +	if (test_bit(CRYPT_MODE_INTEGRITY_AEAD, &cc->cipher_flags)) {
> +		ti->error = "AEAD transforms not supported for EBOIV";
> +		return -EINVAL;
>  	}
> 
> -	if (crypto_cipher_blocksize(tfm) != cc->iv_size) {
> +	if (crypto_skcipher_blocksize(any_tfm(cc)) != cc->iv_size) {
>  		ti->error = "Block size of EBOIV cipher does "
>  			    "not match IV size of block cipher";
> -		crypto_free_cipher(tfm);
>  		return -EINVAL;
>  	}
> 
> -	eboiv->tfm = tfm;
>  	return 0;
>  }
> 
> -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_init(struct crypt_config *cc)
> +static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> +			    struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
>  {
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> +	u8 buf[MAX_CIPHER_BLOCKSIZE] __aligned(__alignof__(__le64));
> +	struct skcipher_request *req;
> +	struct scatterlist src, dst;
> +	struct crypto_wait wait;
>  	int err;
> 
> -	err = crypto_cipher_setkey(eboiv->tfm, cc->key, cc->key_size);
> -	if (err)
> -		return err;
> -
> -	return 0;
> -}
> -
> -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe(struct crypt_config *cc)
> -{
> -	/* Called after cc->key is set to random key in crypt_wipe() */
> -	return crypt_iv_eboiv_init(cc);
> -}
> +	req = skcipher_request_alloc(any_tfm(cc), GFP_KERNEL | GFP_NOFS);
> +	if (!req)
> +		return -ENOMEM;
> 
> -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> -			    struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
> -{
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> +	memset(buf, 0, cc->iv_size);
> +	*(__le64 *)buf = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
> 
> -	memset(iv, 0, cc->iv_size);
> -	*(__le64 *)iv = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
> -	crypto_cipher_encrypt_one(eboiv->tfm, iv, iv);
> +	sg_init_one(&src, page_address(ZERO_PAGE(0)), cc->iv_size);
> +	sg_init_one(&dst, iv, cc->iv_size);
> +	skcipher_request_set_crypt(req, &src, &dst, cc->iv_size, buf);
> +	skcipher_request_set_callback(req, 0, crypto_req_done, &wait);
> +	err = crypto_wait_req(crypto_skcipher_encrypt(req), &wait);
> +	skcipher_request_free(req);
> 
> -	return 0;
> +	return err;
>  }
> 
>  static const struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_plain_ops = {
> @@ -962,9 +939,6 @@ static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_random_ops = {
> 
>  static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_eboiv_ops = {
>  	.ctr	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr,
> -	.dtr	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr,
> -	.init	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_init,
> -	.wipe	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe,
>  	.generator = crypt_iv_eboiv_gen
>  };
> 
> --
> 2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07  5:50 [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-07  7:28 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-07  8:08 ` Milan Broz
  2019-08-08 11:53 ` Milan Broz
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 23+ messages in thread
From: Milan Broz @ 2019-08-07  8:08 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto; +Cc: herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel

On 07/08/2019 07:50, Ard Biesheuvel wrote:
> Instead of instantiating a separate cipher to perform the encryption
> needed to produce the IV, reuse the skcipher used for the block data
> and invoke it one additional time for each block to encrypt a zero
> vector and use the output as the IV.
> 
> For CBC mode, this is equivalent to using the bare block cipher, but
> without the risk of ending up with a non-time invariant implementation
> of AES when the skcipher itself is time variant (e.g., arm64 without
> Crypto Extensions has a NEON based time invariant implementation of
> cbc(aes) but no time invariant implementation of the core cipher other
> than aes-ti, which is not enabled by default)
> 
> This approach is a compromise between dm-crypt API flexibility and
> reducing dependence on parts of the crypto API that should not usually
> be exposed to other subsystems, such as the bare cipher API.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>

Yes, this is a good idea, I'll test it. Thanks!

Milan

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07  7:28 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-07 13:17   ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-07 13:52     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Ard Biesheuvel @ 2019-08-07 13:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen
  Cc: linux-crypto, herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland

On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 10:28, Pascal Van Leeuwen
<pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
>
> Ard,
>
> I've actually been following this discussion with some interest, as it has
> some relevance for some of the things I am doing at the moment as well.
>
> For example, for my CTS implementation I need to crypt one or two
> seperate blocks and for the inside-secure driver I sometimes need to do
> some single crypto block precomputes. (the XTS driver additionally
> also already did such a single block encrypt for the tweak, also using
> a seperate (non-sk)cipher instance - very similar to your IV case)
>
> Long story short, the current approach is to allocate a seperate
> cipher instance so you can conveniently do crypto_cipher_en/decrypt_one.
> (it would be nice to have a matching crypto_skcipher_en/decrypt_one
> function available from the crypto API for these purposes?)
> But if I understand you correctly, you may end up with an insecure
> table-based implementation if you do that. Not what I want :-(
>

Table based AES is known to be vulnerable to plaintext attacks on the
key, since each byte of the input xor'ed with the key is used as an
index for doing Sbox lookups, and so with enough samples, there is an
exploitable statistical correlation between the response time and the
key.

So in the context of EBOIV, where the user might specify a SIMD based
time invariant skcipher, it would be really bad if the known plaintext
encryptions of the byte offsets that occur with the *same* key would
happen with a different cipher that is allocated implicitly and ends
up being fulfilled by, e.g., aes-generic, since in that case, each
block en/decryption is preceded by a single, time-variant AES
invocation with an easily guessable input.

In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks, and the
higher latency of h/w accelerated crypto makes me less worried that
the final, user observable latency would strongly correlate the way
aes-generic in isolation does.

> However, in many cases there would actually be a very good reason
> NOT to want to use the main skcipher for this. As that is some
> hardware accelerator with terrible latency that you wouldn't want
> to use to process just one cipher block. For that, you want to have
> some SW implementation that is efficient on a single block instead.
>

Indeed. Note that for EBOIV, such performance concerns are deemed
irrelevant, but it is an issue in the general case.

> In my humble opinion, such insecure table based implementations just
> shouldn't exist at all - you can always do better, possibly at the
> expense of some performance degradation. Or you should at least have
> some flag  available to specify you have some security requirements
> and such an implementation is not an acceptable response.
>

We did some work to reduce the time variance of AES: there is the
aes-ti driver, and there is now also the AES library, which is known
to be slower than aes-generic, but does include some mitigations for
cache timing attacks.

Other than that, I have little to offer, given that the performance vs
security tradeoffs were decided long before security became a thing
like it is today, and so removing aes-generic is not an option,
especially since the scalar alternatives we have are not truly time
invariant either.


> > -----Original Message-----
> > From: linux-crypto-owner@vger.kernel.org <linux-crypto-owner@vger.kernel.org> On Behalf Of
> > Ard Biesheuvel
> > Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 7:50 AM
> > To: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org
> > Cc: herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com;
> > dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com; Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> > Subject: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> >
> > Instead of instantiating a separate cipher to perform the encryption
> > needed to produce the IV, reuse the skcipher used for the block data
> > and invoke it one additional time for each block to encrypt a zero
> > vector and use the output as the IV.
> >
> > For CBC mode, this is equivalent to using the bare block cipher, but
> > without the risk of ending up with a non-time invariant implementation
> > of AES when the skcipher itself is time variant (e.g., arm64 without
> > Crypto Extensions has a NEON based time invariant implementation of
> > cbc(aes) but no time invariant implementation of the core cipher other
> > than aes-ti, which is not enabled by default)
> >
> > This approach is a compromise between dm-crypt API flexibility and
> > reducing dependence on parts of the crypto API that should not usually
> > be exposed to other subsystems, such as the bare cipher API.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> > ---
> >  drivers/md/dm-crypt.c | 70 ++++++++++++++-----------------------------
> >  1 file changed, 22 insertions(+), 48 deletions(-)
> >
> > diff --git a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> > index d5216bcc4649..48cd76c88d77 100644
> > --- a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> > +++ b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> > @@ -120,10 +120,6 @@ struct iv_tcw_private {
> >       u8 *whitening;
> >  };
> >
> > -struct iv_eboiv_private {
> > -     struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> > -};
> > -
> >  /*
> >   * Crypt: maps a linear range of a block device
> >   * and encrypts / decrypts at the same time.
> > @@ -163,7 +159,6 @@ struct crypt_config {
> >               struct iv_benbi_private benbi;
> >               struct iv_lmk_private lmk;
> >               struct iv_tcw_private tcw;
> > -             struct iv_eboiv_private eboiv;
> >       } iv_gen_private;
> >       u64 iv_offset;
> >       unsigned int iv_size;
> > @@ -847,65 +842,47 @@ static int crypt_iv_random_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> >       return 0;
> >  }
> >
> > -static void crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr(struct crypt_config *cc)
> > -{
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > -
> > -     crypto_free_cipher(eboiv->tfm);
> > -     eboiv->tfm = NULL;
> > -}
> > -
> >  static int crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr(struct crypt_config *cc, struct dm_target *ti,
> >                           const char *opts)
> >  {
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > -     struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> > -
> > -     tfm = crypto_alloc_cipher(cc->cipher, 0, 0);
> > -     if (IS_ERR(tfm)) {
> > -             ti->error = "Error allocating crypto tfm for EBOIV";
> > -             return PTR_ERR(tfm);
> > +     if (test_bit(CRYPT_MODE_INTEGRITY_AEAD, &cc->cipher_flags)) {
> > +             ti->error = "AEAD transforms not supported for EBOIV";
> > +             return -EINVAL;
> >       }
> >
> > -     if (crypto_cipher_blocksize(tfm) != cc->iv_size) {
> > +     if (crypto_skcipher_blocksize(any_tfm(cc)) != cc->iv_size) {
> >               ti->error = "Block size of EBOIV cipher does "
> >                           "not match IV size of block cipher";
> > -             crypto_free_cipher(tfm);
> >               return -EINVAL;
> >       }
> >
> > -     eboiv->tfm = tfm;
> >       return 0;
> >  }
> >
> > -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_init(struct crypt_config *cc)
> > +static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> > +                         struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
> >  {
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > +     u8 buf[MAX_CIPHER_BLOCKSIZE] __aligned(__alignof__(__le64));
> > +     struct skcipher_request *req;
> > +     struct scatterlist src, dst;
> > +     struct crypto_wait wait;
> >       int err;
> >
> > -     err = crypto_cipher_setkey(eboiv->tfm, cc->key, cc->key_size);
> > -     if (err)
> > -             return err;
> > -
> > -     return 0;
> > -}
> > -
> > -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe(struct crypt_config *cc)
> > -{
> > -     /* Called after cc->key is set to random key in crypt_wipe() */
> > -     return crypt_iv_eboiv_init(cc);
> > -}
> > +     req = skcipher_request_alloc(any_tfm(cc), GFP_KERNEL | GFP_NOFS);
> > +     if (!req)
> > +             return -ENOMEM;
> >
> > -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> > -                         struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
> > -{
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > +     memset(buf, 0, cc->iv_size);
> > +     *(__le64 *)buf = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
> >
> > -     memset(iv, 0, cc->iv_size);
> > -     *(__le64 *)iv = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
> > -     crypto_cipher_encrypt_one(eboiv->tfm, iv, iv);
> > +     sg_init_one(&src, page_address(ZERO_PAGE(0)), cc->iv_size);
> > +     sg_init_one(&dst, iv, cc->iv_size);
> > +     skcipher_request_set_crypt(req, &src, &dst, cc->iv_size, buf);
> > +     skcipher_request_set_callback(req, 0, crypto_req_done, &wait);
> > +     err = crypto_wait_req(crypto_skcipher_encrypt(req), &wait);
> > +     skcipher_request_free(req);
> >
> > -     return 0;
> > +     return err;
> >  }
> >
> >  static const struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_plain_ops = {
> > @@ -962,9 +939,6 @@ static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_random_ops = {
> >
> >  static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_eboiv_ops = {
> >       .ctr       = crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr,
> > -     .dtr       = crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr,
> > -     .init      = crypt_iv_eboiv_init,
> > -     .wipe      = crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe,
> >       .generator = crypt_iv_eboiv_gen
> >  };
> >
> > --
> > 2.17.1
>

