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From: Andiry Xu <jix024@eng.ucsd.edu>
To: linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-nvdimm@lists.01.org
Cc: dan.j.williams@intel.com, andy.rudoff@intel.com,
	coughlan@redhat.com, swanson@cs.ucsd.edu, david@fromorbit.com,
	jack@suse.com, swhiteho@redhat.com, miklos@szeredi.hu,
	andiry.xu@gmail.com, Andiry Xu <jix024@cs.ucsd.edu>
Subject: [RFC v2 00/83] NOVA: a new file system for persistent memory
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 10:17:41 -0800
Message-ID: <1520705944-6723-1-git-send-email-jix024@eng.ucsd.edu> (raw)

From: Andiry Xu <jix024@cs.ucsd.edu>

This is the second version of RFC patch series that impements
NOVA (NOn-Volatile memory Accelerated file system), a new file system built for PMEM.

NOVA's goal is to provide a high performance, production-ready
file system tailored for byte-addressable non-volatile memories (e.g., NVDIMMs
and Intel's soon-to-be-released 3DXpoint DIMMs).
     
NOVA was developed at the Non-Volatile Systems Laboratory in the Computer
Science and Engineering Department at the University of California, San Diego.
Its primary authors are Andiry Xu <jix024@cs.ucsd.edu>, Lu Zhang
<luzh@eng.ucsd.edu>, and Steven Swanson <swanson@eng.ucsd.edu>.
     
NOVA is stable enough to run complex applications, but there is substantial
work left to do.  This RFC is intended to gather feedback to guide its
development toward eventual inclusion upstream.
     
The patches are based on Linux 4.16-rc4.


Changes from v1:

* Remove snapshot, metadata replication and data parity for future submission.
  This significantly reduces complexity and LOC: 22129 -> 13834.

* Breakdown the code in a more reviewer-friendly way:
  The patchset starts with a simple skeleton and adds more features gradually.
  Each patch leaves the tree in a compilable and working state,
  and is self-contained and small, so easier to review.

* Fix bugs so that NOVA passes xfstests: https://github.com/NVSL/xfstests


Overview
========

NOVA is primarily a log-structured file system, but rather than maintain a
single global log for the entire file system, it maintains separate logs for
each inode.  NOVA breaks the logs into 4KB pages, they need not be
contiguous in memory.  The logs only contain metadata.
	
File data pages reside outside the log, and log entries for write operations
point to data pages they modify.  File modification can be done in
either inplace update or copy-on-write (COW) way to provide atomic file updates.
	
For file operations that involve multiple inodes, NOVA use small, fixed-sized
redo logs to atomically append log entries to the logs of the inodes involved.
	
This structure keeps logs small and makes garbage collection very fast.  It also
enables enormous parallelism during recovery from an unclean unmount, since
threads can scan logs in parallel.
	
Documentation/filesystems/NOVA.txt contains some lower-level implementation and
usage information.  A more thorough discussion of NOVA's goals and design is
avaialable in two papers:
	
NOVA: A Log-structured File system for Hybrid Volatile/Non-volatile Main Memories
http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~swanson/papers/FAST2016NOVA.pdf
Jian Xu and Steven Swanson
Published in FAST 2016

NOVA-Fortis: A Fault-Tolerant Non-Volatile Main Memory File System
http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~swanson/papers/SOSP2017-NOVAFortis.pdf
Jian Xu, Lu Zhang, Amirsaman Memaripour, Akshatha Gangadharaiah,
Amit Borase, Tamires Brito Da Silva, Andy Rudoff, Steven Swanson
Published in SOSP 2017

This version contains features from the FAST paper. We leave NOVA-Fortis
features for future.


Build and Run
=============

To build NOVA, build the kernel with PMEM (`CONFIG_BLK_DEV_PMEM`),
DAX (`CONFIG_FS_DAX`) and NOVA (`CONFIG_NOVA_FS`) support.  Install as usual.

