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* [PATCH 0/4] V2- ext4 block bitmap prefetch patches
@ 2020-07-31 19:08 Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps Theodore Ts'o
                   ` (3 more replies)
  0 siblings, 4 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Theodore Ts'o @ 2020-07-31 19:08 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ext4 Developers List; +Cc: Theodore Ts'o

This is a second revision of Alex's original block allocation
prefetch patches.

Changes are from v1:

*) We don't skip reading block bitmaps in the first block group of a
flex_bg.  This is necessary so that strategy of biasing block
allocations for metadata blocks (in particular, extent tree
blocks) can be preserved.

*) The prefetch_block_bitmaps mount option now will prefetch the block
bitmaps before starting lazy inode table initialization, instead of
the other way around.  In general, for freshly created file systems,
prefetching block bitmaps will go very quickly, since most block
groups have not been used yet, so we don't actually the prefetch those
block bitmaps.

*) Other minor spelling fixups, cleanups.


Alex Zhuravlev (2):
  ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps
  ext4: skip non-loaded groups at cr=0/1 when scanning for good groups

Theodore Ts'o (2):
  ext4: indicate via a block bitmap read is prefetched via a tracepoint
  ext4: add prefetch_block_bitmaps mount options

 fs/ext4/balloc.c            |  16 +++-
 fs/ext4/ext4.h              |  23 +++++-
 fs/ext4/mballoc.c           | 153 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 fs/ext4/super.c             |  59 ++++++++++----
 fs/ext4/sysfs.c             |   4 +
 include/trace/events/ext4.h |  68 +++++++++++++++-
 6 files changed, 294 insertions(+), 29 deletions(-)

-- 
2.24.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps
  2020-07-31 19:08 [PATCH 0/4] V2- ext4 block bitmap prefetch patches Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-07-31 19:08 ` Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 2/4] ext4: skip non-loaded groups at cr=0/1 when scanning for good groups Theodore Ts'o
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  3 siblings, 0 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Theodore Ts'o @ 2020-07-31 19:08 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ext4 Developers List; +Cc: Alex Zhuravlev, Andreas Dilger, Theodore Ts'o

From: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>

This should significantly improve bitmap loading, especially for flex
groups as it tries to load all bitmaps within a flex.group instead of
one by one synchronously.

Prefetching is done in 8 * flex_bg groups, so it should be 8
read-ahead reads for a single allocating thread. At the end of
allocation the thread waits for read-ahead completion and initializes
buddy information so that read-aheads are not lost in case of memory
pressure.

At cr=0 the number of prefetching IOs is limited per allocation
context to prevent a situation when mballoc loads thousands of bitmaps
looking for a perfect group and ignoring groups with good chunks.

Together with the patch "ext4: limit scanning of uninitialized groups"
the mount time (which includes few tiny allocations) of a 1PB
filesystem is reduced significantly:

               0% full    50%-full unpatched    patched
  mount time       33s                9279s       563s

[ Restructured by tytso; removed the state flags in the allocation
  context, so it can be used to lazily prefetch the allocation bitmaps
  immediately after the file system is mounted.  Skip prefetching
  block groups which are uninitialized.  Finally pass in the
  REQ_RAHEAD flag to the block layer while prefetching. ]

Signed-off-by: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>
Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@whamcloud.com>
Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
---
 fs/ext4/balloc.c  |  14 +++--
 fs/ext4/ext4.h    |   8 ++-
 fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 133 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 fs/ext4/sysfs.c   |   4 ++
 4 files changed, 153 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/ext4/balloc.c b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
index 1ba46d87cdf1..1e2b1b4093aa 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/balloc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
@@ -413,7 +413,8 @@ static int ext4_validate_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
  * Return buffer_head on success or an ERR_PTR in case of failure.
  */
 struct buffer_head *
-ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
+ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group,
+			      bool ignore_locked)
 {
 	struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
@@ -441,6 +442,12 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
 		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
 	}
 
+	if (ignore_locked && buffer_locked(bh)) {
+		/* buffer under IO already, return if called for prefetching */
+		put_bh(bh);
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
 	if (bitmap_uptodate(bh))
 		goto verify;
 
@@ -490,7 +497,8 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
 	trace_ext4_read_block_bitmap_load(sb, block_group);
 	bh->b_end_io = ext4_end_bitmap_read;
 	get_bh(bh);
-	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO, bh);
+	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO |
+		  (ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0), bh);
 	return bh;
 verify:
 	err = ext4_validate_block_bitmap(sb, desc, block_group, bh);
@@ -534,7 +542,7 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
 	struct buffer_head *bh;
 	int err;
 
-	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group);
+	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group, false);
 	if (IS_ERR(bh))
 		return bh;
 	err = ext4_wait_block_bitmap(sb, block_group, bh);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index 42f5060f3cdf..7451662e092a 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -1505,6 +1505,8 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
 	/* where last allocation was done - for stream allocation */
 	unsigned long s_mb_last_group;
 	unsigned long s_mb_last_start;
+	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch;
+	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch_limit;
 
 	/* stats for buddy allocator */
 	atomic_t s_bal_reqs;	/* number of reqs with len > 1 */
@@ -2446,7 +2448,8 @@ extern struct ext4_group_desc * ext4_get_group_desc(struct super_block * sb,
 extern int ext4_should_retry_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int *retries);
 
 extern struct buffer_head *ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb,
-						ext4_group_t block_group);
+						ext4_group_t block_group,
+						bool ignore_locked);
 extern int ext4_wait_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
 				  ext4_group_t block_group,
 				  struct buffer_head *bh);
@@ -3145,6 +3148,7 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
 #define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT		\
 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
+#define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT	4
 
 #define EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp)	\
 	(test_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_NEED_INIT_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
@@ -3159,6 +3163,8 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
 	(set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
 #define EXT4_MB_GRP_CLEAR_TRIMMED(grp)	\
 	(clear_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
+#define EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp)	\
+	(test_and_set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
 
 #define EXT4_MAX_CONTENTION		8
 #define EXT4_CONTENTION_THRESHOLD	2
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index c0a331e2feb0..fcc702f1ff15 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -922,7 +922,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore, gfp_t gfp)
 			bh[i] = NULL;
 			continue;
 		}
-		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group);
+		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, false);
 		if (IS_ERR(bh[i])) {
 			err = PTR_ERR(bh[i]);
 			bh[i] = NULL;
@@ -2209,12 +2209,93 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
 	return ret;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Start prefetching @nr block bitmaps starting at @group.
+ * Return the next group which needs to be prefetched.
+ */
+static ext4_group_t
+ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+		 unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
+{
+	ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+	struct buffer_head *bh;
+	struct blk_plug plug;
+
+	blk_start_plug(&plug);
+	while (nr-- > 0) {
+		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
+								  NULL);
+		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
+
+		/*
+		 * Prefetch block groups with free blocks; but don't
+		 * bother if it is marked uninitialized on disk, since
+		 * it won't require I/O to read.  Also only try to
+		 * prefetch once, so we avoid getblk() call, which can
+		 * be expensive.
+		 */
+		if (!EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp) &&
+		    EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
+		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
+		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
+		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
+			bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, true);
+			if (bh && !IS_ERR(bh)) {
+				if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) && cnt)
+					(*cnt)++;
+				brelse(bh);
+			}
+		}
+		if (++group >= ngroups)
+			group = 0;
+	}
+	blk_finish_plug(&plug);
+	return group;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Prefetching reads the block bitmap into the buffer cache; but we
+ * need to make sure that the buddy bitmap in the page cache has been
+ * initialized.  Note that ext4_mb_init_group() will block if the I/O
+ * is not yet completed, or indeed if it was not initiated by
+ * ext4_mb_prefetch did not start the I/O.
+ *
+ * TODO: We should actually kick off the buddy bitmap setup in a work
+ * queue when the buffer I/O is completed, so that we don't block
+ * waiting for the block allocation bitmap read to finish when
+ * ext4_mb_prefetch_fini is called from ext4_mb_regular_allocator().
+ */
+static void
+ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+		      unsigned int nr)
+{
+	while (nr-- > 0) {
+		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
+								  NULL);
+		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
+
+		if (!group)
+			group = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+		group--;
+		grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
+
+		if (EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
+		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
+		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
+		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
+			if (ext4_mb_init_group(sb, group, GFP_NOFS))
+				break;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
 static noinline_for_stack int
 ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 {
-	ext4_group_t ngroups, group, i;
+	ext4_group_t prefetch_grp = 0, ngroups, group, i;
 	int cr = -1;
 	int err = 0, first_err = 0;
+	unsigned int nr = 0, prefetch_ios = 0;
 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi;
 	struct super_block *sb;
 	struct ext4_buddy e4b;
@@ -2282,6 +2363,7 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 		 * from the goal value specified
 		 */
 		group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
+		prefetch_grp = group;
 
 		for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
 			int ret = 0;
@@ -2293,6 +2375,29 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 			if (group >= ngroups)
 				group = 0;
 
+			/*
+			 * Batch reads of the block allocation bitmaps
+			 * to get multiple READs in flight; limit
+			 * prefetching at cr=0/1, otherwise mballoc can
+			 * spend a lot of time loading imperfect groups
+			 */
+			if ((prefetch_grp == group) &&
+			    (cr > 1 ||
+			     prefetch_ios < sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit)) {
+				unsigned int curr_ios = prefetch_ios;
+
+				nr = sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
+				if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
+					nr = (group / sbi->s_mb_prefetch) *
+						sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
+					nr = nr + sbi->s_mb_prefetch - group;
+				}
+				prefetch_grp = ext4_mb_prefetch(sb, group,
+							nr, &prefetch_ios);
+				if (prefetch_ios == curr_ios)
+					nr = 0;
+			}
+
 			/* This now checks without needing the buddy page */
 			ret = ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(ac, group, cr);
 			if (ret <= 0) {
@@ -2367,6 +2472,10 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 	mb_debug(sb, "Best len %d, origin len %d, ac_status %u, ac_flags 0x%x, cr %d ret %d\n",
 		 ac->ac_b_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_o_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_status,
 		 ac->ac_flags, cr, err);
+
+	if (nr)
+		ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(sb, prefetch_grp, nr);
+
 	return err;
 }
 
@@ -2613,6 +2722,26 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
 			goto err_freebuddy;
 	}
 