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07 13:17   ` Ard Biesheuvel
@ 2019-08-07 13:52     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-07 15:39       ` Ard Biesheuvel
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-07 13:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ard Biesheuvel
  Cc: linux-crypto, herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland

Ard,

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 3:17 PM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org;
> agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 10:28, Pascal Van Leeuwen
> <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
> >
> > Ard,
> >
> > I've actually been following this discussion with some interest, as it has
> > some relevance for some of the things I am doing at the moment as well.
> >
> > For example, for my CTS implementation I need to crypt one or two
> > seperate blocks and for the inside-secure driver I sometimes need to do
> > some single crypto block precomputes. (the XTS driver additionally
> > also already did such a single block encrypt for the tweak, also using
> > a seperate (non-sk)cipher instance - very similar to your IV case)
> >
> > Long story short, the current approach is to allocate a seperate
> > cipher instance so you can conveniently do crypto_cipher_en/decrypt_one.
> > (it would be nice to have a matching crypto_skcipher_en/decrypt_one
> > function available from the crypto API for these purposes?)
> > But if I understand you correctly, you may end up with an insecure
> > table-based implementation if you do that. Not what I want :-(
> >
> 
> Table based AES is known to be vulnerable to plaintext attacks on the
> key, since each byte of the input xor'ed with the key is used as an
> index for doing Sbox lookups, and so with enough samples, there is an
> exploitable statistical correlation between the response time and the
> key.
> 
> So in the context of EBOIV, where the user might specify a SIMD based
> time invariant skcipher, it would be really bad if the known plaintext
> encryptions of the byte offsets that occur with the *same* key would
> happen with a different cipher that is allocated implicitly and ends
> up being fulfilled by, e.g., aes-generic, since in that case, each
> block en/decryption is preceded by a single, time-variant AES
> invocation with an easily guessable input.
> 
No need to tell me, doing crypto has been my dayjob for nearly 18.5 years
now :-)

> In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
>
Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written 
to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.

> and the
> higher latency of h/w accelerated crypto makes me less worried that
> the final, user observable latency would strongly correlate the way
> aes-generic in isolation does.
>
If that latency is constant - which it usually is - then it doesn't 
really matter for correlation, it just filters out.

> > However, in many cases there would actually be a very good reason
> > NOT to want to use the main skcipher for this. As that is some
> > hardware accelerator with terrible latency that you wouldn't want
> > to use to process just one cipher block. For that, you want to have
> > some SW implementation that is efficient on a single block instead.
> >
> 
> Indeed. Note that for EBOIV, such performance concerns are deemed
> irrelevant, but it is an issue in the general case.
> 
Yes, my interest was purely in the generic case.

> > In my humble opinion, such insecure table based implementations just
> > shouldn't exist at all - you can always do better, possibly at the
> > expense of some performance degradation. Or you should at least have
> > some flag  available to specify you have some security requirements
> > and such an implementation is not an acceptable response.
> >
> 
> We did some work to reduce the time variance of AES: there is the
> aes-ti driver, and there is now also the AES library, which is known
> to be slower than aes-generic, but does include some mitigations for
> cache timing attacks.
> 
> Other than that, I have little to offer, given that the performance vs
> security tradeoffs were decided long before security became a thing
> like it is today, and so removing aes-generic is not an option,
> especially since the scalar alternatives we have are not truly time
> invariant either.
> 
Replacing aes-generic with a truly time-invariant implementation could
be an option. Or selecting aes-generic only if some (new) "allow_insecure"
flag is set on the cipher request. (Obviously, you want to default to
secure, not insecure. Speaking as someone who earns his living doing
security :-)

(Disclaimer: I do not know anything about the aes-generic implementation, 
I'm just taking your word for it that it is not secure (enough) ...)

Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07 13:52     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-07 15:39       ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-07 16:14         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Ard Biesheuvel @ 2019-08-07 15:39 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen
  Cc: linux-crypto, herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland

On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 16:52, Pascal Van Leeuwen
<pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
>
> Ard,
>
> > -----Original Message-----
> > From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> > Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 3:17 PM
> > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org;
> > agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com
> > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> >
> > On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 10:28, Pascal Van Leeuwen
> > <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
> > >
> > > Ard,
> > >
> > > I've actually been following this discussion with some interest, as it has
> > > some relevance for some of the things I am doing at the moment as well.
> > >
> > > For example, for my CTS implementation I need to crypt one or two
> > > seperate blocks and for the inside-secure driver I sometimes need to do
> > > some single crypto block precomputes. (the XTS driver additionally
> > > also already did such a single block encrypt for the tweak, also using
> > > a seperate (non-sk)cipher instance - very similar to your IV case)
> > >
> > > Long story short, the current approach is to allocate a seperate
> > > cipher instance so you can conveniently do crypto_cipher_en/decrypt_one.
> > > (it would be nice to have a matching crypto_skcipher_en/decrypt_one
> > > function available from the crypto API for these purposes?)
> > > But if I understand you correctly, you may end up with an insecure
> > > table-based implementation if you do that. Not what I want :-(
> > >
> >
> > Table based AES is known to be vulnerable to plaintext attacks on the
> > key, since each byte of the input xor'ed with the key is used as an
> > index for doing Sbox lookups, and so with enough samples, there is an
> > exploitable statistical correlation between the response time and the
> > key.
> >
> > So in the context of EBOIV, where the user might specify a SIMD based
> > time invariant skcipher, it would be really bad if the known plaintext
> > encryptions of the byte offsets that occur with the *same* key would
> > happen with a different cipher that is allocated implicitly and ends
> > up being fulfilled by, e.g., aes-generic, since in that case, each
> > block en/decryption is preceded by a single, time-variant AES
> > invocation with an easily guessable input.
> >
> No need to tell me, doing crypto has been my dayjob for nearly 18.5 years
> now :-)
>

I didn't mean to imply that you don't know your stuff :-) I am just
reiterating the EBOIV issue so we can compare it to the issue you are
bringing up

> > In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> >
> Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
>

The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case. And a plaintext attack
on the data encryption part of XTS involves knowing the value of the
tweak as well, so you'd have to successfully attack the tweak before
you can attack the data. So while your point is valid, it's definitely
less broken than EBOIV.

> > and the
> > higher latency of h/w accelerated crypto makes me less worried that
> > the final, user observable latency would strongly correlate the way
> > aes-generic in isolation does.
> >
> If that latency is constant - which it usually is - then it doesn't
> really matter for correlation, it just filters out.
>

Due to the asynchronous nature of the driver, we'll usually be calling
into the OS scheduler after queuing one or perhaps several blocks for
processing by the hardware. Even if the processing time is fixed, the
time it takes for the OS to respond to the completion IRQ and process
the output is unlikely to correlate the way a table based software
implementation does, especially if several blocks can be in flight at
the same time.

But note that we are basically in agreement here: falling back to
table based AES is undesirable, but for EBOIV it is just much worse
than for other modes.

> > > However, in many cases there would actually be a very good reason
> > > NOT to want to use the main skcipher for this. As that is some
> > > hardware accelerator with terrible latency that you wouldn't want
> > > to use to process just one cipher block. For that, you want to have
> > > some SW implementation that is efficient on a single block instead.
> > >
> >
> > Indeed. Note that for EBOIV, such performance concerns are deemed
> > irrelevant, but it is an issue in the general case.
> >
> Yes, my interest was purely in the generic case.
>
> > > In my humble opinion, such insecure table based implementations just
> > > shouldn't exist at all - you can always do better, possibly at the
> > > expense of some performance degradation. Or you should at least have
> > > some flag  available to specify you have some security requirements
> > > and such an implementation is not an acceptable response.
> > >
> >
> > We did some work to reduce the time variance of AES: there is the
> > aes-ti driver, and there is now also the AES library, which is known
> > to be slower than aes-generic, but does include some mitigations for
> > cache timing attacks.
> >
> > Other than that, I have little to offer, given that the performance vs
> > security tradeoffs were decided long before security became a thing
> > like it is today, and so removing aes-generic is not an option,
> > especially since the scalar alternatives we have are not truly time
> > invariant either.
> >
> Replacing aes-generic with a truly time-invariant implementation could
> be an option.

If you can find a truly time-invariant C implementation of AES that
isn't orders of magnitude slower than aes-generic, I'm sure we can
merge it.

> Or selecting aes-generic only if some (new) "allow_insecure"
> flag is set on the cipher request. (Obviously, you want to default to
> secure, not insecure. Speaking as someone who earns his living doing
> security :-)
>

We all do. But we all have different use cases to worry about, and
different experiences and backgrounds :-)

The main problem is that banning aes-generic is a bit too rigorous
imo. It highly depends on whether there is known plaintext and whether
there are observable latencies in the first place.

> (Disclaimer: I do not know anything about the aes-generic implementation,
> I'm just taking your word for it that it is not secure (enough) ...)
>

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07 15:39       ` Ard Biesheuvel
@ 2019-08-07 16:14         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-07 16:50           ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-08  8:30           ` Eric Biggers
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-07 16:14 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ard Biesheuvel
  Cc: linux-crypto, herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 5:40 PM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org;
> agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 16:52, Pascal Van Leeuwen
> <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
> >
> > Ard,
> >
> > > -----Original Message-----
> > > From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> > > Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 3:17 PM
> > > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > > Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org;
> > > agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com
> > > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > >
> > > On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 10:28, Pascal Van Leeuwen
> > > <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
> > > >
> > > > Ard,
> > > >
> > > > I've actually been following this discussion with some interest, as it has
> > > > some relevance for some of the things I am doing at the moment as well.
> > > >
> > > > For example, for my CTS implementation I need to crypt one or two
> > > > seperate blocks and for the inside-secure driver I sometimes need to do
> > > > some single crypto block precomputes. (the XTS driver additionally
> > > > also already did such a single block encrypt for the tweak, also using
> > > > a seperate (non-sk)cipher instance - very similar to your IV case)
> > > >
> > > > Long story short, the current approach is to allocate a seperate
> > > > cipher instance so you can conveniently do crypto_cipher_en/decrypt_one.
> > > > (it would be nice to have a matching crypto_skcipher_en/decrypt_one
> > > > function available from the crypto API for these purposes?)
> > > > But if I understand you correctly, you may end up with an insecure
> > > > table-based implementation if you do that. Not what I want :-(
> > > >
> > >
> > > Table based AES is known to be vulnerable to plaintext attacks on the
> > > key, since each byte of the input xor'ed with the key is used as an
> > > index for doing Sbox lookups, and so with enough samples, there is an
> > > exploitable statistical correlation between the response time and the
> > > key.
> > >
> > > So in the context of EBOIV, where the user might specify a SIMD based
> > > time invariant skcipher, it would be really bad if the known plaintext
> > > encryptions of the byte offsets that occur with the *same* key would
> > > happen with a different cipher that is allocated implicitly and ends
> > > up being fulfilled by, e.g., aes-generic, since in that case, each
> > > block en/decryption is preceded by a single, time-variant AES
> > > invocation with an easily guessable input.
> > >
> > No need to tell me, doing crypto has been my dayjob for nearly 18.5 years
> > now :-)
> >
> 
> I didn't mean to imply that you don't know your stuff :-) I am just
> reiterating the EBOIV issue so we can compare it to the issue you are
> bringing up
> 
Fair enough :-)

> > > In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > >
> > Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> >
> 
> The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case. 
>
Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases 
I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases 
key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security 
(of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside 
:-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security 
proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.