NOVA runs on a pmem non-volatile memory region created by memmap kernel option.
For instance, adding 'memmap=16G!8G' to the kernel boot parameters will reserve
16GB memory starting from address 8GB, and the kernel will create a pmem0 
block device under the /dev directory.

After the OS has booted, initialize a NOVA instance with the following commands:

# modprobe nova
# mount -t NOVA -o init /dev/pmem0 /mnt/nova

The above commands create a NOVA instance on /dev/pmem0 and mounts it on
/mnt/nova. Currently NOVA does not have mkfs or fsck support.


Performance
===========

Comparing to other DAX file systems such as ext4-DAX and xfs-DAX,
NOVA provides fine-grained, byte granularity metadata operation,
and it performs better in metadata-intensive and write-intensive applications.
NOVA also excel in append-fsync access pattern, i.e. write-ahead logging,
which is very common in DBMS and key-value stores.

The following test is performed on Intel i7-3770K with 16GB DRAM
and 8GB PMEM emulated with DRAM. The kernel is 4.16-rc4 64bit on Ubuntu 16.04.
Performance may vary on different platforms.


Filebench throughout (ops/s):
		xfs-DAX	ext4-DAX	NOVA
Fileserver	86971	177826		334166
Varmail		148032	288033		999794
Webserver	370245	370144		374130
Webproxy	315084	737544		927216

Webserver is read-intensive and all the file systems have similar performance.


SQLite test:
SQLite has four journaling modes:
Delete: delete the undo log file after transaction commit
Truncate: truncate the undo log file to zero after transaction commit
Persist: write a flag at the beginning of the log file after transaction commit
WAL: write-ahead logging

SQLite insert (transactions/s):
		xfs-DAX	ext4-DAX	NOVA
Delete		18525	23615		45289
Truncate	21930	26391		52046	
Persist		58053	56106		50554
WAL		38622	62703		85395

NOVA performs bad in Persist mode because it does copy-on-write for writes,
and writes 4KB for sub-page writes.


Redis: fsync the WAL file after every set.
Redis set throughout (trans/s):
xfs-DAX	ext4-DAX	NOVA
49771	88308		102560


RocksDB fillunique test (ops/s):
		xfs-DAX	ext4-DAX	NOVA
WAL sync	33563	62066		295655
WAL nosync	254533	288106		393713

Both ext4-DAX and xfs-DAX suffer from high fsync overhead.

More test results are available in the two NOVA papers.

NOVA uses per-inode logging, per-CPU inode table and journal to avoid lock contention.
We use the FxMark test suite (https://github.com/sslab-gatech/fxmark)
to test the filesystem scalability. The result is at
http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~jix024/sc.pdf