+	if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
+		/* a single flex group is supposed to be read by a single IO */
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 1 << sbi->s_es->s_log_groups_per_flex;
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch *= 8; /* 8 prefetch IOs in flight at most */
+	} else {
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 32;
+	}
+	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+	/* now many real IOs to prefetch within a single allocation at cr=0
+	 * given cr=0 is an CPU-related optimization we shouldn't try to
+	 * load too many groups, at some point we should start to use what
+	 * we've got in memory.
+	 * with an average random access time 5ms, it'd take a second to get
+	 * 200 groups (* N with flex_bg), so let's make this limit 4
+	 */
+	sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = sbi->s_mb_prefetch * 4;
+	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+
 	return 0;
 
 err_freebuddy:
diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
index 6c9fc9e21c13..31e0db726d21 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
@@ -240,6 +240,8 @@ EXT4_RO_ATTR_ES_STRING(last_error_func, s_last_error_func, 32);
 EXT4_ATTR(first_error_time, 0444, first_error_time);
 EXT4_ATTR(last_error_time, 0444, last_error_time);
 EXT4_ATTR(journal_task, 0444, journal_task);
+EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch, s_mb_prefetch);
+EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch_limit, s_mb_prefetch_limit);
 
 static unsigned int old_bump_val = 128;
 EXT4_ATTR_PTR(max_writeback_mb_bump, 0444, pointer_ui, &old_bump_val);
@@ -283,6 +285,8 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
 #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
 	ATTR_LIST(simulate_fail),
 #endif
+	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch),
+	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch_limit),
 	NULL,
 };
 ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS(ext4);
-- 
2.24.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 2/4] ext4: skip non-loaded groups at cr=0/1 when scanning for good groups
  2020-07-31 19:08 [PATCH 0/4] V2- ext4 block bitmap prefetch patches Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-07-31 19:08 ` Theodore Ts'o
  2020-08-01  8:49   ` Andreas Dilger
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 3/4] ext4: indicate via a block bitmap read is prefetched via a tracepoint Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 4/4] ext4: add prefetch_block_bitmaps mount options Theodore Ts'o
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 12+ messages in thread
From: Theodore Ts'o @ 2020-07-31 19:08 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ext4 Developers List; +Cc: Alex Zhuravlev, Andreas Dilger, Artem Blagodarenko

From: Alex Zhuravlev <azhuravlev@whamcloud.com>

cr=0 is supposed to be an optimization to save CPU cycles, but if
buddy data (in memory) is not initialized then all this makes no sense
as we have to do sync IO taking a lot of cycles.  Also, at cr=0
mballoc doesn't choose any avaibale chunk.  cr=1 also skips groups
using heuristic based on avg. fragment size.  It's more useful to skip
such groups and switch to cr=2 where groups will be scanned for
available chunks.  However, we always read the first block group in a
flex_bg so metadata blocks will get read into the first flex_bg if
possible.

Using sparse image and dm-slow virtual device of 120TB was
simulated, then the image was formatted and filled using debugfs to
mark ~85% of available space as busy.  mount process w/o the patch
couldn't complete in half an hour (according to vmstat it would take
~10-11 hours).  With the patch applied mount took ~20 seconds.

Lustre-bug-id: https://jira.whamcloud.com/browse/LU-12988
Signed-off-by: Alex Zhuravlev <azhuravlev@whamcloud.com>
Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@whamcloud.com>
Reviewed-by: Artem Blagodarenko <artem.blagodarenko@gmail.com>
---
 fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 22 +++++++++++++++++++++-
 1 file changed, 21 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index fcc702f1ff15..b1ef35a9e9f1 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -2177,6 +2177,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
 {
 	struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(ac->ac_sb, group);
 	struct super_block *sb = ac->ac_sb;
+	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
 	bool should_lock = ac->ac_flags & EXT4_MB_STRICT_CHECK;
 	ext4_grpblk_t free;
 	int ret = 0;
@@ -2195,7 +2196,26 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
 
 	/* We only do this if the grp has never been initialized */
 	if (unlikely(EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp))) {
-		ret = ext4_mb_init_group(ac->ac_sb, group, GFP_NOFS);
+		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp =
+			ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group, NULL);
+		int ret;
+
+		/* cr=0/1 is a very optimistic search to find large
+		 * good chunks almost for free.  If buddy data is not
+		 * ready, then this optimization makes no sense.  But
+		 * we never skip the first block group in a flex_bg,
+		 * since this gets used for metadata block allocation,
+		 * and we want to make sure we locate metadata blocks
+		 * in the first block group in the flex_bg if
+		 * possible.
+		 */
+		if (cr < 2 &&
+		    (!sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex ||
+		     ((group & ((1 << sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex) - 1)) != 0)) &&
+		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
+		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT))))
+			return 0;
+		ret = ext4_mb_init_group(sb, group, GFP_NOFS);
 		if (ret)
 			return ret;
 	}
-- 
2.24.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 3/4] ext4: indicate via a block bitmap read is prefetched via a tracepoint
  2020-07-31 19:08 [PATCH 0/4] V2- ext4 block bitmap prefetch patches Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 2/4] ext4: skip non-loaded groups at cr=0/1 when scanning for good groups Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-07-31 19:08 ` Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 4/4] ext4: add prefetch_block_bitmaps mount options Theodore Ts'o
  3 siblings, 0 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Theodore Ts'o @ 2020-07-31 19:08 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ext4 Developers List; +Cc: Theodore Ts'o, Artem Blagodarenko

Modify the ext4_read_block_bitmap_load tracepoint so that it tells us
whether a block bitmap is being prefetched.

Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
Reviewed-by: Artem Blagodarenko <artem.blagodarenko@gmail.com>
---
 fs/ext4/balloc.c            |  2 +-
 include/trace/events/ext4.h | 24 ++++++++++++++++++++----
 2 files changed, 21 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/ext4/balloc.c b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
index 1e2b1b4093aa..48c3df47748d 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/balloc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
@@ -494,7 +494,7 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group,
 	 * submit the buffer_head for reading
 	 */
 	set_buffer_new(bh);
-	trace_ext4_read_block_bitmap_load(sb, block_group);
+	trace_ext4_read_block_bitmap_load(sb, block_group, ignore_locked);
 	bh->b_end_io = ext4_end_bitmap_read;
 	get_bh(bh);
 	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO |
diff --git a/include/trace/events/ext4.h b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
index cc41d692ae8e..cbcd2e1a608d 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/ext4.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
@@ -1312,18 +1312,34 @@ DEFINE_EVENT(ext4__bitmap_load, ext4_mb_buddy_bitmap_load,
 	TP_ARGS(sb, group)
 );
 
-DEFINE_EVENT(ext4__bitmap_load, ext4_read_block_bitmap_load,
+DEFINE_EVENT(ext4__bitmap_load, ext4_load_inode_bitmap,
 
 	TP_PROTO(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long group),
 
 	TP_ARGS(sb, group)
 );
 
-DEFINE_EVENT(ext4__bitmap_load, ext4_load_inode_bitmap,
+TRACE_EVENT(ext4_read_block_bitmap_load,
+	TP_PROTO(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long group, bool prefetch),
 
-	TP_PROTO(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long group),
+	TP_ARGS(sb, group, prefetch),
 
-	TP_ARGS(sb, group)
+	TP_STRUCT__entry(
+		__field(	dev_t,	dev			)
+		__field(	__u32,	group			)
+		__field(	bool,	prefetch		)
+
+	),
+
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__entry->dev	= sb->s_dev;
+		__entry->group	= group;
+		__entry->prefetch = prefetch;
+	),
+
+	TP_printk("dev %d,%d group %u prefetch %d",
+		  MAJOR(__entry->dev), MINOR(__entry->dev),
+		  __entry->group, __entry->prefetch)
 );
 
 TRACE_EVENT(ext4_direct_IO_enter,
-- 
2.24.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 4/4] ext4: add prefetch_block_bitmaps mount options
  2020-07-31 19:08 [PATCH 0/4] V2- ext4 block bitmap prefetch patches Theodore Ts'o
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 3/4] ext4: indicate via a block bitmap read is prefetched via a tracepoint Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-07-31 19:08 ` Theodore Ts'o
  2020-08-01  8:57   ` Andreas Dilger
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 12+ messages in thread
From: Theodore Ts'o @ 2020-07-31 19:08 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ext4 Developers List; +Cc: Theodore Ts'o

For file systems where we can afford to keep the buddy bitmaps cached,
we can speed up initial writes to large file systems by starting to
load the block allocation bitmaps as soon as the file system is
mounted.  This won't work well for _super_ large file systems, or
memory constrained systems, so we only enable this when it is
requested via a mount option.

Addresses-Google-Bug: 159488342
Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
---
 fs/ext4/ext4.h              | 15 +++++++++-
 fs/ext4/mballoc.c           | 10 +++----
 fs/ext4/super.c             | 59 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------
 include/trace/events/ext4.h | 44 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 105 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index 7451662e092a..4df6f429de1a 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -1172,6 +1172,7 @@ struct ext4_inode_info {
 #define EXT4_MOUNT_JOURNAL_CHECKSUM	0x800000 /* Journal checksums */
 #define EXT4_MOUNT_JOURNAL_ASYNC_COMMIT	0x1000000 /* Journal Async Commit */
 #define EXT4_MOUNT_WARN_ON_ERROR	0x2000000 /* Trigger WARN_ON on error */
+#define EXT4_MOUNT_PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS 0x4000000
 #define EXT4_MOUNT_DELALLOC		0x8000000 /* Delalloc support */
 #define EXT4_MOUNT_DATA_ERR_ABORT	0x10000000 /* Abort on file data write */
 #define EXT4_MOUNT_BLOCK_VALIDITY	0x20000000 /* Block validity checking */
@@ -2315,9 +2316,15 @@ struct ext4_lazy_init {
 	struct mutex		li_list_mtx;
 };
 
+enum ext4_li_mode {
+	EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP,
+	EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE,
+};
+
 struct ext4_li_request {
 	struct super_block	*lr_super;
-	struct ext4_sb_info	*lr_sbi;
+	enum ext4_li_mode	lr_mode;
+	ext4_group_t		lr_first_not_zeroed;
 	ext4_group_t		lr_next_group;
 	struct list_head	lr_request;
 	unsigned long		lr_next_sched;
@@ -2657,6 +2664,12 @@ extern int ext4_mb_reserve_blocks(struct super_block *, int);
 extern void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *);
 extern int __init ext4_init_mballoc(void);
 extern void ext4_exit_mballoc(void);
+extern ext4_group_t ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb,
+				     ext4_group_t group,
+				     unsigned int nr, int *cnt);
+extern void ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+				  unsigned int nr);
+
 extern void ext4_free_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
 			     struct buffer_head *bh, ext4_fsblk_t block,
 			     unsigned long count, int flags);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index b1ef35a9e9f1..47de61e44db2 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -2233,9 +2233,8 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
  * Start prefetching @nr block bitmaps starting at @group.
  * Return the next group which needs to be prefetched.
  */
-static ext4_group_t
-ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
-		 unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
+ext4_group_t ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+			      unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
 {
 	ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
 	struct buffer_head *bh;
@@ -2285,9 +2284,8 @@ ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
  * waiting for the block allocation bitmap read to finish when
  * ext4_mb_prefetch_fini is called from ext4_mb_regular_allocator().
  */
-static void
-ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
-		      unsigned int nr)
+void ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+			   unsigned int nr)
 {
 	while (nr-- > 0) {
 		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
diff --git a/fs/ext4/super.c b/fs/ext4/super.c
index 330957ed1f05..51e91a220ea9 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/super.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/super.c
@@ -1521,6 +1521,7 @@ enum {
 	Opt_dioread_nolock, Opt_dioread_lock,
 	Opt_discard, Opt_nodiscard, Opt_init_itable, Opt_noinit_itable,
 	Opt_max_dir_size_kb, Opt_nojournal_checksum, Opt_nombcache,
+	Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps,
 };
 
 static const match_table_t tokens = {
@@ -1612,6 +1613,7 @@ static const match_table_t tokens = {
 	{Opt_test_dummy_encryption, "test_dummy_encryption"},
 	{Opt_nombcache, "nombcache"},
 	{Opt_nombcache, "no_mbcache"},	/* for backward compatibility */
+	{Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, "prefetch_block_bitmaps"},
 	{Opt_removed, "check=none"},	/* mount option from ext2/3 */
 	{Opt_removed, "nocheck"},	/* mount option from ext2/3 */
 	{Opt_removed, "reservation"},	/* mount option from ext2/3 */
@@ -1829,6 +1831,8 @@ static const struct mount_opts {
 	{Opt_max_dir_size_kb, 0, MOPT_GTE0},
 	{Opt_test_dummy_encryption, 0, MOPT_STRING},
 	{Opt_nombcache, EXT4_MOUNT_NO_MBCACHE, MOPT_SET},
+	{Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, EXT4_MOUNT_PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS,
+	 MOPT_SET},
 	{Opt_err, 0, 0}
 };
 