> And a plaintext attack
> on the data encryption part of XTS involves knowing the value of the
> tweak as well, so you'd have to successfully attack the tweak before
> you can attack the data. So while your point is valid, it's definitely
> less broken than EBOIV.
> 
For the data encryption, you have a very valid point (which I admit I
completely overlooked). For the tweak encryption itself, however ...

But even if you would use 2 independent keys, if you first break the
tweak key, the tweak becomes known plaintext and you can then continue
breaking the data encryption key :-) It's a bit harder, but far from
impossible.

> > > and the
> > > higher latency of h/w accelerated crypto makes me less worried that
> > > the final, user observable latency would strongly correlate the way
> > > aes-generic in isolation does.
> > >
> > If that latency is constant - which it usually is - then it doesn't
> > really matter for correlation, it just filters out.
> >
> 
> Due to the asynchronous nature of the driver, we'll usually be calling
> into the OS scheduler after queuing one or perhaps several blocks for
> processing by the hardware. Even if the processing time is fixed, the
> time it takes for the OS to respond to the completion IRQ and process
> the output is unlikely to correlate the way a table based software
> implementation does, especially if several blocks can be in flight at
> the same time.
> 
Ok, I didn't know the details of that ... still, don't underestimate
the power of statistical analysis. You'd think a SoC would generate 
enough power or EMI noise to hide your puny little crypto accelerator's
contribution to that - well, think again. You'd be surprised by what
the guys in our attack lab manage to achieve.

> But note that we are basically in agreement here: falling back to
> table based AES is undesirable, but for EBOIV it is just much worse
> than for other modes.
> 
Much worse than *certain* other modes. It's definitely something that
always needs to be in the back of your mind as long as there is some
possibility you end up with a not-so-secure implementation.

> > > > However, in many cases there would actually be a very good reason
> > > > NOT to want to use the main skcipher for this. As that is some
> > > > hardware accelerator with terrible latency that you wouldn't want
> > > > to use to process just one cipher block. For that, you want to have
> > > > some SW implementation that is efficient on a single block instead.
> > > >
> > >
> > > Indeed. Note that for EBOIV, such performance concerns are deemed
> > > irrelevant, but it is an issue in the general case.
> > >
> > Yes, my interest was purely in the generic case.
> >
> > > > In my humble opinion, such insecure table based implementations just
> > > > shouldn't exist at all - you can always do better, possibly at the
> > > > expense of some performance degradation. Or you should at least have
> > > > some flag  available to specify you have some security requirements
> > > > and such an implementation is not an acceptable response.
> > > >
> > >
> > > We did some work to reduce the time variance of AES: there is the
> > > aes-ti driver, and there is now also the AES library, which is known
> > > to be slower than aes-generic, but does include some mitigations for
> > > cache timing attacks.
> > >
> > > Other than that, I have little to offer, given that the performance vs
> > > security tradeoffs were decided long before security became a thing
> > > like it is today, and so removing aes-generic is not an option,
> > > especially since the scalar alternatives we have are not truly time
> > > invariant either.
> > >
> > Replacing aes-generic with a truly time-invariant implementation could
> > be an option.
> 
> If you can find a truly time-invariant C implementation of AES that
> isn't orders of magnitude slower than aes-generic, I'm sure we can
> merge it.
> 
I guess the "orders of a magnitude slower" thing is the catch here :-)

But from my perspective, crypto performance is irrelevant if it is not 
secure at all. (after all, it's crypto, so the *intent* is security)
Of course there's gradation in security levels, but timing-attack
resistance really is the lowest of the lowest IMHO.

> > Or selecting aes-generic only if some (new) "allow_insecure"
> > flag is set on the cipher request. (Obviously, you want to default to
> > secure, not insecure. Speaking as someone who earns his living doing
> > security :-)
> >
> 
> We all do. But we all have different use cases to worry about, and
> different experiences and backgrounds :-)
> 
> The main problem is that banning aes-generic is a bit too rigorous
> imo. It highly depends on whether there is known plaintext and whether
> there are observable latencies in the first place.
> 
Agree on the banning part, but it would be good if you could be *certain*
somehow that you don't end up with it. For certain use cases, a (much)
slower, but more, secure implementation may be the better choice. As you
already discovered by yourself.

> > (Disclaimer: I do not know anything about the aes-generic implementation,
> > I'm just taking your word for it that it is not secure (enough) ...)
> >

Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07 16:14         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-07 16:50           ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-07 20:22             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-08  8:30           ` Eric Biggers
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Ard Biesheuvel @ 2019-08-07 16:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen; +Cc: linux-crypto, herbert, ebiggers, gmazyland

(trim cc)

On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 19:14, Pascal Van Leeuwen
<pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
>
> > -----Original Message-----
> > From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> > Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 5:40 PM
> > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org;
> > agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com
> > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> >
> > On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 16:52, Pascal Van Leeuwen
> > <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
> > >
> > > Ard,
> > >
> > > > -----Original Message-----
> > > > From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> > > > Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 3:17 PM
> > > > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > > > Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org;
> > > > agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com; gmazyland@gmail.com
> > > > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > > >
> > > > On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 10:28, Pascal Van Leeuwen
> > > > <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com> wrote:
> > > > >
> > > > > Ard,
> > > > >
> > > > > I've actually been following this discussion with some interest, as it has
> > > > > some relevance for some of the things I am doing at the moment as well.
> > > > >
> > > > > For example, for my CTS implementation I need to crypt one or two
> > > > > seperate blocks and for the inside-secure driver I sometimes need to do
> > > > > some single crypto block precomputes. (the XTS driver additionally
> > > > > also already did such a single block encrypt for the tweak, also using
> > > > > a seperate (non-sk)cipher instance - very similar to your IV case)
> > > > >
> > > > > Long story short, the current approach is to allocate a seperate
> > > > > cipher instance so you can conveniently do crypto_cipher_en/decrypt_one.
> > > > > (it would be nice to have a matching crypto_skcipher_en/decrypt_one
> > > > > function available from the crypto API for these purposes?)
> > > > > But if I understand you correctly, you may end up with an insecure
> > > > > table-based implementation if you do that. Not what I want :-(
> > > > >
> > > >
> > > > Table based AES is known to be vulnerable to plaintext attacks on the
> > > > key, since each byte of the input xor'ed with the key is used as an
> > > > index for doing Sbox lookups, and so with enough samples, there is an
> > > > exploitable statistical correlation between the response time and the
> > > > key.
> > > >
> > > > So in the context of EBOIV, where the user might specify a SIMD based
> > > > time invariant skcipher, it would be really bad if the known plaintext
> > > > encryptions of the byte offsets that occur with the *same* key would
> > > > happen with a different cipher that is allocated implicitly and ends
> > > > up being fulfilled by, e.g., aes-generic, since in that case, each
> > > > block en/decryption is preceded by a single, time-variant AES
> > > > invocation with an easily guessable input.
> > > >
> > > No need to tell me, doing crypto has been my dayjob for nearly 18.5 years
> > > now :-)
> > >
> >
> > I didn't mean to imply that you don't know your stuff :-) I am just
> > reiterating the EBOIV issue so we can compare it to the issue you are
> > bringing up
> >
> Fair enough :-)
>
> > > > In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > > >
> > > Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > > we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > > same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > > to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > > OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > > but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > >
> >
> > The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> >
> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
>

Regardless of all of that, the Linux implementation does in fact use
separate keys for tweak and data. That is why the key sizes are double
wrt ordinary AES, i.e., 32 bytes for XTS-AES-128 and 64 bytes for
XTS-AES-256.

> > And a plaintext attack
> > on the data encryption part of XTS involves knowing the value of the
> > tweak as well, so you'd have to successfully attack the tweak before
> > you can attack the data. So while your point is valid, it's definitely
> > less broken than EBOIV.
> >
> For the data encryption, you have a very valid point (which I admit I
> completely overlooked). For the tweak encryption itself, however ...
>
> But even if you would use 2 independent keys, if you first break the
> tweak key, the tweak becomes known plaintext and you can then continue
> breaking the data encryption key :-) It's a bit harder, but far from
> impossible.
>

Agreed.

> > > > and the
> > > > higher latency of h/w accelerated crypto makes me less worried that
> > > > the final, user observable latency would strongly correlate the way
> > > > aes-generic in isolation does.
> > > >
> > > If that latency is constant - which it usually is - then it doesn't
> > > really matter for correlation, it just filters out.
> > >
> >
> > Due to the asynchronous nature of the driver, we'll usually be calling
> > into the OS scheduler after queuing one or perhaps several blocks for
> > processing by the hardware. Even if the processing time is fixed, the
> > time it takes for the OS to respond to the completion IRQ and process
> > the output is unlikely to correlate the way a table based software
> > implementation does, especially if several blocks can be in flight at
> > the same time.
> >
> Ok, I didn't know the details of that ... still, don't underestimate
> the power of statistical analysis. You'd think a SoC would generate
> enough power or EMI noise to hide your puny little crypto accelerator's
> contribution to that - well, think again. You'd be surprised by what
> the guys in our attack lab manage to achieve.
>
> > But note that we are basically in agreement here: falling back to
> > table based AES is undesirable, but for EBOIV it is just much worse
> > than for other modes.
> >
> Much worse than *certain* other modes. It's definitely something that
> always needs to be in the back of your mind as long as there is some
> possibility you end up with a not-so-secure implementation.
>

Again, agreed, which also happens to be the reason why I am arguing
that the bare cipher API should not be exposed outside of the crypto
subsystem at all.