Thanks,
Andiry

---

Andiry Xu (83):
  Introduction and documentation of NOVA filesystem.
  Add nova_def.h.
  Add super.h.
  NOVA inode definition.
  Add NOVA filesystem definitions and useful helper routines.
  Add inode get/read methods.
  Initialize inode_info and rebuild inode information in nova_iget().
  NOVA superblock operations.
  Add Kconfig and Makefile
  Add superblock integrity check.
  Add timing and I/O statistics for performance analysis and profiling.
  Add timing for mount and init.
  Add remount_fs and show_options methods.
  Add range node kmem cache.
  Add free list data structure.
  Initialize block map and free lists in nova_init().
  Add statfs support.
  Add freelist statistics printing.
  Add pmem block free routines.
  Pmem block allocation routines.
  Add log structure.
  Inode log pages allocation and reclaimation.
  Save allocator to pmem in put_super.
  Initialize and allocate inode table.
  Support get normal inode address and inode table extentsion.
  Add inode_map to track inuse inodes.
  Save the inode inuse list to pmem upon umount
  Add NOVA address space operations
  Add write_inode and dirty_inode routines.
  New NOVA inode allocation.
  Add new vfs inode allocation.
  Add log entry definitions.
  Inode log and entry printing for debug purpose.
  Journal: NOVA light weight journal definitions.
  Journal: Lite journal helper routines.
  Journal: Lite journal recovery.
  Journal: Lite journal create and commit.
  Journal: NOVA lite journal initialization.
  Log operation: dentry append.
  Log operation: file write entry append.
  Log operation: setattr entry append
  Log operation: link change append.
  Log operation: in-place update log entry
  Log operation: invalidate log entries
  Log operation: file inode log lookup and assign
  Dir: Add Directory radix tree insert/remove methods.
  Dir: Add initial dentries when initializing a directory inode log.
  Dir: Readdir operation.
  Dir: Append create/remove dentry.
  Inode: Add nova_evict_inode.
  Rebuild: directory inode.
  Rebuild: file inode.
  Namei: lookup.
  Namei: create and mknod.
  Namei: mkdir
  Namei: link and unlink.
  Namei: rmdir
  Namei: rename
  Namei: setattr
  Add special inode operations.
  Super: Add nova_export_ops.
  File: getattr and file inode operations
  File operation: llseek.
  File operation: open, fsync, flush.
  File operation: read.
  Super: Add file write item cache.
  Dax: commit list of file write items to log.
  File operation: copy-on-write write.
  Super: Add module param inplace_data_updates.
  File operation: Inplace write.
  Symlink support.
  File operation: fallocate.
  Dax: Add iomap operations.
  File operation: Mmap.
  File operation: read/write iter.
  Ioctl support.
  GC: Fast garbage collection.
  GC: Thorough garbage collection.
  Normal recovery.
  Failure recovery: bitmap operations.
  Failure recovery: Inode pages recovery routines.
  Failure recovery: Per-CPU recovery.
  Sysfs support.

 Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX |    2 +
 Documentation/filesystems/nova.txt |  498 +++++++++++++
 MAINTAINERS                        |    8 +
 fs/Kconfig                         |    2 +
 fs/Makefile                        |    1 +
 fs/nova/Kconfig                    |   15 +
 fs/nova/Makefile                   |    8 +
 fs/nova/balloc.c                   |  730 ++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/balloc.h                   |   96 +++
 fs/nova/bbuild.c                   | 1437 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/bbuild.h                   |   28 +
 fs/nova/dax.c                      |  970 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/dir.c                      |  520 +++++++++++++
 fs/nova/file.c                     |  728 ++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/gc.c                       |  459 ++++++++++++
 fs/nova/inode.c                    | 1310 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/inode.h                    |  277 +++++++
 fs/nova/ioctl.c                    |  184 +++++
 fs/nova/journal.c                  |  412 +++++++++++
 fs/nova/journal.h                  |   56 ++
 fs/nova/log.c                      | 1111 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/log.h                      |  417 +++++++++++
 fs/nova/namei.c                    |  848 +++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/nova.h                     |  566 ++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/nova_def.h                 |  128 ++++
 fs/nova/rebuild.c                  |  499 +++++++++++++
 fs/nova/stats.c                    |  600 +++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/stats.h                    |  178 +++++
 fs/nova/super.c                    | 1063 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/nova/super.h                    |  171 +++++
 fs/nova/symlink.c                  |  133 ++++
 fs/nova/sysfs.c                    |  379 ++++++++++
 32 files changed, 13834 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/nova.txt
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/Kconfig
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/Makefile
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/balloc.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/balloc.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/bbuild.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/bbuild.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/dax.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/dir.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/file.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/gc.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/inode.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/inode.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/ioctl.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/journal.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/journal.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/log.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/log.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/namei.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/nova.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/nova_def.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/rebuild.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/stats.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/stats.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/super.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/super.h
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/symlink.c
 create mode 100644 fs/nova/sysfs.c