@@ -3201,15 +3205,34 @@ static void print_daily_error_info(struct timer_list *t)
 static int ext4_run_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
 {
 	struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = NULL;
-	ext4_group_t group, ngroups;
-	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct super_block *sb = elr->lr_super;
+	ext4_group_t ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
+	ext4_group_t group = elr->lr_next_group;
 	unsigned long timeout = 0;
+	unsigned int prefetch_ios = 0;
 	int ret = 0;
 
-	sb = elr->lr_super;
-	ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
+	if (elr->lr_mode == EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP) {
+		elr->lr_next_group = ext4_mb_prefetch(sb, group,
+				EXT4_SB(sb)->s_mb_prefetch, &prefetch_ios);
+		if (prefetch_ios)
+			ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(sb, elr->lr_next_group,
+					      prefetch_ios);
+		trace_ext4_prefetch_bitmaps(sb, group, elr->lr_next_group,
+					    prefetch_ios);
+		if (group >= elr->lr_next_group) {
+			ret = 1;
+			if (elr->lr_first_not_zeroed != ngroups &&
+			    !sb_rdonly(sb) && test_opt(sb, INIT_INODE_TABLE)) {
+				elr->lr_next_group = elr->lr_first_not_zeroed;
+				elr->lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE;
+				ret = 0;
+			}
+		}
+		return ret;
+	}
 
-	for (group = elr->lr_next_group; group < ngroups; group++) {
+	for (; group < ngroups; group++) {
 		gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group, NULL);
 		if (!gdp) {
 			ret = 1;
@@ -3227,9 +3250,10 @@ static int ext4_run_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
 		timeout = jiffies;
 		ret = ext4_init_inode_table(sb, group,
 					    elr->lr_timeout ? 0 : 1);
+		trace_ext4_lazy_itable_init(sb, group);
 		if (elr->lr_timeout == 0) {
 			timeout = (jiffies - timeout) *
-				  elr->lr_sbi->s_li_wait_mult;
+				EXT4_SB(elr->lr_super)->s_li_wait_mult;
 			elr->lr_timeout = timeout;
 		}
 		elr->lr_next_sched = jiffies + elr->lr_timeout;
@@ -3244,15 +3268,11 @@ static int ext4_run_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
  */
 static void ext4_remove_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
 {
-	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi;
-
 	if (!elr)
 		return;
 
-	sbi = elr->lr_sbi;
-
 	list_del(&elr->lr_request);
-	sbi->s_li_request = NULL;
+	EXT4_SB(elr->lr_super)->s_li_request = NULL;
 	kfree(elr);
 }
 
@@ -3461,7 +3481,6 @@ static int ext4_li_info_new(void)
 static struct ext4_li_request *ext4_li_request_new(struct super_block *sb,
 					    ext4_group_t start)
 {
-	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
 	struct ext4_li_request *elr;
 
 	elr = kzalloc(sizeof(*elr), GFP_KERNEL);
@@ -3469,8 +3488,13 @@ static struct ext4_li_request *ext4_li_request_new(struct super_block *sb,
 		return NULL;
 
 	elr->lr_super = sb;
-	elr->lr_sbi = sbi;
-	elr->lr_next_group = start;
+	elr->lr_first_not_zeroed = start;
+	if (test_opt(sb, PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS))
+		elr->lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP;
+	else {
+		elr->lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE;
+		elr->lr_next_group = start;
+	}
 
 	/*
 	 * Randomize first schedule time of the request to
@@ -3488,6 +3512,7 @@ int ext4_register_li_request(struct super_block *sb,
 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
 	struct ext4_li_request *elr = NULL;
 	ext4_group_t ngroups = sbi->s_groups_count;
+	enum ext4_li_mode lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE;
 	int ret = 0;
 
 	mutex_lock(&ext4_li_mtx);
@@ -3500,8 +3525,10 @@ int ext4_register_li_request(struct super_block *sb,
 		goto out;
 	}
 
-	if (first_not_zeroed == ngroups || sb_rdonly(sb) ||
-	    !test_opt(sb, INIT_INODE_TABLE))
+	if (test_opt(sb, PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS)) {
+		lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP;
+	} else if (first_not_zeroed == ngroups || sb_rdonly(sb) ||
+		   !test_opt(sb, INIT_INODE_TABLE))
 		goto out;
 
 	elr = ext4_li_request_new(sb, first_not_zeroed);
diff --git a/include/trace/events/ext4.h b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
index cbcd2e1a608d..8008d2e116b9 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/ext4.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
@@ -2742,6 +2742,50 @@ TRACE_EVENT(ext4_error,
 		  __entry->function, __entry->line)
 );
 
+TRACE_EVENT(ext4_prefetch_bitmaps,
+	    TP_PROTO(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+		     ext4_group_t next, unsigned int prefetch_ios),
+
+	TP_ARGS(sb, group, next, prefetch_ios),
+
+	TP_STRUCT__entry(
+		__field(	dev_t,	dev			)
+		__field(	__u32,	group			)
+		__field(	__u32,	next			)
+		__field(	__u32,	ios			)
+	),
+
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__entry->dev	= sb->s_dev;
+		__entry->group	= group;
+		__entry->next	= next;
+		__entry->ios	= prefetch_ios;
+	),
+
+	TP_printk("dev %d,%d group %u next %u ios %u",
+		  MAJOR(__entry->dev), MINOR(__entry->dev),
+		  __entry->group, __entry->next, __entry->ios)
+);
+
+TRACE_EVENT(ext4_lazy_itable_init,
+	    TP_PROTO(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group),
+
+	TP_ARGS(sb, group),
+
+	TP_STRUCT__entry(
+		__field(	dev_t,	dev			)
+		__field(	__u32,	group			)
+	),
+
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__entry->dev	= sb->s_dev;
+		__entry->group	= group;
+	),
+
+	TP_printk("dev %d,%d group %u",
+		  MAJOR(__entry->dev), MINOR(__entry->dev), __entry->group)
+);
+
 #endif /* _TRACE_EXT4_H */
 
 /* This part must be outside protection */
-- 
2.24.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 2/4] ext4: skip non-loaded groups at cr=0/1 when scanning for good groups
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 2/4] ext4: skip non-loaded groups at cr=0/1 when scanning for good groups Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-08-01  8:49   ` Andreas Dilger
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Andreas Dilger @ 2020-08-01  8:49 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Theodore Ts'o
  Cc: Ext4 Developers List, Alex Zhuravlev, Artem Blagodarenko


[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 2936 bytes --]


> On Jul 31, 2020, at 1:08 PM, Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> wrote:
> 
> From: Alex Zhuravlev <azhuravlev@whamcloud.com>
> 
> cr=0 is supposed to be an optimization to save CPU cycles, but if
> buddy data (in memory) is not initialized then all this makes no sense
> as we have to do sync IO taking a lot of cycles.  Also, at cr=0
> mballoc doesn't choose any avaibale chunk.  cr=1 also skips groups

(typo) "available"

> using heuristic based on avg. fragment size.  It's more useful to skip
> such groups and switch to cr=2 where groups will be scanned for
> available chunks.  However, we always read the first block group in a
> flex_bg so metadata blocks will get read into the first flex_bg if
> possible.
> 
> Using sparse image and dm-slow virtual device of 120TB was
> simulated, then the image was formatted and filled using debugfs to
> mark ~85% of available space as busy.  mount process w/o the patch
> couldn't complete in half an hour (according to vmstat it would take
> ~10-11 hours).  With the patch applied mount took ~20 seconds.
> 
> Lustre-bug-id: https://jira.whamcloud.com/browse/LU-12988
> Signed-off-by: Alex Zhuravlev <azhuravlev@whamcloud.com>
> Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@whamcloud.com>
> Reviewed-by: Artem Blagodarenko <artem.blagodarenko@gmail.com>

Looks good, one trivial cleanup below could also be done before landing.

> ---
> fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 22 +++++++++++++++++++++-
> 1 file changed, 21 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> 
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> index fcc702f1ff15..b1ef35a9e9f1 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> @@ -2195,7 +2196,26 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> 
> 	/* We only do this if the grp has never been initialized */
> 	if (unlikely(EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp))) {
> -		ret = ext4_mb_init_group(ac->ac_sb, group, GFP_NOFS);
> +		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp =
> +			ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group, NULL);
> +		int ret;
> +
> +		/* cr=0/1 is a very optimistic search to find large
> +		 * good chunks almost for free.  If buddy data is not
> +		 * ready, then this optimization makes no sense.  But
> +		 * we never skip the first block group in a flex_bg,
> +		 * since this gets used for metadata block allocation,
> +		 * and we want to make sure we locate metadata blocks
> +		 * in the first block group in the flex_bg if
> +		 * possible.

(style) "possible" could fit on the previous line?

> +		 */
> +		if (cr < 2 &&
> +		    (!sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex ||
> +		     ((group & ((1 << sbi->s_log_groups_per_flex) - 1)) != 0)) &&
> +		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
> +		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT))))
> +			return 0;
> +		ret = ext4_mb_init_group(sb, group, GFP_NOFS);
> 		if (ret)
> 			return ret;
> 	}
> --
> 2.24.1
> 


Cheers, Andreas






[-- Attachment #2: Message signed with OpenPGP --]
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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] ext4: add prefetch_block_bitmaps mount options
  2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 4/4] ext4: add prefetch_block_bitmaps mount options Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-08-01  8:57   ` Andreas Dilger
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Andreas Dilger @ 2020-08-01  8:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Theodore Ts'o; +Cc: Ext4 Developers List


[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 10664 bytes --]

On Jul 31, 2020, at 1:08 PM, Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> wrote:
> 
> For file systems where we can afford to keep the buddy bitmaps cached,
> we can speed up initial writes to large file systems by starting to
> load the block allocation bitmaps as soon as the file system is
> mounted.  This won't work well for _super_ large file systems, or
> memory constrained systems, so we only enable this when it is
> requested via a mount option.
> 
> Addresses-Google-Bug: 159488342
> Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>

Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@dilger.ca>

> ---
> fs/ext4/ext4.h              | 15 +++++++++-
> fs/ext4/mballoc.c           | 10 +++----
> fs/ext4/super.c             | 59 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------
> include/trace/events/ext4.h | 44 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 4 files changed, 105 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> index 7451662e092a..4df6f429de1a 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> +++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> @@ -1172,6 +1172,7 @@ struct ext4_inode_info {
> #define EXT4_MOUNT_JOURNAL_CHECKSUM	0x800000 /* Journal checksums */
> #define EXT4_MOUNT_JOURNAL_ASYNC_COMMIT	0x1000000 /* Journal Async Commit */
> #define EXT4_MOUNT_WARN_ON_ERROR	0x2000000 /* Trigger WARN_ON on error */
> +#define EXT4_MOUNT_PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS 0x4000000
> #define EXT4_MOUNT_DELALLOC		0x8000000 /* Delalloc support */
> #define EXT4_MOUNT_DATA_ERR_ABORT	0x10000000 /* Abort on file data write */
> #define EXT4_MOUNT_BLOCK_VALIDITY	0x20000000 /* Block validity checking */
> @@ -2315,9 +2316,15 @@ struct ext4_lazy_init {
> 	struct mutex		li_list_mtx;
> };
> 
> +enum ext4_li_mode {
> +	EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP,
> +	EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE,
> +};
> +
> struct ext4_li_request {
> 	struct super_block	*lr_super;
> -	struct ext4_sb_info	*lr_sbi;
> +	enum ext4_li_mode	lr_mode;
> +	ext4_group_t		lr_first_not_zeroed;
> 	ext4_group_t		lr_next_group;
> 	struct list_head	lr_request;
> 	unsigned long		lr_next_sched;
> @@ -2657,6 +2664,12 @@ extern int ext4_mb_reserve_blocks(struct super_block *, int);
> extern void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *);
> extern int __init ext4_init_mballoc(void);
> extern void ext4_exit_mballoc(void);
> +extern ext4_group_t ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb,
> +				     ext4_group_t group,
> +				     unsigned int nr, int *cnt);
> +extern void ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> +				  unsigned int nr);
> +
> extern void ext4_free_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
> 			     struct buffer_head *bh, ext4_fsblk_t block,
> 			     unsigned long count, int flags);
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> index b1ef35a9e9f1..47de61e44db2 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> @@ -2233,9 +2233,8 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
>  * Start prefetching @nr block bitmaps starting at @group.
>  * Return the next group which needs to be prefetched.
>  */
> -static ext4_group_t
> -ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> -		 unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
> +ext4_group_t ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> +			      unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
> {
> 	ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> 	struct buffer_head *bh;
> @@ -2285,9 +2284,8 @@ ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
>  * waiting for the block allocation bitmap read to finish when
>  * ext4_mb_prefetch_fini is called from ext4_mb_regular_allocator().
>  */
> -static void
> -ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> -		      unsigned int nr)
> +void ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> +			   unsigned int nr)
> {
> 	while (nr-- > 0) {
> 		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/super.c b/fs/ext4/super.c
> index 330957ed1f05..51e91a220ea9 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/super.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/super.c
> @@ -1521,6 +1521,7 @@ enum {
> 	Opt_dioread_nolock, Opt_dioread_lock,
> 	Opt_discard, Opt_nodiscard, Opt_init_itable, Opt_noinit_itable,
> 	Opt_max_dir_size_kb, Opt_nojournal_checksum, Opt_nombcache,
> +	Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps,
> };
> 
> static const match_table_t tokens = {
> @@ -1612,6 +1613,7 @@ static const match_table_t tokens = {
> 	{Opt_test_dummy_encryption, "test_dummy_encryption"},
> 	{Opt_nombcache, "nombcache"},
> 	{Opt_nombcache, "no_mbcache"},	/* for backward compatibility */
> +	{Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, "prefetch_block_bitmaps"},
> 	{Opt_removed, "check=none"},	/* mount option from ext2/3 */
> 	{Opt_removed, "nocheck"},	/* mount option from ext2/3 */
> 	{Opt_removed, "reservation"},	/* mount option from ext2/3 */
> @@ -1829,6 +1831,8 @@ static const struct mount_opts {
> 	{Opt_max_dir_size_kb, 0, MOPT_GTE0},
> 	{Opt_test_dummy_encryption, 0, MOPT_STRING},
> 	{Opt_nombcache, EXT4_MOUNT_NO_MBCACHE, MOPT_SET},
> +	{Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, EXT4_MOUNT_PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS,
> +	 MOPT_SET},
> 	{Opt_err, 0, 0}
> };
> 
> @@ -3201,15 +3205,34 @@ static void print_daily_error_info(struct timer_list *t)
> static int ext4_run_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
> {
> 	struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = NULL;
> -	ext4_group_t group, ngroups;
> -	struct super_block *sb;
> +	struct super_block *sb = elr->lr_super;
> +	ext4_group_t ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
> +	ext4_group_t group = elr->lr_next_group;
> 	unsigned long timeout = 0;
> +	unsigned int prefetch_ios = 0;
> 	int ret = 0;
> 
> -	sb = elr->lr_super;
> -	ngroups = EXT4_SB(sb)->s_groups_count;
> +	if (elr->lr_mode == EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP) {
> +		elr->lr_next_group = ext4_mb_prefetch(sb, group,
> +				EXT4_SB(sb)->s_mb_prefetch, &prefetch_ios);
> +		if (prefetch_ios)
> +			ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(sb, elr->lr_next_group,
> +					      prefetch_ios);
> +		trace_ext4_prefetch_bitmaps(sb, group, elr->lr_next_group,
> +					    prefetch_ios);
> +		if (group >= elr->lr_next_group) {
> +			ret = 1;
> +			if (elr->lr_first_not_zeroed != ngroups &&
> +			    !sb_rdonly(sb) && test_opt(sb, INIT_INODE_TABLE)) {
> +				elr->lr_next_group = elr->lr_first_not_zeroed;
> +				elr->lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE;
> +				ret = 0;
> +			}
> +		}
> +		return ret;
> +	}
> 
> -	for (group = elr->lr_next_group; group < ngroups; group++) {
> +	for (; group < ngroups; group++) {
> 		gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group, NULL);
> 		if (!gdp) {
> 			ret = 1;
> @@ -3227,9 +3250,10 @@ static int ext4_run_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
> 		timeout = jiffies;
> 		ret = ext4_init_inode_table(sb, group,
> 					    elr->lr_timeout ? 0 : 1);
> +		trace_ext4_lazy_itable_init(sb, group);
> 		if (elr->lr_timeout == 0) {
> 			timeout = (jiffies - timeout) *
> -				  elr->lr_sbi->s_li_wait_mult;
> +				EXT4_SB(elr->lr_super)->s_li_wait_mult;
> 			elr->lr_timeout = timeout;
> 		}
> 		elr->lr_next_sched = jiffies + elr->lr_timeout;
> @@ -3244,15 +3268,11 @@ static int ext4_run_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
>  */
> static void ext4_remove_li_request(struct ext4_li_request *elr)
> {
> -	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi;
> -
> 	if (!elr)
> 		return;
> 
> -	sbi = elr->lr_sbi;
> -
> 	list_del(&elr->lr_request);
> -	sbi->s_li_request = NULL;
> +	EXT4_SB(elr->lr_super)->s_li_request = NULL;
> 	kfree(elr);
> }
> 
> @@ -3461,7 +3481,6 @@ static int ext4_li_info_new(void)
> static struct ext4_li_request *ext4_li_request_new(struct super_block *sb,
> 					    ext4_group_t start)
> {
> -	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> 	struct ext4_li_request *elr;
> 
> 	elr = kzalloc(sizeof(*elr), GFP_KERNEL);
> @@ -3469,8 +3488,13 @@ static struct ext4_li_request *ext4_li_request_new(struct super_block *sb,
> 		return NULL;
> 
> 	elr->lr_super = sb;
> -	elr->lr_sbi = sbi;
> -	elr->lr_next_group = start;
> +	elr->lr_first_not_zeroed = start;
> +	if (test_opt(sb, PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS))
> +		elr->lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP;
> +	else {
> +		elr->lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE;
> +		elr->lr_next_group = start;
> +	}
> 
> 	/*
> 	 * Randomize first schedule time of the request to
> @@ -3488,6 +3512,7 @@ int ext4_register_li_request(struct super_block *sb,
> 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> 	struct ext4_li_request *elr = NULL;
> 	ext4_group_t ngroups = sbi->s_groups_count;
> +	enum ext4_li_mode lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_ITABLE;
> 	int ret = 0;
> 
> 	mutex_lock(&ext4_li_mtx);
> @@ -3500,8 +3525,10 @@ int ext4_register_li_request(struct super_block *sb,
> 		goto out;
> 	}
> 
> -	if (first_not_zeroed == ngroups || sb_rdonly(sb) ||
> -	    !test_opt(sb, INIT_INODE_TABLE))
> +	if (test_opt(sb, PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS)) {
> +		lr_mode = EXT4_LI_MODE_PREFETCH_BBITMAP;
> +	} else if (first_not_zeroed == ngroups || sb_rdonly(sb) ||
> +		   !test_opt(sb, INIT_INODE_TABLE))
> 		goto out;
> 
> 	elr = ext4_li_request_new(sb, first_not_zeroed);
> diff --git a/include/trace/events/ext4.h b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
> index cbcd2e1a608d..8008d2e116b9 100644
> --- a/include/trace/events/ext4.h
> +++ b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
> @@ -2742,6 +2742,50 @@ TRACE_EVENT(ext4_error,
> 		  __entry->function, __entry->line)
> );
> 
> +TRACE_EVENT(ext4_prefetch_bitmaps,
> +	    TP_PROTO(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> +		     ext4_group_t next, unsigned int prefetch_ios),
> +
> +	TP_ARGS(sb, group, next, prefetch_ios),
> +
> +	TP_STRUCT__entry(
> +		__field(	dev_t,	dev			)
> +		__field(	__u32,	group			)
> +		__field(	__u32,	next			)
> +		__field(	__u32,	ios			)
> +	),
> +
> +	TP_fast_assign(
> +		__entry->dev	= sb->s_dev;
> +		__entry->group	= group;
> +		__entry->next	= next;
> +		__entry->ios	= prefetch_ios;
> +	),
> +
> +	TP_printk("dev %d,%d group %u next %u ios %u",
> +		  MAJOR(__entry->dev), MINOR(__entry->dev),
> +		  __entry->group, __entry->next, __entry->ios)
> +);
> +
> +TRACE_EVENT(ext4_lazy_itable_init,
> +	    TP_PROTO(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group),
> +
> +	TP_ARGS(sb, group),
> +
> +	TP_STRUCT__entry(
> +		__field(	dev_t,	dev			)
> +		__field(	__u32,	group			)
> +	),
> +
> +	TP_fast_assign(
> +		__entry->dev	= sb->s_dev;
> +		__entry->group	= group;
> +	),
> +
> +	TP_printk("dev %d,%d group %u",
> +		  MAJOR(__entry->dev), MINOR(__entry->dev), __entry->group)
> +);
> +
> #endif /* _TRACE_EXT4_H */
> 
> /* This part must be outside protection */
> --
> 2.24.1
> 


Cheers, Andreas






[-- Attachment #2: Message signed with OpenPGP --]
[-- Type: application/pgp-signature, Size: 873 bytes --]

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps
  2020-07-21  7:42   ` Andreas Dilger
  2020-07-23  0:36     ` Shuichi Ihara
@ 2020-07-23 15:00     ` tytso
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: tytso @ 2020-07-23 15:00 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andreas Dilger; +Cc: Ext4 Developers List, Alex Zhuravlev, Shuichi Ihara

On Tue, Jul 21, 2020 at 01:42:54AM -0600, Andreas Dilger wrote:
> 
> I re-reviewed the patch with the changes, and it looks OK.  I see that
> you reduced the prefetch limit from 32 to 4 group blocks, presumably to
> keep the latency low?  It would be useful to see what impact that has
> on the mount time and IO performance of a large filesystem.