> > > > > However, in many cases there would actually be a very good reason
> > > > > NOT to want to use the main skcipher for this. As that is some
> > > > > hardware accelerator with terrible latency that you wouldn't want
> > > > > to use to process just one cipher block. For that, you want to have
> > > > > some SW implementation that is efficient on a single block instead.
> > > > >
> > > >
> > > > Indeed. Note that for EBOIV, such performance concerns are deemed
> > > > irrelevant, but it is an issue in the general case.
> > > >
> > > Yes, my interest was purely in the generic case.
> > >
> > > > > In my humble opinion, such insecure table based implementations just
> > > > > shouldn't exist at all - you can always do better, possibly at the
> > > > > expense of some performance degradation. Or you should at least have
> > > > > some flag  available to specify you have some security requirements
> > > > > and such an implementation is not an acceptable response.
> > > > >
> > > >
> > > > We did some work to reduce the time variance of AES: there is the
> > > > aes-ti driver, and there is now also the AES library, which is known
> > > > to be slower than aes-generic, but does include some mitigations for
> > > > cache timing attacks.
> > > >
> > > > Other than that, I have little to offer, given that the performance vs
> > > > security tradeoffs were decided long before security became a thing
> > > > like it is today, and so removing aes-generic is not an option,
> > > > especially since the scalar alternatives we have are not truly time
> > > > invariant either.
> > > >
> > > Replacing aes-generic with a truly time-invariant implementation could
> > > be an option.
> >
> > If you can find a truly time-invariant C implementation of AES that
> > isn't orders of magnitude slower than aes-generic, I'm sure we can
> > merge it.
> >
> I guess the "orders of a magnitude slower" thing is the catch here :-)
>
> But from my perspective, crypto performance is irrelevant if it is not
> secure at all. (after all, it's crypto, so the *intent* is security)
> Of course there's gradation in security levels, but timing-attack
> resistance really is the lowest of the lowest IMHO.
>

I am not disagreeing with that at all. This is actually one of the
main reasons for my work on refactoring the way AES is being used in
the kernel: for historical reasons, many drivers have a hard
dependency on CONFIG_CRYPTO_AES, and pull in the aes-generic driver,
and so at the moment, it is not possible to disable it. Going forward,
I'd like to refine this further so that aes-generic can be replaced by
aes-ti.

> > > Or selecting aes-generic only if some (new) "allow_insecure"
> > > flag is set on the cipher request. (Obviously, you want to default to
> > > secure, not insecure. Speaking as someone who earns his living doing
> > > security :-)
> > >
> >
> > We all do. But we all have different use cases to worry about, and
> > different experiences and backgrounds :-)
> >
> > The main problem is that banning aes-generic is a bit too rigorous
> > imo. It highly depends on whether there is known plaintext and whether
> > there are observable latencies in the first place.
> >
> Agree on the banning part, but it would be good if you could be *certain*
> somehow that you don't end up with it. For certain use cases, a (much)
> slower, but more, secure implementation may be the better choice. As you
> already discovered by yourself.
>

See above. In the future, I'd like to ensure that aes-generic does not
have to be built into the core kernel (which will be possible once
existing core kernel users that require AES switch to the AES library
or stop using AES altogether). That way, the module can be blacklisted
or omitted from the kernel build altogether (as well as other modules
that reimplement that same algorithm using arch specific assembly
code)

> > > (Disclaimer: I do not know anything about the aes-generic implementation,
> > > I'm just taking your word for it that it is not secure (enough) ...)
> > >
>
> Regards,
> Pascal van Leeuwen
> Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
> www.insidesecure.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07 16:50           ` Ard Biesheuvel
@ 2019-08-07 20:22             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-07 20:22 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ard Biesheuvel; +Cc: linux-crypto, herbert, ebiggers, gmazyland

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
> Sent: Wednesday, August 7, 2019 6:51 PM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; ebiggers@kernel.org;
> gmazyland@gmail.com
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> (trim cc)
> 
> >
> > > > > In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > > > >
> > > > Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > > > we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > > > same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > > > to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > > > OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > > > but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > > >
> > >
> > > The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > > the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> > >
> > Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> > deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> > I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> > key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> > (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> > :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> > proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> >
> 
> Regardless of all of that, the Linux implementation does in fact use
> separate keys for tweak and data. That is why the key sizes are double
> wrt ordinary AES, i.e., 32 bytes for XTS-AES-128 and 64 bytes for
> XTS-AES-256.
> 
Yes, and rightfully so as the specification *allows* for that, my point was 
merely that it may often be used with both keys being equal, in which case
your original assertion of the tweak key being dedicated doesn't hold.
But it doesn't really matter that much anyway, as I pointed out below.

> > > And a plaintext attack
> > > on the data encryption part of XTS involves knowing the value of the
> > > tweak as well, so you'd have to successfully attack the tweak before
> > > you can attack the data. So while your point is valid, it's definitely
> > > less broken than EBOIV.
> > >
> > For the data encryption, you have a very valid point (which I admit I
> > completely overlooked). For the tweak encryption itself, however ...
> >
> > But even if you would use 2 independent keys, if you first break the
> > tweak key, the tweak becomes known plaintext and you can then continue
> > breaking the data encryption key :-) It's a bit harder, but far from
> > impossible.
> >
> 
> Agreed.
> 
> > > But note that we are basically in agreement here: falling back to
> > > table based AES is undesirable, but for EBOIV it is just much worse
> > > than for other modes.
> > >
> > Much worse than *certain* other modes. It's definitely something that
> > always needs to be in the back of your mind as long as there is some
> > possibility you end up with a not-so-secure implementation.
> >
> 
> Again, agreed, which also happens to be the reason why I am arguing
> that the bare cipher API should not be exposed outside of the crypto
> subsystem at all.
> 
> > > > > > However, in many cases there would actually be a very good reason
> > > > > > In my humble opinion, such insecure table based implementations just
> > > > > > shouldn't exist at all - you can always do better, possibly at the
> > > > > > expense of some performance degradation. Or you should at least have
> > > > > > some flag  available to specify you have some security requirements
> > > > > > and such an implementation is not an acceptable response.
> > > > > >
> > > > >
> > > > > We did some work to reduce the time variance of AES: there is the
> > > > > aes-ti driver, and there is now also the AES library, which is known
> > > > > to be slower than aes-generic, but does include some mitigations for
> > > > > cache timing attacks.
> > > > >
> > > > > Other than that, I have little to offer, given that the performance vs
> > > > > security tradeoffs were decided long before security became a thing
> > > > > like it is today, and so removing aes-generic is not an option,
> > > > > especially since the scalar alternatives we have are not truly time
> > > > > invariant either.
> > > > >
> > > > Replacing aes-generic with a truly time-invariant implementation could
> > > > be an option.
> > >
> > > If you can find a truly time-invariant C implementation of AES that
> > > isn't orders of magnitude slower than aes-generic, I'm sure we can
> > > merge it.
> > >
> > I guess the "orders of a magnitude slower" thing is the catch here :-)
> >
> > But from my perspective, crypto performance is irrelevant if it is not
> > secure at all. (after all, it's crypto, so the *intent* is security)
> > Of course there's gradation in security levels, but timing-attack
> > resistance really is the lowest of the lowest IMHO.
> >
> 
> I am not disagreeing with that at all. This is actually one of the
> main reasons for my work on refactoring the way AES is being used in
> the kernel: for historical reasons, many drivers have a hard
> dependency on CONFIG_CRYPTO_AES, and pull in the aes-generic driver,
> and so at the moment, it is not possible to disable it. Going forward,
> I'd like to refine this further so that aes-generic can be replaced by
> aes-ti.
> 
> > > > Or selecting aes-generic only if some (new) "allow_insecure"
> > > > flag is set on the cipher request. (Obviously, you want to default to
> > > > secure, not insecure. Speaking as someone who earns his living doing
> > > > security :-)
> > > >
> > >
> > > We all do. But we all have different use cases to worry about, and
> > > different experiences and backgrounds :-)
> > >
> > > The main problem is that banning aes-generic is a bit too rigorous
> > > imo. It highly depends on whether there is known plaintext and whether
> > > there are observable latencies in the first place.
> > >
> > Agree on the banning part, but it would be good if you could be *certain*
> > somehow that you don't end up with it. For certain use cases, a (much)
> > slower, but more, secure implementation may be the better choice. As you
> > already discovered by yourself.
> >
> 
> See above. In the future, I'd like to ensure that aes-generic does not
> have to be built into the core kernel (which will be possible once
> existing core kernel users that require AES switch to the AES library
> or stop using AES altogether). That way, the module can be blacklisted
> or omitted from the kernel build altogether (as well as other modules
> that reimplement that same algorithm using arch specific assembly
> code)
> 
Sound like you are actually already busy trying to get rid of aes-generic
usage, so in that case, I should let you get back to work :-)


Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07 16:14         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-07 16:50           ` Ard Biesheuvel
@ 2019-08-08  8:30           ` Eric Biggers
  2019-08-08  9:31             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Eric Biggers @ 2019-08-08  8:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen
  Cc: Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto, herbert, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland

On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > > >
> > > Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > > we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > > same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > > to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > > OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > > but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > >
> > 
> > The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case. 
> >
> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases 
> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases 
> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security 
> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside 
> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security 
> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> 

This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
(https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).

Of course, it's debatable what this means *in practice* to the usual XTS use
cases like disk encryption, for which CCA security may not be critical...  But
technically, single-key XTS isn't secure under as strong an attack model as XEX.

- Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-08  8:30           ` Eric Biggers
@ 2019-08-08  9:31             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-08 12:52               ` Milan Broz
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-08  9:31 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric Biggers
  Cc: Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto, herbert, agk, snitzer, dm-devel, gmazyland

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 10:31 AM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com;
> gmazyland@gmail.com
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > > In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > > > >
> > > > Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > > > we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > > > same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > > > to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > > > OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > > > but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > > >
> > >
> > > The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > > the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> > >
> > Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> > deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> > I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> > key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> > (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> > :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> > proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> >
> 
> This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
> CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
> XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
> with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
> the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
> (https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).
> 
Interesting ... I'm not a cryptographer, just a humble HW engineer specialized
in implementing crypto. I'm basing my views mostly on the Liskov/Minematsu
"Comments on XTS", who assert that using 2 keys in XTS was misguided. 
(and I never saw any follow-on comments asserting that this view was wrong ...)
On not avoiding j=0 in the XTS spec they actually comment:
"This difference is significant in security, but has no impact on effectiveness 
for practical applications.", which I read as "not relevant for normal use".

In any case, it's frequently *used* with both keys being equal for performance
and key storage reasons.

> Of course, it's debatable what this means *in practice* to the usual XTS use
> cases like disk encryption, for which CCA security may not be critical...  But
> technically, single-key XTS isn't secure under as strong an attack model as XEX.
> 
Well, technically the XTS specification does not actually mandate that j should
start at 0 (!), although that's what the vectors and example code suggest ...

> - Eric

Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-07  5:50 [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation Ard Biesheuvel
  2019-08-07  7:28 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-07  8:08 ` Milan Broz
@ 2019-08-08 11:53 ` Milan Broz
  2019-08-09 18:52   ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Milan Broz @ 2019-08-08 11:53 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto; +Cc: herbert, ebiggers, agk, snitzer, dm-devel

Hi,

On 07/08/2019 07:50, Ard Biesheuvel wrote:
> Instead of instantiating a separate cipher to perform the encryption
> needed to produce the IV, reuse the skcipher used for the block data
> and invoke it one additional time for each block to encrypt a zero
> vector and use the output as the IV.
> 
> For CBC mode, this is equivalent to using the bare block cipher, but
> without the risk of ending up with a non-time invariant implementation
> of AES when the skcipher itself is time variant (e.g., arm64 without
> Crypto Extensions has a NEON based time invariant implementation of
> cbc(aes) but no time invariant implementation of the core cipher other
> than aes-ti, which is not enabled by default)
> 
> This approach is a compromise between dm-crypt API flexibility and
> reducing dependence on parts of the crypto API that should not usually
> be exposed to other subsystems, such as the bare cipher API.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>

For now I have just pair of images here to test, but seems checksums are ok.