No, I didn't change it.  As before, it's 4 times the size of the
flex_bg size (assuming the file system has flex bg's enabled);
otherwise it's 128 (4 times 32).

I'm actually worried that this is too aggressive on storage devies
where LBA's which are adjacent to each other aren't necessarily
adjacent to each other on the physical storage device.  For example,
on dm-thin, some qemu-img formats, and potentially some cloud virtual
block devices....

Unfortunately, there isn't a good way to query a block device to
determine whether adjacent LBA's are really adjacent in the real world.

	  	  	   	     	    	     - Ted

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps
  2020-07-21  7:42   ` Andreas Dilger
@ 2020-07-23  0:36     ` Shuichi Ihara
  2020-07-23 15:00     ` tytso
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Shuichi Ihara @ 2020-07-23  0:36 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andreas Dilger; +Cc: Theodore Ts'o, Ext4 Developers List, Alex Zhuravlev

Hi Andreas,

> Shuichi, do you have a properly populated large OST that you could test
> this?  Since it is a tunable (/sys/fs/ext4/<dev>/mb_prefetch_limit), it
> should be possible to see the effect on allocation performance at least
> without recompiling the module, though this tunable only appears after
> mount, so you will have a chance to change it right after mount to see
> the effect. Given the long mount time with a bad parameter, this should
> not be hard to observe.

Sure, I will test this on large OST and check if there are any good/bad performance impacts with it.

Thanks
Ihara

> On Jul 21, 2020, at 16:42, Andreas Dilger <adilger@dilger.ca> wrote:
> 
> On Jul 17, 2020, at 9:53 AM, Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> wrote:
>> 
>> From: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>
>> 
>> This should significantly improve bitmap loading, especially for flex
>> groups as it tries to load all bitmaps within a flex.group instead of
>> one by one synchronously.
>> 
>> Prefetching is done in 8 * flex_bg groups, so it should be 8 read-ahead
>> reads for a single allocating thread. At the end of allocation the
>> thread waits for read-ahead completion and initializes buddy information
>> so that read-aheads are not lost in case of memory pressure.
>> 
>> At cr=0 the number of prefetching IOs is limited per allocation context
>> to prevent a situation when mballoc loads thousands of bitmaps looking
>> for a perfect group and ignoring groups with good chunks.
>> 
>> Together with the patch "ext4: limit scanning of uninitialized groups"
>> the mount time (which includes few tiny allocations) of a 1PB filesystem
>> is reduced significantly:
>> 
>>              0% full    50%-full unpatched    patched
>> mount time       33s                9279s       563s
>> 
>> [ Restructured by tytso; removed the state flags in the allocation
>> context, so it can be used to lazily prefetch the allocation bitmaps
>> immediately after the file system is mounted.  Skip prefetching
>> block groups which are unitialized.  Finally pass in the REQ_RAHEAD
>> flag to the block layer while prefetching. ]
>> 
>> Signed-off-by: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>
>> Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@whamcloud.com>
> 
> I re-reviewed the patch with the changes, and it looks OK.  I see that
> you reduced the prefetch limit from 32 to 4 group blocks, presumably to
> keep the latency low?  It would be useful to see what impact that has
> on the mount time and IO performance of a large filesystem.
> 
> Shuichi, do you have a properly populated large OST that you could test
> this?  Since it is a tunable (/sys/fs/ext4/<dev>/mb_prefetch_limit), it
> should be possible to see the effect on allocation performance at least
> without recompiling the module, though this tunable only appears after
> mount, so you will have a chance to change it right after mount to see
> the effect. Given the long mount time with a bad parameter, this should
> not be hard to observe.
> 
> Cheers, Andreas
> 
>> Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
>> ---
>> fs/ext4/balloc.c  |  14 +++--
>> fs/ext4/ext4.h    |   8 ++-
>> fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 132 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
>> fs/ext4/sysfs.c   |   4 ++
>> 4 files changed, 152 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
>> 
>> diff --git a/fs/ext4/balloc.c b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
>> index 1ba46d87cdf1..aaa9ec5212c8 100644
>> --- a/fs/ext4/balloc.c
>> +++ b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
>> @@ -413,7 +413,8 @@ static int ext4_validate_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
>> * Return buffer_head on success or an ERR_PTR in case of failure.
>> */
>> struct buffer_head *
>> -ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
>> +ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group,
>> +			      bool ignore_locked)
>> {
>> 	struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
>> 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
>> @@ -441,6 +442,12 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
>> 		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
>> 	}
>> 
>> +	if (ignore_locked && buffer_locked(bh)) {
>> +		/* buffer under IO already, return if called for prefetching */
>> +		put_bh(bh);
>> +		return NULL;
>> +	}
>> +
>> 	if (bitmap_uptodate(bh))
>> 		goto verify;
>> 
>> @@ -490,7 +497,8 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
>> 	trace_ext4_read_block_bitmap_load(sb, block_group);
>> 	bh->b_end_io = ext4_end_bitmap_read;
>> 	get_bh(bh);
>> -	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO, bh);
>> +	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO |
>> +		  ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0, bh);
>> 	return bh;
>> verify:
>> 	err = ext4_validate_block_bitmap(sb, desc, block_group, bh);
>> @@ -534,7 +542,7 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
>> 	struct buffer_head *bh;
>> 	int err;
>> 
>> -	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group);
>> +	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group, false);
>> 	if (IS_ERR(bh))
>> 		return bh;
>> 	err = ext4_wait_block_bitmap(sb, block_group, bh);
>> diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
>> index 42f5060f3cdf..7451662e092a 100644
>> --- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
>> +++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
>> @@ -1505,6 +1505,8 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
>> 	/* where last allocation was done - for stream allocation */
>> 	unsigned long s_mb_last_group;
>> 	unsigned long s_mb_last_start;
>> +	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch;
>> +	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch_limit;
>> 
>> 	/* stats for buddy allocator */
>> 	atomic_t s_bal_reqs;	/* number of reqs with len > 1 */
>> @@ -2446,7 +2448,8 @@ extern struct ext4_group_desc * ext4_get_group_desc(struct super_block * sb,
>> extern int ext4_should_retry_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int *retries);
>> 
>> extern struct buffer_head *ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb,
>> -						ext4_group_t block_group);
>> +						ext4_group_t block_group,
>> +						bool ignore_locked);
>> extern int ext4_wait_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
>> 				  ext4_group_t block_group,
>> 				  struct buffer_head *bh);
>> @@ -3145,6 +3148,7 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
>> 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
>> #define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT		\
>> 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
>> +#define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT	4
>> 
>> #define EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp)	\
>> 	(test_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_NEED_INIT_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
>> @@ -3159,6 +3163,8 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
>> 	(set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
>> #define EXT4_MB_GRP_CLEAR_TRIMMED(grp)	\
>> 	(clear_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
>> +#define EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp)	\
>> +	(test_and_set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
>> 
>> #define EXT4_MAX_CONTENTION		8
>> #define EXT4_CONTENTION_THRESHOLD	2
>> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
>> index c0a331e2feb0..8a1e6e03c088 100644
>> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
>> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
>> @@ -922,7 +922,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore, gfp_t gfp)
>> 			bh[i] = NULL;
>> 			continue;
>> 		}
>> -		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group);
>> +		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, false);
>> 		if (IS_ERR(bh[i])) {
>> 			err = PTR_ERR(bh[i]);
>> 			bh[i] = NULL;
>> @@ -2209,12 +2209,93 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
>> 	return ret;
>> }
>> 
>> +/*
>> + * Start prefetching @nr block bitmaps starting at @group.
>> + * Return the next group which needs to be prefetched.
>> + */
>> +static ext4_group_t
>> +ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
>> +		 unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
>> +{
>> +	ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
>> +	struct buffer_head *bh;
>> +	struct blk_plug plug;
>> +
>> +	blk_start_plug(&plug);
>> +	while (nr-- > 0) {
>> +		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
>> +								  NULL);
>> +		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
>> +
>> +		/*
>> +		 * Prefetch block groups with free blocks; but don't
>> +		 * bother if it is marked uninitialized on disk, since
>> +		 * it won't require I/O to read.  Also only try to
>> +		 * prefetch once, so we avoid getblk() call, which can
>> +		 * be expensive.
>> +		 */
>> +		if (!EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp) &&
>> +		    EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
>> +		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
>> +		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
>> +		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
>> +			bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, true);
>> +			if (bh && !IS_ERR(bh)) {
>> +				if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) && cnt)
>> +					(*cnt)++;
>> +				brelse(bh);
>> +			}
>> +		}
>> +		if (++group >= ngroups)
>> +			group = 0;
>> +	}
>> +	blk_finish_plug(&plug);
>> +	return group;
>> +}
>> +
>> +/*
>> + * Prefetching reads the block bitmap into the buffer cache; but we
>> + * need to make sure that the buddy bitmap in the page cache has been
>> + * initialized.  Note that ext4_mb_init_group() will block if the I/O
>> + * is not yet completed, or indeed if it was not initiated by
>> + * ext4_mb_prefetch did not start the I/O.
>> + *
>> + * TODO: We should actually kick off the buddy bitmap setup in a work
>> + * queue when the buffer I/O is completed, so that we don't block
>> + * waiting for the block allocation bitmap read to finish when
>> + * ext4_mb_prefetch_fini is called from ext4_mb_regular_allocator().
>> + */
>> +static void
>> +ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
>> +		      unsigned int nr)
>> +{
>> +	while (nr-- > 0) {
>> +		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
>> +								  NULL);
>> +		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
>> +
>> +		if (!group)
>> +			group = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
>> +		group--;
>> +		grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
>> +
>> +		if (EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
>> +		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
>> +		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
>> +		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
>> +			if (ext4_mb_init_group(sb, group, GFP_NOFS))
>> +				break;
>> +		}
>> +	}
>> +}
>> +
>> static noinline_for_stack int
>> ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
>> {
>> -	ext4_group_t ngroups, group, i;
>> +	ext4_group_t prefetch_grp = 0, ngroups, group, i;
>> 	int cr = -1;
>> 	int err = 0, first_err = 0;
>> +	unsigned int nr = 0, prefetch_ios = 0;
>> 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi;
>> 	struct super_block *sb;
>> 	struct ext4_buddy e4b;
>> @@ -2282,6 +2363,7 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
>> 		 * from the goal value specified
>> 		 */
>> 		group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
>> +		prefetch_grp = group;
>> 
>> 		for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
>> 			int ret = 0;
>> @@ -2293,6 +2375,29 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
>> 			if (group >= ngroups)
>> 				group = 0;
>> 
>> +			/*
>> +			 * Batch reads of the block allocation bitmaps
>> +			 * to get multiple READs in flight; limit
>> +			 * prefetching at cr=0/1, otherwise mballoc can
>> +			 * spend a lot of time loading imperfect groups
>> +			 */
>> +			if ((prefetch_grp == group) &&
>> +			    (cr > 1 ||
>> +			     prefetch_ios < sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit)) {
>> +				unsigned int curr_ios = prefetch_ios;
>> +
>> +				nr = sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
>> +				if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
>> +					nr = (group / sbi->s_mb_prefetch) *
>> +						sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
>> +					nr = nr + sbi->s_mb_prefetch - group;
>> +				}
>> +				prefetch_grp = ext4_mb_prefetch(sb, group,
>> +							nr, &prefetch_ios);
>> +				if (prefetch_ios == curr_ios)
>> +					nr = 0;
>> +			}
>> +
>> 			/* This now checks without needing the buddy page */
>> 			ret = ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(ac, group, cr);
>> 			if (ret <= 0) {
>> @@ -2367,6 +2472,10 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
>> 	mb_debug(sb, "Best len %d, origin len %d, ac_status %u, ac_flags 0x%x, cr %d ret %d\n",
>> 		 ac->ac_b_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_o_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_status,
>> 		 ac->ac_flags, cr, err);
>> +
>> +	if (nr)
>> +		ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(sb, prefetch_grp, nr);
>> +
>> 	return err;
>> }
>> 
>> @@ -2613,6 +2722,25 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
>> 			goto err_freebuddy;
>> 	}
>> 
>> +	if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
>> +		/* a single flex group is supposed to be read by a single IO */
>> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 1 << sbi->s_es->s_log_groups_per_flex;
>> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch *= 8; /* 8 prefetch IOs in flight at most */
>> +	} else {
>> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 32;
>> +	}
>> +	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
>> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
>> +	/* now many real IOs to prefetch within a single allocation at cr=0
>> +	 * given cr=0 is an CPU-related optimization we shouldn't try to
>> +	 * load too many groups, at some point we should start to use what
>> +	 * we've got in memory.
>> +	 * with an average random access time 5ms, it'd take a second to get
>> +	 * 200 groups (* N with flex_bg), so let's make this limit 4 */
>> +	sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = sbi->s_mb_prefetch * 4;
>> +	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
>> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
>> +
>> 	return 0;
>> 
>> err_freebuddy:
>> diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
>> index 6c9fc9e21c13..31e0db726d21 100644
>> --- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
>> +++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
>> @@ -240,6 +240,8 @@ EXT4_RO_ATTR_ES_STRING(last_error_func, s_last_error_func, 32);
>> EXT4_ATTR(first_error_time, 0444, first_error_time);
>> EXT4_ATTR(last_error_time, 0444, last_error_time);
>> EXT4_ATTR(journal_task, 0444, journal_task);
>> +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch, s_mb_prefetch);
>> +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch_limit, s_mb_prefetch_limit);
>> 
>> static unsigned int old_bump_val = 128;
>> EXT4_ATTR_PTR(max_writeback_mb_bump, 0444, pointer_ui, &old_bump_val);
>> @@ -283,6 +285,8 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
>> #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
>> 	ATTR_LIST(simulate_fail),
>> #endif
>> +	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch),
>> +	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch_limit),
>> 	NULL,
>> };
>> ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS(ext4);
>> --
>> 2.24.1
>> 
> 
> 
> Cheers, Andreas
> 
> 
> 
> 
> 