Tested-by: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>

I talked with Mike already, so it should go through DM tree now.

Thanks!
Milan


> ---
>  drivers/md/dm-crypt.c | 70 ++++++++++++++-----------------------------
>  1 file changed, 22 insertions(+), 48 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> index d5216bcc4649..48cd76c88d77 100644
> --- a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> +++ b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> @@ -120,10 +120,6 @@ struct iv_tcw_private {
>  	u8 *whitening;
>  };
>  
> -struct iv_eboiv_private {
> -	struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> -};
> -
>  /*
>   * Crypt: maps a linear range of a block device
>   * and encrypts / decrypts at the same time.
> @@ -163,7 +159,6 @@ struct crypt_config {
>  		struct iv_benbi_private benbi;
>  		struct iv_lmk_private lmk;
>  		struct iv_tcw_private tcw;
> -		struct iv_eboiv_private eboiv;
>  	} iv_gen_private;
>  	u64 iv_offset;
>  	unsigned int iv_size;
> @@ -847,65 +842,47 @@ static int crypt_iv_random_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
>  	return 0;
>  }
>  
> -static void crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr(struct crypt_config *cc)
> -{
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> -
> -	crypto_free_cipher(eboiv->tfm);
> -	eboiv->tfm = NULL;
> -}
> -
>  static int crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr(struct crypt_config *cc, struct dm_target *ti,
>  			    const char *opts)
>  {
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> -	struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> -
> -	tfm = crypto_alloc_cipher(cc->cipher, 0, 0);
> -	if (IS_ERR(tfm)) {
> -		ti->error = "Error allocating crypto tfm for EBOIV";
> -		return PTR_ERR(tfm);
> +	if (test_bit(CRYPT_MODE_INTEGRITY_AEAD, &cc->cipher_flags)) {
> +		ti->error = "AEAD transforms not supported for EBOIV";
> +		return -EINVAL;
>  	}
>  
> -	if (crypto_cipher_blocksize(tfm) != cc->iv_size) {
> +	if (crypto_skcipher_blocksize(any_tfm(cc)) != cc->iv_size) {
>  		ti->error = "Block size of EBOIV cipher does "
>  			    "not match IV size of block cipher";
> -		crypto_free_cipher(tfm);
>  		return -EINVAL;
>  	}
>  
> -	eboiv->tfm = tfm;
>  	return 0;
>  }
>  
> -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_init(struct crypt_config *cc)
> +static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> +			    struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
>  {
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> +	u8 buf[MAX_CIPHER_BLOCKSIZE] __aligned(__alignof__(__le64));
> +	struct skcipher_request *req;
> +	struct scatterlist src, dst;
> +	struct crypto_wait wait;
>  	int err;
>  
> -	err = crypto_cipher_setkey(eboiv->tfm, cc->key, cc->key_size);
> -	if (err)
> -		return err;
> -
> -	return 0;
> -}
> -
> -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe(struct crypt_config *cc)
> -{
> -	/* Called after cc->key is set to random key in crypt_wipe() */
> -	return crypt_iv_eboiv_init(cc);
> -}
> +	req = skcipher_request_alloc(any_tfm(cc), GFP_KERNEL | GFP_NOFS);
> +	if (!req)
> +		return -ENOMEM;
>  
> -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> -			    struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
> -{
> -	struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> +	memset(buf, 0, cc->iv_size);
> +	*(__le64 *)buf = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
>  
> -	memset(iv, 0, cc->iv_size);
> -	*(__le64 *)iv = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
> -	crypto_cipher_encrypt_one(eboiv->tfm, iv, iv);
> +	sg_init_one(&src, page_address(ZERO_PAGE(0)), cc->iv_size);
> +	sg_init_one(&dst, iv, cc->iv_size);
> +	skcipher_request_set_crypt(req, &src, &dst, cc->iv_size, buf);
> +	skcipher_request_set_callback(req, 0, crypto_req_done, &wait);
> +	err = crypto_wait_req(crypto_skcipher_encrypt(req), &wait);
> +	skcipher_request_free(req);
>  
> -	return 0;
> +	return err;
>  }
>  
>  static const struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_plain_ops = {
> @@ -962,9 +939,6 @@ static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_random_ops = {
>  
>  static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_eboiv_ops = {
>  	.ctr	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr,
> -	.dtr	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr,
> -	.init	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_init,
> -	.wipe	   = crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe,
>  	.generator = crypt_iv_eboiv_gen
>  };
>  
> 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-08  9:31             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-08 12:52               ` Milan Broz
  2019-08-08 13:23                 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Milan Broz @ 2019-08-08 12:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen, Eric Biggers
  Cc: Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto, herbert, agk, snitzer, dm-devel

On 08/08/2019 11:31, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
>> -----Original Message-----
>> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
>> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 10:31 AM
>> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
>> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
>> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com;
>> gmazyland@gmail.com
>> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
>>
>> On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
>>>>>> In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
>>>>>>
>>>>> Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
>>>>> we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
>>>>> same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
>>>>> to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
>>>>> OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
>>>>> but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
>>>>>
>>>>
>>>> The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
>>>> the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
>>>>
>>> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
>>> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
>>> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
>>> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
>>> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
>>> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
>>> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
>>>
>>
>> This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
>> CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
>> XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
>> with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
>> the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
>> (https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).
>>
> Interesting ... I'm not a cryptographer, just a humble HW engineer specialized
> in implementing crypto. I'm basing my views mostly on the Liskov/Minematsu
> "Comments on XTS", who assert that using 2 keys in XTS was misguided. 
> (and I never saw any follow-on comments asserting that this view was wrong ...)
> On not avoiding j=0 in the XTS spec they actually comment:
> "This difference is significant in security, but has no impact on effectiveness 
> for practical applications.", which I read as "not relevant for normal use".
> 
> In any case, it's frequently *used* with both keys being equal for performance
> and key storage reasons.

There is already check in kernel for XTS "weak" keys (tweak and encryption keys must not be the same).
  https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/crypto/xts.h#n27

For now it applies only in FIPS mode... (and if I see correctly it is duplicated in all drivers).

Milan

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-08 12:52               ` Milan Broz
@ 2019-08-08 13:23                 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-08 17:15                   ` Eric Biggers
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-08 13:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Milan Broz, Eric Biggers
  Cc: Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto, herbert, agk, snitzer, dm-devel

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>
> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 2:53 PM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>; Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On 08/08/2019 11:31, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> >> -----Original Message-----
> >> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> >> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 10:31 AM
> >> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> >> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> >> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com;
> >> gmazyland@gmail.com
> >> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> >>
> >> On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> >>>>>> In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> >>>>>>
> >>>>> Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> >>>>> we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> >>>>> same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> >>>>> to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> >>>>> OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> >>>>> but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> >>>>>
> >>>>
> >>>> The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> >>>> the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> >>>>
> >>> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> >>> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> >>> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> >>> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> >>> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> >>> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> >>> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> >>>
> >>
> >> This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
> >> CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
> >> XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
> >> with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
> >> the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
> >> (https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).
> >>
> > Interesting ... I'm not a cryptographer, just a humble HW engineer specialized
> > in implementing crypto. I'm basing my views mostly on the Liskov/Minematsu
> > "Comments on XTS", who assert that using 2 keys in XTS was misguided.
> > (and I never saw any follow-on comments asserting that this view was wrong ...)
> > On not avoiding j=0 in the XTS spec they actually comment:
> > "This difference is significant in security, but has no impact on effectiveness
> > for practical applications.", which I read as "not relevant for normal use".
> >
> > In any case, it's frequently *used* with both keys being equal for performance
> > and key storage reasons.
> 
> There is already check in kernel for XTS "weak" keys (tweak and encryption keys must not be
> the same).
> 
> https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/crypto/xts.h#
> n27
> 
> For now it applies only in FIPS mode... (and if I see correctly it is duplicated in all
> drivers).
> 
I never had any need to look into FIPS for XTS before, but this actually appears
to be accurate. FIPS indeed *requires this*. Much to my surprise, I might add.
Still looking for some actual rationale that goes beyond suggestion and innuendo 
(and is not too heavy on the math ;-) though.


> Milan


Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-08 13:23                 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-08 17:15                   ` Eric Biggers
  2019-08-09  9:17                     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Eric Biggers @ 2019-08-08 17:15 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen
  Cc: Milan Broz, Ard Biesheuvel, linux-crypto, herbert, agk, snitzer,
	dm-devel

On Thu, Aug 08, 2019 at 01:23:10PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > -----Original Message-----
> > From: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>
> > Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 2:53 PM
> > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>; Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com
> > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > 
> > On 08/08/2019 11:31, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > >> -----Original Message-----
> > >> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > >> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 10:31 AM
> > >> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > >> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > >> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com;
> > >> gmazyland@gmail.com
> > >> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > >>
> > >> On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > >>>>>> In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > >>>>>>
> > >>>>> Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > >>>>> we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > >>>>> same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > >>>>> to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > >>>>> OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > >>>>> but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > >>>>>
> > >>>>
> > >>>> The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > >>>> the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> > >>>>
> > >>> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> > >>> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> > >>> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> > >>> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> > >>> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> > >>> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> > >>> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> > >>>
> > >>
> > >> This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
> > >> CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
> > >> XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
> > >> with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
> > >> the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
> > >> (https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).
> > >>
> > > Interesting ... I'm not a cryptographer, just a humble HW engineer specialized
> > > in implementing crypto. I'm basing my views mostly on the Liskov/Minematsu
> > > "Comments on XTS", who assert that using 2 keys in XTS was misguided.
> > > (and I never saw any follow-on comments asserting that this view was wrong ...)
> > > On not avoiding j=0 in the XTS spec they actually comment:
> > > "This difference is significant in security, but has no impact on effectiveness
> > > for practical applications.", which I read as "not relevant for normal use".

See page 6 of "Comments on XTS":

	Note that j = 0 must be excluded, as f(0, v) = v for any v, which
	implies ρ = 1. Moreover, if j = 0 was allowed, a simple attack based on
	this fact existed, as pointed out by [6] and [3]. Hence if XEX is used,
	one must be careful to avoid j being 0.

The part you quoted is only talking about XTS *as specified*, i.e. with 2 keys.

> > >
> > > In any case, it's frequently *used* with both keys being equal for performance
> > > and key storage reasons.

It's broken, so it's broken.  Doesn't matter who is using it.

> > 
> > There is already check in kernel for XTS "weak" keys (tweak and encryption keys must not be
> > the same).
> > 
> > https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/crypto/xts.h#
> > n27
> > 
> > For now it applies only in FIPS mode... (and if I see correctly it is duplicated in all
> > drivers).
> > 
> I never had any need to look into FIPS for XTS before, but this actually appears
> to be accurate. FIPS indeed *requires this*. Much to my surprise, I might add.
> Still looking for some actual rationale that goes beyond suggestion and innuendo 
> (and is not too heavy on the math ;-) though.