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps
  2020-07-17 15:53 ` [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-17 21:55   ` kernel test robot
@ 2020-07-21  7:42   ` Andreas Dilger
  2020-07-23  0:36     ` Shuichi Ihara
  2020-07-23 15:00     ` tytso
  1 sibling, 2 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Andreas Dilger @ 2020-07-21  7:42 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Theodore Ts'o; +Cc: Ext4 Developers List, Alex Zhuravlev, Shuichi Ihara


[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 13656 bytes --]

On Jul 17, 2020, at 9:53 AM, Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> wrote:
> 
> From: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>
> 
> This should significantly improve bitmap loading, especially for flex
> groups as it tries to load all bitmaps within a flex.group instead of
> one by one synchronously.
> 
> Prefetching is done in 8 * flex_bg groups, so it should be 8 read-ahead
> reads for a single allocating thread. At the end of allocation the
> thread waits for read-ahead completion and initializes buddy information
> so that read-aheads are not lost in case of memory pressure.
> 
> At cr=0 the number of prefetching IOs is limited per allocation context
> to prevent a situation when mballoc loads thousands of bitmaps looking
> for a perfect group and ignoring groups with good chunks.
> 
> Together with the patch "ext4: limit scanning of uninitialized groups"
> the mount time (which includes few tiny allocations) of a 1PB filesystem
> is reduced significantly:
> 
>               0% full    50%-full unpatched    patched
>  mount time       33s                9279s       563s
> 
> [ Restructured by tytso; removed the state flags in the allocation
>  context, so it can be used to lazily prefetch the allocation bitmaps
>  immediately after the file system is mounted.  Skip prefetching
>  block groups which are unitialized.  Finally pass in the REQ_RAHEAD
>  flag to the block layer while prefetching. ]
> 
> Signed-off-by: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>
> Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@whamcloud.com>

I re-reviewed the patch with the changes, and it looks OK.  I see that
you reduced the prefetch limit from 32 to 4 group blocks, presumably to
keep the latency low?  It would be useful to see what impact that has
on the mount time and IO performance of a large filesystem.

Shuichi, do you have a properly populated large OST that you could test
this?  Since it is a tunable (/sys/fs/ext4/<dev>/mb_prefetch_limit), it
should be possible to see the effect on allocation performance at least
without recompiling the module, though this tunable only appears after
mount, so you will have a chance to change it right after mount to see
the effect. Given the long mount time with a bad parameter, this should
not be hard to observe.

Cheers, Andreas

> Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
> ---
> fs/ext4/balloc.c  |  14 +++--
> fs/ext4/ext4.h    |   8 ++-
> fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 132 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
> fs/ext4/sysfs.c   |   4 ++
> 4 files changed, 152 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/balloc.c b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
> index 1ba46d87cdf1..aaa9ec5212c8 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/balloc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
> @@ -413,7 +413,8 @@ static int ext4_validate_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
>  * Return buffer_head on success or an ERR_PTR in case of failure.
>  */
> struct buffer_head *
> -ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
> +ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group,
> +			      bool ignore_locked)
> {
> 	struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
> 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> @@ -441,6 +442,12 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
> 		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
> 	}
> 
> +	if (ignore_locked && buffer_locked(bh)) {
> +		/* buffer under IO already, return if called for prefetching */
> +		put_bh(bh);
> +		return NULL;
> +	}
> +
> 	if (bitmap_uptodate(bh))
> 		goto verify;
> 
> @@ -490,7 +497,8 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
> 	trace_ext4_read_block_bitmap_load(sb, block_group);
> 	bh->b_end_io = ext4_end_bitmap_read;
> 	get_bh(bh);
> -	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO, bh);
> +	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO |
> +		  ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0, bh);
> 	return bh;
> verify:
> 	err = ext4_validate_block_bitmap(sb, desc, block_group, bh);
> @@ -534,7 +542,7 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
> 	struct buffer_head *bh;
> 	int err;
> 
> -	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group);
> +	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group, false);
> 	if (IS_ERR(bh))
> 		return bh;
> 	err = ext4_wait_block_bitmap(sb, block_group, bh);
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> index 42f5060f3cdf..7451662e092a 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> +++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> @@ -1505,6 +1505,8 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
> 	/* where last allocation was done - for stream allocation */
> 	unsigned long s_mb_last_group;
> 	unsigned long s_mb_last_start;
> +	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch;
> +	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch_limit;
> 
> 	/* stats for buddy allocator */
> 	atomic_t s_bal_reqs;	/* number of reqs with len > 1 */
> @@ -2446,7 +2448,8 @@ extern struct ext4_group_desc * ext4_get_group_desc(struct super_block * sb,
> extern int ext4_should_retry_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int *retries);
> 
> extern struct buffer_head *ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb,
> -						ext4_group_t block_group);
> +						ext4_group_t block_group,
> +						bool ignore_locked);
> extern int ext4_wait_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
> 				  ext4_group_t block_group,
> 				  struct buffer_head *bh);
> @@ -3145,6 +3148,7 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
> 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
> #define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT		\
> 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
> +#define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT	4
> 
> #define EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp)	\
> 	(test_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_NEED_INIT_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
> @@ -3159,6 +3163,8 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
> 	(set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
> #define EXT4_MB_GRP_CLEAR_TRIMMED(grp)	\
> 	(clear_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
> +#define EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp)	\
> +	(test_and_set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
> 
> #define EXT4_MAX_CONTENTION		8
> #define EXT4_CONTENTION_THRESHOLD	2
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> index c0a331e2feb0..8a1e6e03c088 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> @@ -922,7 +922,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore, gfp_t gfp)
> 			bh[i] = NULL;
> 			continue;
> 		}
> -		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group);
> +		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, false);
> 		if (IS_ERR(bh[i])) {
> 			err = PTR_ERR(bh[i]);
> 			bh[i] = NULL;
> @@ -2209,12 +2209,93 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> 	return ret;
> }
> 
> +/*
> + * Start prefetching @nr block bitmaps starting at @group.
> + * Return the next group which needs to be prefetched.
> + */
> +static ext4_group_t
> +ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> +		 unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
> +{
> +	ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> +	struct buffer_head *bh;
> +	struct blk_plug plug;
> +
> +	blk_start_plug(&plug);
> +	while (nr-- > 0) {
> +		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
> +								  NULL);
> +		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
> +
> +		/*
> +		 * Prefetch block groups with free blocks; but don't
> +		 * bother if it is marked uninitialized on disk, since
> +		 * it won't require I/O to read.  Also only try to
> +		 * prefetch once, so we avoid getblk() call, which can
> +		 * be expensive.
> +		 */
> +		if (!EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp) &&
> +		    EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
> +		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
> +		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
> +		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
> +			bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, true);
> +			if (bh && !IS_ERR(bh)) {
> +				if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) && cnt)
> +					(*cnt)++;
> +				brelse(bh);
> +			}
> +		}
> +		if (++group >= ngroups)
> +			group = 0;
> +	}
> +	blk_finish_plug(&plug);
> +	return group;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Prefetching reads the block bitmap into the buffer cache; but we
> + * need to make sure that the buddy bitmap in the page cache has been
> + * initialized.  Note that ext4_mb_init_group() will block if the I/O
> + * is not yet completed, or indeed if it was not initiated by
> + * ext4_mb_prefetch did not start the I/O.
> + *
> + * TODO: We should actually kick off the buddy bitmap setup in a work
> + * queue when the buffer I/O is completed, so that we don't block
> + * waiting for the block allocation bitmap read to finish when
> + * ext4_mb_prefetch_fini is called from ext4_mb_regular_allocator().
> + */
> +static void
> +ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> +		      unsigned int nr)
> +{
> +	while (nr-- > 0) {
> +		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
> +								  NULL);
> +		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
> +
> +		if (!group)
> +			group = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> +		group--;
> +		grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
> +
> +		if (EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
> +		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
> +		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
> +		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
> +			if (ext4_mb_init_group(sb, group, GFP_NOFS))
> +				break;
> +		}
> +	}
> +}
> +
> static noinline_for_stack int
> ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> {
> -	ext4_group_t ngroups, group, i;
> +	ext4_group_t prefetch_grp = 0, ngroups, group, i;
> 	int cr = -1;
> 	int err = 0, first_err = 0;
> +	unsigned int nr = 0, prefetch_ios = 0;
> 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi;
> 	struct super_block *sb;
> 	struct ext4_buddy e4b;
> @@ -2282,6 +2363,7 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> 		 * from the goal value specified
> 		 */
> 		group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
> +		prefetch_grp = group;
> 
> 		for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
> 			int ret = 0;
> @@ -2293,6 +2375,29 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> 			if (group >= ngroups)
> 				group = 0;
> 
> +			/*
> +			 * Batch reads of the block allocation bitmaps
> +			 * to get multiple READs in flight; limit
> +			 * prefetching at cr=0/1, otherwise mballoc can
> +			 * spend a lot of time loading imperfect groups
> +			 */
> +			if ((prefetch_grp == group) &&
> +			    (cr > 1 ||
> +			     prefetch_ios < sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit)) {
> +				unsigned int curr_ios = prefetch_ios;
> +
> +				nr = sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
> +				if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
> +					nr = (group / sbi->s_mb_prefetch) *
> +						sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
> +					nr = nr + sbi->s_mb_prefetch - group;
> +				}
> +				prefetch_grp = ext4_mb_prefetch(sb, group,
> +							nr, &prefetch_ios);
> +				if (prefetch_ios == curr_ios)
> +					nr = 0;
> +			}
> +
> 			/* This now checks without needing the buddy page */
> 			ret = ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(ac, group, cr);
> 			if (ret <= 0) {
> @@ -2367,6 +2472,10 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> 	mb_debug(sb, "Best len %d, origin len %d, ac_status %u, ac_flags 0x%x, cr %d ret %d\n",
> 		 ac->ac_b_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_o_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_status,
> 		 ac->ac_flags, cr, err);
> +
> +	if (nr)
> +		ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(sb, prefetch_grp, nr);
> +
> 	return err;
> }
> 
> @@ -2613,6 +2722,25 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
> 			goto err_freebuddy;
> 	}
> 
> +	if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
> +		/* a single flex group is supposed to be read by a single IO */
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 1 << sbi->s_es->s_log_groups_per_flex;
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch *= 8; /* 8 prefetch IOs in flight at most */
> +	} else {
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 32;
> +	}
> +	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> +	/* now many real IOs to prefetch within a single allocation at cr=0
> +	 * given cr=0 is an CPU-related optimization we shouldn't try to
> +	 * load too many groups, at some point we should start to use what
> +	 * we've got in memory.
> +	 * with an average random access time 5ms, it'd take a second to get
> +	 * 200 groups (* N with flex_bg), so let's make this limit 4 */
> +	sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = sbi->s_mb_prefetch * 4;
> +	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
> +		sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
> +
> 	return 0;
> 
> err_freebuddy:
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> index 6c9fc9e21c13..31e0db726d21 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> @@ -240,6 +240,8 @@ EXT4_RO_ATTR_ES_STRING(last_error_func, s_last_error_func, 32);
> EXT4_ATTR(first_error_time, 0444, first_error_time);
> EXT4_ATTR(last_error_time, 0444, last_error_time);
> EXT4_ATTR(journal_task, 0444, journal_task);
> +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch, s_mb_prefetch);
> +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch_limit, s_mb_prefetch_limit);
> 
> static unsigned int old_bump_val = 128;
> EXT4_ATTR_PTR(max_writeback_mb_bump, 0444, pointer_ui, &old_bump_val);
> @@ -283,6 +285,8 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
> #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> 	ATTR_LIST(simulate_fail),
> #endif
> +	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch),
> +	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch_limit),
> 	NULL,
> };
> ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS(ext4);
> --
> 2.24.1
> 