As I said, the attack is explained in the original XEX paper.  Basically the
adversary can submit a chosen ciphertext query for the first block of sector 0
to leak the first "mask" of that sector, then submit a chosen plaintext or
ciphertext query for the reminder of the sector such that they can predict the
output with 100% certainty.  (The standard security model for tweakable block
ciphers says the output must appear random.)

- Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-08 17:15                   ` Eric Biggers
@ 2019-08-09  9:17                     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-09 17:17                       ` Eric Biggers
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-09  9:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric Biggers, linux-crypto

<trimmed to: list due to being somewhat off-topic>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 7:15 PM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>; Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-
> crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com;
> dm-devel@redhat.com
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On Thu, Aug 08, 2019 at 01:23:10PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > -----Original Message-----
> > > From: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>
> > > Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 2:53 PM
> > > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>; Eric Biggers
> <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > > Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > > herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com
> > > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > >
> > > On 08/08/2019 11:31, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > >> -----Original Message-----
> > > >> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > > >> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 10:31 AM
> > > >> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > > >> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > > >> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-
> devel@redhat.com;
> > > >> gmazyland@gmail.com
> > > >> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > > >>
> > > >> On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > >>>>>> In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > > >>>>>>
> > > >>>>> Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > > >>>>> we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > > >>>>> same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > > >>>>> to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > > >>>>> OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > > >>>>> but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > > >>>>>
> > > >>>>
> > > >>>> The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > > >>>> the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> > > >>>>
> > > >>> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> > > >>> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> > > >>> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> > > >>> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> > > >>> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> > > >>> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> > > >>> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> > > >>>
> > > >>
> > > >> This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
> > > >> CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
> > > >> XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
> > > >> with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
> > > >> the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
> > > >> (https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).
> > > >>
> > > > Interesting ... I'm not a cryptographer, just a humble HW engineer specialized
> > > > in implementing crypto. I'm basing my views mostly on the Liskov/Minematsu
> > > > "Comments on XTS", who assert that using 2 keys in XTS was misguided.
> > > > (and I never saw any follow-on comments asserting that this view was wrong ...)
> > > > On not avoiding j=0 in the XTS spec they actually comment:
> > > > "This difference is significant in security, but has no impact on effectiveness
> > > > for practical applications.", which I read as "not relevant for normal use".
> 
> See page 6 of "Comments on XTS":
> 
> 	Note that j = 0 must be excluded, as f(0, v) = v for any v, which
> 	implies ρ = 1. Moreover, if j = 0 was allowed, a simple attack based on
> 	this fact existed, as pointed out by [6] and [3]. Hence if XEX is used,
> 	one must be careful to avoid j being 0.
>
Ok, I missed that part. Something to do with being surrounded by far too 
much math :-P

I did figure out by myself that forcing the ciphertext to 0 for the first
block and being able to observe the plaintext coming out would give you
S ^ E(S) if both keys are equal due do D(0 ^ E(x)) being x.
I guess that's the f(0,v) = v in the above.
Which would give you E(S) as S is usually known. (But this doesn't have to
be the case! S *can* be made a secret within the XTS specification!)
Which in turn would give you all tweaks E(S) * alpha(j), reducing the
encryption /for that sector only/ to just basic ECB.

Still, that does not constitute a full attack on the sector at hand (which
is not so relevant, since it was leaking plaintext, so you can assume it 
does not contain any sensitive data!), let alone any other sector on the 
disk or even the key. At least, I have not seen that demonstrated yet.

So it may be bad in the general cryptographic sense, but I still doubt it 
has very significant practicle implications if you assume the system is 
not leaking any plaintext from any sensitive areas of the disk.

Still, FIPS seems to consider it a risk so who am I to doubt that ;-)

> The part you quoted is only talking about XTS *as specified*, i.e. with 2 keys.
> 
Ok, that makes sense actually. Would have been better if they mentioned
that that statement only only holds if the keys are not equal ... (which,
BTW, is not a requirement mentioned anywhere in the XTS specification)

> > > >
> > > > In any case, it's frequently *used* with both keys being equal for performance
> > > > and key storage reasons.
> 
> It's broken, so it's broken.  Doesn't matter who is using it.
> 
Well, it does kind of matter for people that still want to read their disk
- and possibly continue to use it - encrypted with the "broken" version :-)

And "broken" is a relative term anyway. As long as you can't get to the key,
decrypt random sectors or manipulate random bits, it may be secure enough 
for its purpose.

> > >
> > > There is already check in kernel for XTS "weak" keys (tweak and encryption keys must
> not be
> > > the same).
> > >
> > >
> https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/crypto/xts
> .h#
> > > n27
> > >
> > > For now it applies only in FIPS mode... (and if I see correctly it is duplicated in
> all
> > > drivers).
> > >
> > I never had any need to look into FIPS for XTS before, but this actually appears
> > to be accurate. FIPS indeed *requires this*. Much to my surprise, I might add.
> > Still looking for some actual rationale that goes beyond suggestion and innuendo
> > (and is not too heavy on the math ;-) though.
> 
> As I said, the attack is explained in the original XEX paper.  Basically the
> adversary can submit a chosen ciphertext query for the first block of sector 0
> to leak the first "mask" of that sector, then submit a chosen plaintext or
> ciphertext query for the reminder of the sector such that they can predict the
> output with 100% certainty.  (The standard security model for tweakable block
> ciphers says the output must appear random.)
> 
Yes, but that only affects a sector that was leaking plaintext to begin 
with. I'm not impressed until you either recover the key or can decrypt
or manipulate *other* sectors on the disk.

> - Eric



Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-09  9:17                     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-09 17:17                       ` Eric Biggers
  2019-08-09 20:29                         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Eric Biggers @ 2019-08-09 17:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen; +Cc: linux-crypto

On Fri, Aug 09, 2019 at 09:17:23AM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> <trimmed to: list due to being somewhat off-topic>
> > -----Original Message-----
> > From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 7:15 PM
> > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > Cc: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>; Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-
> > crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com;
> > dm-devel@redhat.com
> > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > 
> > On Thu, Aug 08, 2019 at 01:23:10PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > -----Original Message-----
> > > > From: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>
> > > > Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 2:53 PM
> > > > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>; Eric Biggers
> > <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > > > Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > > > herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com
> > > > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > > >
> > > > On 08/08/2019 11:31, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > >> -----Original Message-----
> > > > >> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > > > >> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 10:31 AM
> > > > >> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > > > >> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > > > >> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-
> > devel@redhat.com;
> > > > >> gmazyland@gmail.com
> > > > >> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > > > >>
> > > > >> On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > >>>>>> In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > > > >>>>>>
> > > > >>>>> Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > > > >>>>> we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > > > >>>>> same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > > > >>>>> to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > > > >>>>> OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > > > >>>>> but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > > > >>>>>
> > > > >>>>
> > > > >>>> The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > > > >>>> the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> > > > >>>>
> > > > >>> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> > > > >>> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> > > > >>> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> > > > >>> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> > > > >>> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> > > > >>> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> > > > >>> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> > > > >>>
> > > > >>
> > > > >> This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
> > > > >> CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
> > > > >> XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
> > > > >> with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
> > > > >> the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
> > > > >> (https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).
> > > > >>
> > > > > Interesting ... I'm not a cryptographer, just a humble HW engineer specialized
> > > > > in implementing crypto. I'm basing my views mostly on the Liskov/Minematsu
> > > > > "Comments on XTS", who assert that using 2 keys in XTS was misguided.
> > > > > (and I never saw any follow-on comments asserting that this view was wrong ...)
> > > > > On not avoiding j=0 in the XTS spec they actually comment:
> > > > > "This difference is significant in security, but has no impact on effectiveness
> > > > > for practical applications.", which I read as "not relevant for normal use".
> > 
> > See page 6 of "Comments on XTS":
> > 
> > 	Note that j = 0 must be excluded, as f(0, v) = v for any v, which
> > 	implies ρ = 1. Moreover, if j = 0 was allowed, a simple attack based on
> > 	this fact existed, as pointed out by [6] and [3]. Hence if XEX is used,
> > 	one must be careful to avoid j being 0.
> >
> Ok, I missed that part. Something to do with being surrounded by far too 
> much math :-P
> 
> I did figure out by myself that forcing the ciphertext to 0 for the first
> block and being able to observe the plaintext coming out would give you
> S ^ E(S) if both keys are equal due do D(0 ^ E(x)) being x.
> I guess that's the f(0,v) = v in the above.
> Which would give you E(S) as S is usually known. (But this doesn't have to
> be the case! S *can* be made a secret within the XTS specification!)
> Which in turn would give you all tweaks E(S) * alpha(j), reducing the
> encryption /for that sector only/ to just basic ECB.
> 
> Still, that does not constitute a full attack on the sector at hand (which
> is not so relevant, since it was leaking plaintext, so you can assume it 
> does not contain any sensitive data!), let alone any other sector on the 
> disk or even the key. At least, I have not seen that demonstrated yet.
> 
> So it may be bad in the general cryptographic sense, but I still doubt it 
> has very significant practicle implications if you assume the system is 
> not leaking any plaintext from any sensitive areas of the disk.
> 
> Still, FIPS seems to consider it a risk so who am I to doubt that ;-)
> 
> > The part you quoted is only talking about XTS *as specified*, i.e. with 2 keys.
> > 
> Ok, that makes sense actually. Would have been better if they mentioned
> that that statement only only holds if the keys are not equal ... (which,
> BTW, is not a requirement mentioned anywhere in the XTS specification)
> 
> > > > >
> > > > > In any case, it's frequently *used* with both keys being equal for performance
> > > > > and key storage reasons.
> > 
> > It's broken, so it's broken.  Doesn't matter who is using it.
> > 
> Well, it does kind of matter for people that still want to read their disk
> - and possibly continue to use it - encrypted with the "broken" version :-)
> 
> And "broken" is a relative term anyway. As long as you can't get to the key,
> decrypt random sectors or manipulate random bits, it may be secure enough 
> for its purpose.
> 
> > > >
> > > > There is already check in kernel for XTS "weak" keys (tweak and encryption keys must
> > not be
> > > > the same).
> > > >
> > > >
> > https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/crypto/xts
> > .h#
> > > > n27
> > > >
> > > > For now it applies only in FIPS mode... (and if I see correctly it is duplicated in
> > all
> > > > drivers).
> > > >
> > > I never had any need to look into FIPS for XTS before, but this actually appears
> > > to be accurate. FIPS indeed *requires this*. Much to my surprise, I might add.
> > > Still looking for some actual rationale that goes beyond suggestion and innuendo
> > > (and is not too heavy on the math ;-) though.
> > 
> > As I said, the attack is explained in the original XEX paper.  Basically the
> > adversary can submit a chosen ciphertext query for the first block of sector 0
> > to leak the first "mask" of that sector, then submit a chosen plaintext or
> > ciphertext query for the reminder of the sector such that they can predict the
> > output with 100% certainty.  (The standard security model for tweakable block
> > ciphers says the output must appear random.)
> > 
> Yes, but that only affects a sector that was leaking plaintext to begin 
> with. I'm not impressed until you either recover the key or can decrypt
> or manipulate *other* sectors on the disk.
> 

There's no proof that other attacks don't exist.  If you're going to advocate
for using it regardless, then you need to choose a different (weaker) attack
model, then formally prove that the construction is secure under that model.
Or show where someone else has done so.

- Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-08 11:53 ` Milan Broz
@ 2019-08-09 18:52   ` Ard Biesheuvel
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 23+ messages in thread
From: Ard Biesheuvel @ 2019-08-09 18:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Milan Broz
  Cc: open list:HARDWARE RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR CORE, Herbert Xu,
	Eric Biggers, Alasdair G. Kergon, Mike Snitzer,
	device-mapper development

On Thu, 8 Aug 2019 at 14:53, Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> Hi,
>
> On 07/08/2019 07:50, Ard Biesheuvel wrote:
> > Instead of instantiating a separate cipher to perform the encryption
> > needed to produce the IV, reuse the skcipher used for the block data
> > and invoke it one additional time for each block to encrypt a zero
> > vector and use the output as the IV.
> >
> > For CBC mode, this is equivalent to using the bare block cipher, but
> > without the risk of ending up with a non-time invariant implementation
> > of AES when the skcipher itself is time variant (e.g., arm64 without
> > Crypto Extensions has a NEON based time invariant implementation of
> > cbc(aes) but no time invariant implementation of the core cipher other
> > than aes-ti, which is not enabled by default)
> >
> > This approach is a compromise between dm-crypt API flexibility and
> > reducing dependence on parts of the crypto API that should not usually
> > be exposed to other subsystems, such as the bare cipher API.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
>
> For now I have just pair of images here to test, but seems checksums are ok.
>
> Tested-by: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>
>
> I talked with Mike already, so it should go through DM tree now.
>

Thanks!


>
> > ---
> >  drivers/md/dm-crypt.c | 70 ++++++++++++++-----------------------------
> >  1 file changed, 22 insertions(+), 48 deletions(-)
> >
> > diff --git a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> > index d5216bcc4649..48cd76c88d77 100644
> > --- a/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> > +++ b/drivers/md/dm-crypt.c
> > @@ -120,10 +120,6 @@ struct iv_tcw_private {
> >       u8 *whitening;
> >  };
> >
> > -struct iv_eboiv_private {
> > -     struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> > -};
> > -
> >  /*
> >   * Crypt: maps a linear range of a block device
> >   * and encrypts / decrypts at the same time.
> > @@ -163,7 +159,6 @@ struct crypt_config {
> >               struct iv_benbi_private benbi;
> >               struct iv_lmk_private lmk;
> >               struct iv_tcw_private tcw;
> > -             struct iv_eboiv_private eboiv;
> >       } iv_gen_private;
> >       u64 iv_offset;
> >       unsigned int iv_size;
> > @@ -847,65 +842,47 @@ static int crypt_iv_random_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> >       return 0;
> >  }
> >
> > -static void crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr(struct crypt_config *cc)
> > -{
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > -
> > -     crypto_free_cipher(eboiv->tfm);
> > -     eboiv->tfm = NULL;
> > -}
> > -
> >  static int crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr(struct crypt_config *cc, struct dm_target *ti,
> >                           const char *opts)
> >  {
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > -     struct crypto_cipher *tfm;
> > -
> > -     tfm = crypto_alloc_cipher(cc->cipher, 0, 0);
> > -     if (IS_ERR(tfm)) {
> > -             ti->error = "Error allocating crypto tfm for EBOIV";
> > -             return PTR_ERR(tfm);
> > +     if (test_bit(CRYPT_MODE_INTEGRITY_AEAD, &cc->cipher_flags)) {
> > +             ti->error = "AEAD transforms not supported for EBOIV";
> > +             return -EINVAL;
> >       }
> >
> > -     if (crypto_cipher_blocksize(tfm) != cc->iv_size) {
> > +     if (crypto_skcipher_blocksize(any_tfm(cc)) != cc->iv_size) {
> >               ti->error = "Block size of EBOIV cipher does "
> >                           "not match IV size of block cipher";
> > -             crypto_free_cipher(tfm);
> >               return -EINVAL;
> >       }
> >
> > -     eboiv->tfm = tfm;
> >       return 0;
> >  }
> >
> > -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_init(struct crypt_config *cc)
> > +static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> > +                         struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
> >  {
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > +     u8 buf[MAX_CIPHER_BLOCKSIZE] __aligned(__alignof__(__le64));
> > +     struct skcipher_request *req;
> > +     struct scatterlist src, dst;
> > +     struct crypto_wait wait;
> >       int err;
> >
> > -     err = crypto_cipher_setkey(eboiv->tfm, cc->key, cc->key_size);
> > -     if (err)
> > -             return err;
> > -
> > -     return 0;
> > -}
> > -
> > -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe(struct crypt_config *cc)
> > -{
> > -     /* Called after cc->key is set to random key in crypt_wipe() */
> > -     return crypt_iv_eboiv_init(cc);
> > -}
> > +     req = skcipher_request_alloc(any_tfm(cc), GFP_KERNEL | GFP_NOFS);
> > +     if (!req)
> > +             return -ENOMEM;
> >
> > -static int crypt_iv_eboiv_gen(struct crypt_config *cc, u8 *iv,
> > -                         struct dm_crypt_request *dmreq)
> > -{
> > -     struct iv_eboiv_private *eboiv = &cc->iv_gen_private.eboiv;
> > +     memset(buf, 0, cc->iv_size);
> > +     *(__le64 *)buf = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
> >
> > -     memset(iv, 0, cc->iv_size);
> > -     *(__le64 *)iv = cpu_to_le64(dmreq->iv_sector * cc->sector_size);
> > -     crypto_cipher_encrypt_one(eboiv->tfm, iv, iv);
> > +     sg_init_one(&src, page_address(ZERO_PAGE(0)), cc->iv_size);
> > +     sg_init_one(&dst, iv, cc->iv_size);
> > +     skcipher_request_set_crypt(req, &src, &dst, cc->iv_size, buf);
> > +     skcipher_request_set_callback(req, 0, crypto_req_done, &wait);
> > +     err = crypto_wait_req(crypto_skcipher_encrypt(req), &wait);
> > +     skcipher_request_free(req);
> >
> > -     return 0;
> > +     return err;
> >  }
> >
> >  static const struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_plain_ops = {
> > @@ -962,9 +939,6 @@ static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_random_ops = {
> >
> >  static struct crypt_iv_operations crypt_iv_eboiv_ops = {
> >       .ctr       = crypt_iv_eboiv_ctr,
> > -     .dtr       = crypt_iv_eboiv_dtr,
> > -     .init      = crypt_iv_eboiv_init,
> > -     .wipe      = crypt_iv_eboiv_wipe,
> >       .generator = crypt_iv_eboiv_gen
> >  };
> >
> >

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-09 17:17                       ` Eric Biggers
@ 2019-08-09 20:29                         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-09 20:56                           ` Eric Biggers
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-09 20:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric Biggers; +Cc: linux-crypto

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> Sent: Friday, August 9, 2019 7:17 PM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On Fri, Aug 09, 2019 at 09:17:23AM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > <trimmed to: list due to being somewhat off-topic>
> > > -----Original Message-----
> > > From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > > Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 7:15 PM
> > > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > > Cc: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>; Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-
> > > crypto@vger.kernel.org; herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com;
> > > dm-devel@redhat.com
> > > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > >
> > > On Thu, Aug 08, 2019 at 01:23:10PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > > -----Original Message-----
> > > > > From: Milan Broz <gmazyland@gmail.com>
> > > > > Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 2:53 PM
> > > > > To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>; Eric Biggers
> > > <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > > > > Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > > > > herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-devel@redhat.com
> > > > > Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > > > >
> > > > > On 08/08/2019 11:31, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > > >> -----Original Message-----
> > > > > >> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> > > > > >> Sent: Thursday, August 8, 2019 10:31 AM
> > > > > >> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> > > > > >> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>; linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org;
> > > > > >> herbert@gondor.apana.org.au; agk@redhat.com; snitzer@redhat.com; dm-
> > > devel@redhat.com;
> > > > > >> gmazyland@gmail.com
> > > > > >> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> > > > > >>
> > > > > >> On Wed, Aug 07, 2019 at 04:14:22PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > > > > >>>>>> In your case, we are not dealing with known plaintext attacks,
> > > > > >>>>>>
> > > > > >>>>> Since this is XTS, which is used for disk encryption, I would argue
> > > > > >>>>> we do! For the tweak encryption, the sector number is known plaintext,
> > > > > >>>>> same as for EBOIV. Also, you may be able to control data being written
> > > > > >>>>> to the disk encrypted, either directly or indirectly.
> > > > > >>>>> OK, part of the data into the CTS encryption will be previous ciphertext,
> > > > > >>>>> but that may be just 1 byte with the rest being the known plaintext.
> > > > > >>>>>
> > > > > >>>>
> > > > > >>>> The tweak encryption uses a dedicated key, so leaking it does not have
> > > > > >>>> the same impact as it does in the EBOIV case.
> > > > > >>>>
> > > > > >>> Well ... yes and no. The spec defines them as seperately controllable -
> > > > > >>> deviating from the original XEX definition - but in most practicle use cases
> > > > > >>> I've seen, the same key is used for both, as having 2 keys just increases
> > > > > >>> key  storage requirements and does not actually improve effective security
> > > > > >>> (of the algorithm itself, implementation peculiarities like this one aside
> > > > > >>> :-), as  XEX has been proven secure using a single key. And the security
> > > > > >>> proof for XTS actually builds on that while using 2 keys deviates from it.
> > > > > >>>
> > > > > >>
> > > > > >> This is a common misconception.  Actually, XTS needs 2 distinct keys to be a
> > > > > >> CCA-secure tweakable block cipher, due to another subtle difference from XEX:
> > > > > >> XEX (by which I really mean "XEX[E,2]") builds the sequence of masks starting
> > > > > >> with x^1, while XTS starts with x^0.  If only 1 key is used, the inclusion of
> > > > > >> the 0th power in XTS allows the attack described in Section 6 of the XEX paper
> > > > > >> (https://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/papers/offsets.pdf).
> > > > > >>
> > > > > > Interesting ... I'm not a cryptographer, just a humble HW engineer specialized
> > > > > > in implementing crypto. I'm basing my views mostly on the Liskov/Minematsu
> > > > > > "Comments on XTS", who assert that using 2 keys in XTS was misguided.
> > > > > > (and I never saw any follow-on comments asserting that this view was wrong ...)
> > > > > > On not avoiding j=0 in the XTS spec they actually comment:
> > > > > > "This difference is significant in security, but has no impact on effectiveness
> > > > > > for practical applications.", which I read as "not relevant for normal use".
> > >
> > > See page 6 of "Comments on XTS":
> > >
> > > 	Note that j = 0 must be excluded, as f(0, v) = v for any v, which
> > > 	implies ρ = 1. Moreover, if j = 0 was allowed, a simple attack based on
> > > 	this fact existed, as pointed out by [6] and [3]. Hence if XEX is used,
> > > 	one must be careful to avoid j being 0.
> > >
> > Ok, I missed that part. Something to do with being surrounded by far too
> > much math :-P
> >
> > I did figure out by myself that forcing the ciphertext to 0 for the first
> > block and being able to observe the plaintext coming out would give you
> > S ^ E(S) if both keys are equal due do D(0 ^ E(x)) being x.
> > I guess that's the f(0,v) = v in the above.
> > Which would give you E(S) as S is usually known. (But this doesn't have to
> > be the case! S *can* be made a secret within the XTS specification!)
> > Which in turn would give you all tweaks E(S) * alpha(j), reducing the
> > encryption /for that sector only/ to just basic ECB.
> >
> > Still, that does not constitute a full attack on the sector at hand (which
> > is not so relevant, since it was leaking plaintext, so you can assume it
> > does not contain any sensitive data!), let alone any other sector on the
> > disk or even the key. At least, I have not seen that demonstrated yet.
> >
> > So it may be bad in the general cryptographic sense, but I still doubt it
> > has very significant practicle implications if you assume the system is
> > not leaking any plaintext from any sensitive areas of the disk.
> >
> > Still, FIPS seems to consider it a risk so who am I to doubt that ;-)
> >
> > > The part you quoted is only talking about XTS *as specified*, i.e. with 2 keys.
> > >
> > Ok, that makes sense actually. Would have been better if they mentioned
> > that that statement only only holds if the keys are not equal ... (which,
> > BTW, is not a requirement mentioned anywhere in the XTS specification)
> >
> > > > > >
> > > > > > In any case, it's frequently *used* with both keys being equal for performance
> > > > > > and key storage reasons.
> > >
> > > It's broken, so it's broken.  Doesn't matter who is using it.
> > >
> > Well, it does kind of matter for people that still want to read their disk
> > - and possibly continue to use it - encrypted with the "broken" version :-)
> >
> > And "broken" is a relative term anyway. As long as you can't get to the key,
> > decrypt random sectors or manipulate random bits, it may be secure enough
> > for its purpose.
> >
> > > > >
> > > > > There is already check in kernel for XTS "weak" keys (tweak and encryption keys must
> > > not be
> > > > > the same).
> > > > >
> > > > >
> > >
> https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/crypto/xts
> > > .h#
> > > > > n27
> > > > >
> > > > > For now it applies only in FIPS mode... (and if I see correctly it is duplicated in
> > > all
> > > > > drivers).
> > > > >
> > > > I never had any need to look into FIPS for XTS before, but this actually appears
> > > > to be accurate. FIPS indeed *requires this*. Much to my surprise, I might add.
> > > > Still looking for some actual rationale that goes beyond suggestion and innuendo
> > > > (and is not too heavy on the math ;-) though.
> > >
> > > As I said, the attack is explained in the original XEX paper.  Basically the
> > > adversary can submit a chosen ciphertext query for the first block of sector 0
> > > to leak the first "mask" of that sector, then submit a chosen plaintext or
> > > ciphertext query for the reminder of the sector such that they can predict the
> > > output with 100% certainty.  (The standard security model for tweakable block
> > > ciphers says the output must appear random.)
> > >
> > Yes, but that only affects a sector that was leaking plaintext to begin
> > with. I'm not impressed until you either recover the key or can decrypt
> > or manipulate *other* sectors on the disk.
> >
> 
> There's no proof that other attacks don't exist.
>
As you can't prove something doesn't exist ...

> If you're going to advocate
> for using it regardless, then you need to choose a different (weaker) attack
> model, then formally prove that the construction is secure under that model.
> Or show where someone else has done so.
> 
I'm certainly NOT advocating the use of this. I was merely pointing out a
legacy use case that happens to be very relevant to people stuck with it,
which therefore should not be dismissed so easily.
And how this legacy use case may have further security implications (like
the tweak encryption being more sensitive than was being assumed, so you
don't want to run that through an insecure implementation).

> - Eric


Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-09 20:29                         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-09 20:56                           ` Eric Biggers
  2019-08-09 21:33                             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Eric Biggers @ 2019-08-09 20:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen; +Cc: linux-crypto

On Fri, Aug 09, 2019 at 08:29:59PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > 
> > There's no proof that other attacks don't exist.
> >
> As you can't prove something doesn't exist ...

Of course you can, that's what the security proofs for crypto constructions
always do.  They prove that no efficient attack exists (in some attack model)
unless the underlying crypto primitives are weak.

> 
> > If you're going to advocate
> > for using it regardless, then you need to choose a different (weaker) attack
> > model, then formally prove that the construction is secure under that model.
> > Or show where someone else has done so.
> > 
> I'm certainly NOT advocating the use of this. I was merely pointing out a
> legacy use case that happens to be very relevant to people stuck with it,
> which therefore should not be dismissed so easily.
> And how this legacy use case may have further security implications (like
> the tweak encryption being more sensitive than was being assumed, so you
> don't want to run that through an insecure implementation).

Obviously there are people already using bad crypto, whether this or something
else, and they often need to continue to be supported.  I'm not disputing that.

What I'm disputing is your willingness to argue that it's not really that bad,
without a corresponding formal proof which crypto constructions always have.

- Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-09 20:56                           ` Eric Biggers
@ 2019-08-09 21:33                             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  2019-08-09 22:04                               ` Eric Biggers
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-09 21:33 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric Biggers; +Cc: linux-crypto

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> Sent: Friday, August 9, 2019 10:56 PM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On Fri, Aug 09, 2019 at 08:29:59PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > >
> > > There's no proof that other attacks don't exist.
> > >
> > As you can't prove something doesn't exist ...
> 
> Of course you can, that's what the security proofs for crypto constructions
> always do.  They prove that no efficient attack exists (in some attack model)
> unless the underlying crypto primitives are weak.
> 
> >
> > > If you're going to advocate
> > > for using it regardless, then you need to choose a different (weaker) attack
> > > model, then formally prove that the construction is secure under that model.
> > > Or show where someone else has done so.
> > >
> > I'm certainly NOT advocating the use of this. I was merely pointing out a
> > legacy use case that happens to be very relevant to people stuck with it,
> > which therefore should not be dismissed so easily.
> > And how this legacy use case may have further security implications (like
> > the tweak encryption being more sensitive than was being assumed, so you
> > don't want to run that through an insecure implementation).
> 
> Obviously there are people already using bad crypto, whether this or something
> else, and they often need to continue to be supported.  I'm not disputing that.
> 
> What I'm disputing is your willingness to argue that it's not really that bad,
> without a corresponding formal proof which crypto constructions always have.
> 
Real life designs require all kinds of trade-offs and compromises.
If you want to make something twice as expensive, you'd better have a 
really solid reason for doing so. So yes, I do believe it is useful to
be sceptical and question these things. But I always listen to good 
arguments, so just convince me I got it wrong *for my particular use
case* (I'm not generally interested in the generic case).

I mean, we were talking XTS here. Which is basically better-than-
nothing crypto anyway. It's one big compromise to be doing something
really fast without needing to expand the data. Good crypto would not
work on narrow blocks and/or include authentication as well ...

> - Eric



Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-09 21:33                             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
@ 2019-08-09 22:04                               ` Eric Biggers
  2019-08-09 23:01                                 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 23+ messages in thread
From: Eric Biggers @ 2019-08-09 22:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Pascal Van Leeuwen; +Cc: linux-crypto

On Fri, Aug 09, 2019 at 09:33:14PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> Real life designs require all kinds of trade-offs and compromises.
> If you want to make something twice as expensive, you'd better have a 
> really solid reason for doing so. So yes, I do believe it is useful to
> be sceptical and question these things. But I always listen to good 
> arguments, so just convince me I got it wrong *for my particular use
> case* (I'm not generally interested in the generic case).

Or rather, if you want to take shortcuts and incorrectly implement a crypto
construction, you'd better have a really solid reason for doing so.

It's on you to show that your crypto is okay, not me.

- Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

* RE: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
  2019-08-09 22:04                               ` Eric Biggers
@ 2019-08-09 23:01                                 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 23+ messages in thread
From: Pascal Van Leeuwen @ 2019-08-09 23:01 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric Biggers; +Cc: linux-crypto

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@kernel.org>
> Sent: Saturday, August 10, 2019 12:05 AM
> To: Pascal Van Leeuwen <pvanleeuwen@verimatrix.com>
> Cc: linux-crypto@vger.kernel.org
> Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation
> 
> On Fri, Aug 09, 2019 at 09:33:14PM +0000, Pascal Van Leeuwen wrote:
> > Real life designs require all kinds of trade-offs and compromises.
> > If you want to make something twice as expensive, you'd better have a
> > really solid reason for doing so. So yes, I do believe it is useful to
> > be sceptical and question these things. But I always listen to good
> > arguments, so just convince me I got it wrong *for my particular use
> > case* (I'm not generally interested in the generic case).
> 
> Or rather, if you want to take shortcuts and incorrectly implement a crypto
> construction, you'd better have a really solid reason for doing so.
> 
Sure. It's called cost. Or power consumption. Or performance.
Or any other reason that's often considered important, possibly
even (much) more important than security. Welcome to the real world.
The best possible security is rarely affordable.

And a weaker implementation is not necessarily incorrect by the way,
as long as it still meets your security goals under a relevant and
realistic attack model.

As an architect, I don't set the requirements or the priorities.
I just try to make the best possible compromise. And fortunately,
I do have a real cryptographer running around here somewhere,
looking over my shoulder to ensure I don't do anything really 
stupid ;-) But I make him work for his money.
(So no, I did not myself create any XTS solution using a single
key, in case you were wondering. I just know it has been done.)

But, yes, that's why a lot of bad crypto and other security 
vulnerabilities exist. And, newsflash, it's not going to change
any day soon.

> It's on you to show that your crypto is okay, not me.
> 
Reality check: unless you work for some government (been there,
done that), usually, nobody cares (until the shit hits the fan)

> - Eric



Regards,
Pascal van Leeuwen
Silicon IP Architect, Multi-Protocol Engines @ Verimatrix
www.insidesecure.com


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 23+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 23+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2019-08-07  5:50 [RFC PATCH v2] md/dm-crypt - reuse eboiv skcipher for IV generation Ard Biesheuvel
2019-08-07  7:28 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-07 13:17   ` Ard Biesheuvel
2019-08-07 13:52     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-07 15:39       ` Ard Biesheuvel
2019-08-07 16:14         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-07 16:50           ` Ard Biesheuvel
2019-08-07 20:22             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-08  8:30           ` Eric Biggers
2019-08-08  9:31             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-08 12:52               ` Milan Broz
2019-08-08 13:23                 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-08 17:15                   ` Eric Biggers
2019-08-09  9:17                     ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-09 17:17                       ` Eric Biggers
2019-08-09 20:29                         ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-09 20:56                           ` Eric Biggers
2019-08-09 21:33                             ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-09 22:04                               ` Eric Biggers
2019-08-09 23:01                                 ` Pascal Van Leeuwen
2019-08-07  8:08 ` Milan Broz
2019-08-08 11:53 ` Milan Broz
2019-08-09 18:52   ` Ard Biesheuvel

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