Cheers, Andreas






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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps
  2020-07-17 15:53 ` [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-07-17 21:55   ` kernel test robot
  2020-07-21  7:42   ` Andreas Dilger
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: kernel test robot @ 2020-07-17 21:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Theodore Ts'o, Ext4 Developers List
  Cc: kbuild-all, clang-built-linux, Alex Zhuravlev, Andreas Dilger,
	Theodore Ts'o


[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 5812 bytes --]

Hi Theodore,

Thank you for the patch! Perhaps something to improve:

[auto build test WARNING on tip/perf/core]
[also build test WARNING on v5.8-rc5 next-20200717]
[cannot apply to ext4/dev]
[If your patch is applied to the wrong git tree, kindly drop us a note.
And when submitting patch, we suggest to use '--base' as documented in
https://git-scm.com/docs/git-format-patch]

url:    https://github.com/0day-ci/linux/commits/Theodore-Ts-o/ex4-block-bitmap-prefetching/20200718-000006
base:   https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip.git c085fb8774671e83f6199a8e838fbc0e57094029
config: arm64-randconfig-r036-20200718 (attached as .config)
compiler: clang version 12.0.0 (https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project ed6b578040a85977026c93bf4188f996148f3218)
reproduce (this is a W=1 build):
        wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/intel/lkp-tests/master/sbin/make.cross -O ~/bin/make.cross
        chmod +x ~/bin/make.cross
        # install arm64 cross compiling tool for clang build
        # apt-get install binutils-aarch64-linux-gnu
        # save the attached .config to linux build tree
        COMPILER_INSTALL_PATH=$HOME/0day COMPILER=clang make.cross ARCH=arm64 

If you fix the issue, kindly add following tag as appropriate
Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>

All warnings (new ones prefixed by >>):

>> fs/ext4/balloc.c:501:19: warning: operator '?:' has lower precedence than '|'; '|' will be evaluated first [-Wbitwise-conditional-parentheses]
                     ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0, bh);
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ^
   fs/ext4/balloc.c:501:19: note: place parentheses around the '|' expression to silence this warning
                     ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0, bh);
                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ^
   fs/ext4/balloc.c:501:19: note: place parentheses around the '?:' expression to evaluate it first
                     ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0, bh);
                                   ^
                     (                             )
   1 warning generated.

vim +501 fs/ext4/balloc.c

   404	
   405	/**
   406	 * ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait()
   407	 * @sb:			super block
   408	 * @block_group:	given block group
   409	 *
   410	 * Read the bitmap for a given block_group,and validate the
   411	 * bits for block/inode/inode tables are set in the bitmaps
   412	 *
   413	 * Return buffer_head on success or an ERR_PTR in case of failure.
   414	 */
   415	struct buffer_head *
   416	ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group,
   417				      bool ignore_locked)
   418	{
   419		struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
   420		struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
   421		struct buffer_head *bh;
   422		ext4_fsblk_t bitmap_blk;
   423		int err;
   424	
   425		desc = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, block_group, NULL);
   426		if (!desc)
   427			return ERR_PTR(-EFSCORRUPTED);
   428		bitmap_blk = ext4_block_bitmap(sb, desc);
   429		if ((bitmap_blk <= le32_to_cpu(sbi->s_es->s_first_data_block)) ||
   430		    (bitmap_blk >= ext4_blocks_count(sbi->s_es))) {
   431			ext4_error(sb, "Invalid block bitmap block %llu in "
   432				   "block_group %u", bitmap_blk, block_group);
   433			ext4_mark_group_bitmap_corrupted(sb, block_group,
   434						EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_CORRUPT);
   435			return ERR_PTR(-EFSCORRUPTED);
   436		}
   437		bh = sb_getblk(sb, bitmap_blk);
   438		if (unlikely(!bh)) {
   439			ext4_warning(sb, "Cannot get buffer for block bitmap - "
   440				     "block_group = %u, block_bitmap = %llu",
   441				     block_group, bitmap_blk);
   442			return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
   443		}
   444	
   445		if (ignore_locked && buffer_locked(bh)) {
   446			/* buffer under IO already, return if called for prefetching */
   447			put_bh(bh);
   448			return NULL;
   449		}
   450	
   451		if (bitmap_uptodate(bh))
   452			goto verify;
   453	
   454		lock_buffer(bh);
   455		if (bitmap_uptodate(bh)) {
   456			unlock_buffer(bh);
   457			goto verify;
   458		}
   459		ext4_lock_group(sb, block_group);
   460		if (ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
   461		    (desc->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT))) {
   462			if (block_group == 0) {
   463				ext4_unlock_group(sb, block_group);
   464				unlock_buffer(bh);
   465				ext4_error(sb, "Block bitmap for bg 0 marked "
   466					   "uninitialized");
   467				err = -EFSCORRUPTED;
   468				goto out;
   469			}
   470			err = ext4_init_block_bitmap(sb, bh, block_group, desc);
   471			set_bitmap_uptodate(bh);
   472			set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
   473			set_buffer_verified(bh);
   474			ext4_unlock_group(sb, block_group);
   475			unlock_buffer(bh);
   476			if (err) {
   477				ext4_error(sb, "Failed to init block bitmap for group "
   478					   "%u: %d", block_group, err);
   479				goto out;
   480			}
   481			goto verify;
   482		}
   483		ext4_unlock_group(sb, block_group);
   484		if (buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
   485			/*
   486			 * if not uninit if bh is uptodate,
   487			 * bitmap is also uptodate
   488			 */
   489			set_bitmap_uptodate(bh);
   490			unlock_buffer(bh);
   491			goto verify;
   492		}
   493		/*
   494		 * submit the buffer_head for reading
   495		 */
   496		set_buffer_new(bh);
   497		trace_ext4_read_block_bitmap_load(sb, block_group);
   498		bh->b_end_io = ext4_end_bitmap_read;
   499		get_bh(bh);
   500		submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO |
 > 501			  ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0, bh);
   502		return bh;
   503	verify:
   504		err = ext4_validate_block_bitmap(sb, desc, block_group, bh);
   505		if (err)
   506			goto out;
   507		return bh;
   508	out:
   509		put_bh(bh);
   510		return ERR_PTR(err);
   511	}
   512	

---
0-DAY CI Kernel Test Service, Intel Corporation
https://lists.01.org/hyperkitty/list/kbuild-all@lists.01.org

[-- Attachment #2: .config.gz --]
[-- Type: application/gzip, Size: 37084 bytes --]

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps
  2020-07-17 15:53 [PATCH 0/4] ex4 block bitmap prefetching Theodore Ts'o
@ 2020-07-17 15:53 ` Theodore Ts'o
  2020-07-17 21:55   ` kernel test robot
  2020-07-21  7:42   ` Andreas Dilger
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 12+ messages in thread
From: Theodore Ts'o @ 2020-07-17 15:53 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ext4 Developers List; +Cc: Alex Zhuravlev, Andreas Dilger, Theodore Ts'o

From: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>

This should significantly improve bitmap loading, especially for flex
groups as it tries to load all bitmaps within a flex.group instead of
one by one synchronously.

Prefetching is done in 8 * flex_bg groups, so it should be 8 read-ahead
reads for a single allocating thread. At the end of allocation the
thread waits for read-ahead completion and initializes buddy information
so that read-aheads are not lost in case of memory pressure.

At cr=0 the number of prefetching IOs is limited per allocation context
to prevent a situation when mballoc loads thousands of bitmaps looking
for a perfect group and ignoring groups with good chunks.

Together with the patch "ext4: limit scanning of uninitialized groups"
the mount time (which includes few tiny allocations) of a 1PB filesystem
is reduced significantly:

               0% full    50%-full unpatched    patched
  mount time       33s                9279s       563s

[ Restructured by tytso; removed the state flags in the allocation
  context, so it can be used to lazily prefetch the allocation bitmaps
  immediately after the file system is mounted.  Skip prefetching
  block groups which are unitialized.  Finally pass in the REQ_RAHEAD
  flag to the block layer while prefetching. ]

Signed-off-by: Alex Zhuravlev <bzzz@whamcloud.com>
Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@whamcloud.com>
Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
---
 fs/ext4/balloc.c  |  14 +++--
 fs/ext4/ext4.h    |   8 ++-
 fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 132 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 fs/ext4/sysfs.c   |   4 ++
 4 files changed, 152 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/ext4/balloc.c b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
index 1ba46d87cdf1..aaa9ec5212c8 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/balloc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/balloc.c
@@ -413,7 +413,8 @@ static int ext4_validate_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
  * Return buffer_head on success or an ERR_PTR in case of failure.
  */
 struct buffer_head *
-ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
+ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group,
+			      bool ignore_locked)
 {
 	struct ext4_group_desc *desc;
 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
@@ -441,6 +442,12 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
 		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
 	}
 
+	if (ignore_locked && buffer_locked(bh)) {
+		/* buffer under IO already, return if called for prefetching */
+		put_bh(bh);
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
 	if (bitmap_uptodate(bh))
 		goto verify;
 
@@ -490,7 +497,8 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
 	trace_ext4_read_block_bitmap_load(sb, block_group);
 	bh->b_end_io = ext4_end_bitmap_read;
 	get_bh(bh);
-	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO, bh);
+	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_META | REQ_PRIO |
+		  ignore_locked ? REQ_RAHEAD : 0, bh);
 	return bh;
 verify:
 	err = ext4_validate_block_bitmap(sb, desc, block_group, bh);
@@ -534,7 +542,7 @@ ext4_read_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t block_group)
 	struct buffer_head *bh;
 	int err;
 
-	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group);
+	bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, block_group, false);
 	if (IS_ERR(bh))
 		return bh;
 	err = ext4_wait_block_bitmap(sb, block_group, bh);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index 42f5060f3cdf..7451662e092a 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -1505,6 +1505,8 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
 	/* where last allocation was done - for stream allocation */
 	unsigned long s_mb_last_group;
 	unsigned long s_mb_last_start;
+	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch;
+	unsigned int s_mb_prefetch_limit;
 
 	/* stats for buddy allocator */
 	atomic_t s_bal_reqs;	/* number of reqs with len > 1 */
@@ -2446,7 +2448,8 @@ extern struct ext4_group_desc * ext4_get_group_desc(struct super_block * sb,
 extern int ext4_should_retry_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int *retries);
 
 extern struct buffer_head *ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(struct super_block *sb,
-						ext4_group_t block_group);
+						ext4_group_t block_group,
+						bool ignore_locked);
 extern int ext4_wait_block_bitmap(struct super_block *sb,
 				  ext4_group_t block_group,
 				  struct buffer_head *bh);
@@ -3145,6 +3148,7 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
 #define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT		\
 	(1 << EXT4_GROUP_INFO_IBITMAP_CORRUPT_BIT)
+#define EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT	4
 
 #define EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp)	\
 	(test_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_NEED_INIT_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
@@ -3159,6 +3163,8 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
 	(set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
 #define EXT4_MB_GRP_CLEAR_TRIMMED(grp)	\
 	(clear_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_WAS_TRIMMED_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
+#define EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp)	\
+	(test_and_set_bit(EXT4_GROUP_INFO_BBITMAP_READ_BIT, &((grp)->bb_state)))
 
 #define EXT4_MAX_CONTENTION		8
 #define EXT4_CONTENTION_THRESHOLD	2
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index c0a331e2feb0..8a1e6e03c088 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -922,7 +922,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_cache(struct page *page, char *incore, gfp_t gfp)
 			bh[i] = NULL;
 			continue;
 		}
-		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group);
+		bh[i] = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, false);
 		if (IS_ERR(bh[i])) {
 			err = PTR_ERR(bh[i]);
 			bh[i] = NULL;
@@ -2209,12 +2209,93 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
 	return ret;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Start prefetching @nr block bitmaps starting at @group.
+ * Return the next group which needs to be prefetched.
+ */
+static ext4_group_t
+ext4_mb_prefetch(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+		 unsigned int nr, int *cnt)
+{
+	ext4_group_t ngroups = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+	struct buffer_head *bh;
+	struct blk_plug plug;
+
+	blk_start_plug(&plug);
+	while (nr-- > 0) {
+		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
+								  NULL);
+		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
+
+		/*
+		 * Prefetch block groups with free blocks; but don't
+		 * bother if it is marked uninitialized on disk, since
+		 * it won't require I/O to read.  Also only try to
+		 * prefetch once, so we avoid getblk() call, which can
+		 * be expensive.
+		 */
+		if (!EXT4_MB_GRP_TEST_AND_SET_READ(grp) &&
+		    EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
+		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
+		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
+		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
+			bh = ext4_read_block_bitmap_nowait(sb, group, true);
+			if (bh && !IS_ERR(bh)) {
+				if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) && cnt)
+					(*cnt)++;
+				brelse(bh);
+			}
+		}
+		if (++group >= ngroups)
+			group = 0;
+	}
+	blk_finish_plug(&plug);
+	return group;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Prefetching reads the block bitmap into the buffer cache; but we
+ * need to make sure that the buddy bitmap in the page cache has been
+ * initialized.  Note that ext4_mb_init_group() will block if the I/O
+ * is not yet completed, or indeed if it was not initiated by
+ * ext4_mb_prefetch did not start the I/O.
+ *
+ * TODO: We should actually kick off the buddy bitmap setup in a work
+ * queue when the buffer I/O is completed, so that we don't block
+ * waiting for the block allocation bitmap read to finish when
+ * ext4_mb_prefetch_fini is called from ext4_mb_regular_allocator().
+ */
+static void
+ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
+		      unsigned int nr)
+{
+	while (nr-- > 0) {
+		struct ext4_group_desc *gdp = ext4_get_group_desc(sb, group,
+								  NULL);
+		struct ext4_group_info *grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
+
+		if (!group)
+			group = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+		group--;
+		grp = ext4_get_group_info(sb, group);
+
+		if (EXT4_MB_GRP_NEED_INIT(grp) &&
+		    ext4_free_group_clusters(sb, gdp) > 0 &&
+		    !(ext4_has_group_desc_csum(sb) &&
+		      (gdp->bg_flags & cpu_to_le16(EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT)))) {
+			if (ext4_mb_init_group(sb, group, GFP_NOFS))
+				break;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
 static noinline_for_stack int
 ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 {
-	ext4_group_t ngroups, group, i;
+	ext4_group_t prefetch_grp = 0, ngroups, group, i;
 	int cr = -1;
 	int err = 0, first_err = 0;
+	unsigned int nr = 0, prefetch_ios = 0;
 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi;
 	struct super_block *sb;
 	struct ext4_buddy e4b;
@@ -2282,6 +2363,7 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 		 * from the goal value specified
 		 */
 		group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
+		prefetch_grp = group;
 
 		for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
 			int ret = 0;
@@ -2293,6 +2375,29 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 			if (group >= ngroups)
 				group = 0;
 
+			/*
+			 * Batch reads of the block allocation bitmaps
+			 * to get multiple READs in flight; limit
+			 * prefetching at cr=0/1, otherwise mballoc can
+			 * spend a lot of time loading imperfect groups
+			 */
+			if ((prefetch_grp == group) &&
+			    (cr > 1 ||
+			     prefetch_ios < sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit)) {
+				unsigned int curr_ios = prefetch_ios;
+
+				nr = sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
+				if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
+					nr = (group / sbi->s_mb_prefetch) *
+						sbi->s_mb_prefetch;
+					nr = nr + sbi->s_mb_prefetch - group;
+				}
+				prefetch_grp = ext4_mb_prefetch(sb, group,
+							nr, &prefetch_ios);
+				if (prefetch_ios == curr_ios)
+					nr = 0;
+			}
+
 			/* This now checks without needing the buddy page */
 			ret = ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(ac, group, cr);
 			if (ret <= 0) {
@@ -2367,6 +2472,10 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 	mb_debug(sb, "Best len %d, origin len %d, ac_status %u, ac_flags 0x%x, cr %d ret %d\n",
 		 ac->ac_b_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_o_ex.fe_len, ac->ac_status,
 		 ac->ac_flags, cr, err);
+
+	if (nr)
+		ext4_mb_prefetch_fini(sb, prefetch_grp, nr);
+
 	return err;
 }
 
@@ -2613,6 +2722,25 @@ static int ext4_mb_init_backend(struct super_block *sb)
 			goto err_freebuddy;
 	}
 
+	if (ext4_has_feature_flex_bg(sb)) {
+		/* a single flex group is supposed to be read by a single IO */
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 1 << sbi->s_es->s_log_groups_per_flex;
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch *= 8; /* 8 prefetch IOs in flight at most */
+	} else {
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = 32;
+	}
+	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+	/* now many real IOs to prefetch within a single allocation at cr=0
+	 * given cr=0 is an CPU-related optimization we shouldn't try to
+	 * load too many groups, at some point we should start to use what
+	 * we've got in memory.
+	 * with an average random access time 5ms, it'd take a second to get
+	 * 200 groups (* N with flex_bg), so let's make this limit 4 */
+	sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = sbi->s_mb_prefetch * 4;
+	if (sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit > ext4_get_groups_count(sb))
+		sbi->s_mb_prefetch_limit = ext4_get_groups_count(sb);
+
 	return 0;
 
 err_freebuddy:
diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
index 6c9fc9e21c13..31e0db726d21 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
@@ -240,6 +240,8 @@ EXT4_RO_ATTR_ES_STRING(last_error_func, s_last_error_func, 32);
 EXT4_ATTR(first_error_time, 0444, first_error_time);
 EXT4_ATTR(last_error_time, 0444, last_error_time);
 EXT4_ATTR(journal_task, 0444, journal_task);
+EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch, s_mb_prefetch);
+EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_prefetch_limit, s_mb_prefetch_limit);
 
 static unsigned int old_bump_val = 128;
 EXT4_ATTR_PTR(max_writeback_mb_bump, 0444, pointer_ui, &old_bump_val);
@@ -283,6 +285,8 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
 #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
 	ATTR_LIST(simulate_fail),
 #endif
+	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch),
+	ATTR_LIST(mb_prefetch_limit),
 	NULL,
 };
 ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS(ext4);
-- 
2.24.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 12+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 12+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-07-31 19:08 [PATCH 0/4] V2- ext4 block bitmap prefetch patches Theodore Ts'o
2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps Theodore Ts'o
2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 2/4] ext4: skip non-loaded groups at cr=0/1 when scanning for good groups Theodore Ts'o
2020-08-01  8:49   ` Andreas Dilger
2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 3/4] ext4: indicate via a block bitmap read is prefetched via a tracepoint Theodore Ts'o
2020-07-31 19:08 ` [PATCH 4/4] ext4: add prefetch_block_bitmaps mount options Theodore Ts'o
2020-08-01  8:57   ` Andreas Dilger
  -- strict thread matches above, loose matches on Subject: below --
2020-07-17 15:53 [PATCH 0/4] ex4 block bitmap prefetching Theodore Ts'o
2020-07-17 15:53 ` [PATCH 1/4] ext4: add prefetching for block allocation bitmaps Theodore Ts'o
2020-07-17 21:55   ` kernel test robot
2020-07-21  7:42   ` Andreas Dilger
2020-07-23  0:36     ` Shuichi Ihara
2020-07-23 15:00     ` tytso

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Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.linux-ext4


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git