-- 
2.7.4

             reply index

Thread overview: 119+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2018-03-10 18:17 Andiry Xu [this message]
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 01/83] Introduction and documentation of NOVA filesystem Andiry Xu
2018-03-19 20:43   ` Randy Dunlap
2018-03-19 23:00     ` Andiry Xu
2018-04-22  8:05   ` Pavel Machek
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 02/83] Add nova_def.h Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 03/83] Add super.h Andiry Xu
2018-03-15  4:54   ` Darrick J. Wong
2018-03-15  6:11     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-15  9:05       ` Arnd Bergmann
2018-03-15 17:51         ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-15 20:04           ` Andreas Dilger
2018-03-15 20:38           ` Arnd Bergmann
2018-03-16  2:59             ` Theodore Y. Ts'o
2018-03-16  6:17               ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-16  6:30                 ` Darrick J. Wong
2018-03-16  9:19               ` Arnd Bergmann
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 04/83] NOVA inode definition Andiry Xu
2018-03-15  5:06   ` Darrick J. Wong
2018-03-15  6:16     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 05/83] Add NOVA filesystem definitions and useful helper routines Andiry Xu
2018-03-11 12:00   ` Nikolay Borisov
2018-03-11 19:22     ` Eric Biggers
2018-03-11 21:45       ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-19 19:39       ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-19 20:30         ` Eric Biggers
2018-03-19 21:59           ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 06/83] Add inode get/read methods Andiry Xu
2018-04-23  6:12   ` Darrick J. Wong
2018-04-23 15:55     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 07/83] Initialize inode_info and rebuild inode information in nova_iget() Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 08/83] NOVA superblock operations Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 09/83] Add Kconfig and Makefile Andiry Xu
2018-03-11 12:15   ` Nikolay Borisov
2018-03-11 21:32     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 10/83] Add superblock integrity check Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 11/83] Add timing and I/O statistics for performance analysis and profiling Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 12/83] Add timing for mount and init Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 13/83] Add remount_fs and show_options methods Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 14/83] Add range node kmem cache Andiry Xu
2018-03-11 11:55   ` Nikolay Borisov
2018-03-11 21:31     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 15/83] Add free list data structure Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 16/83] Initialize block map and free lists in nova_init() Andiry Xu
2018-03-11 12:12   ` Nikolay Borisov
2018-03-11 21:30     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 17/83] Add statfs support Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:17 ` [RFC v2 18/83] Add freelist statistics printing Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 19/83] Add pmem block free routines Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 20/83] Pmem block allocation routines Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 21/83] Add log structure Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 22/83] Inode log pages allocation and reclaimation Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 23/83] Save allocator to pmem in put_super Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 24/83] Initialize and allocate inode table Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 25/83] Support get normal inode address and inode table extentsion Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 26/83] Add inode_map to track inuse inodes Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 27/83] Save the inode inuse list to pmem upon umount Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 28/83] Add NOVA address space operations Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 29/83] Add write_inode and dirty_inode routines Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 30/83] New NOVA inode allocation Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 31/83] Add new vfs " Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 32/83] Add log entry definitions Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 33/83] Inode log and entry printing for debug purpose Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 34/83] Journal: NOVA light weight journal definitions Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 35/83] Journal: Lite journal helper routines Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 36/83] Journal: Lite journal recovery Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 37/83] Journal: Lite journal create and commit Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 38/83] Journal: NOVA lite journal initialization Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 39/83] Log operation: dentry append Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 40/83] Log operation: file write entry append Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 41/83] Log operation: setattr " Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 42/83] Log operation: link change append Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 43/83] Log operation: in-place update log entry Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 44/83] Log operation: invalidate log entries Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 45/83] Log operation: file inode log lookup and assign Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 46/83] Dir: Add Directory radix tree insert/remove methods Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 47/83] Dir: Add initial dentries when initializing a directory inode log Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 48/83] Dir: Readdir operation Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 49/83] Dir: Append create/remove dentry Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 50/83] Inode: Add nova_evict_inode Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 51/83] Rebuild: directory inode Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 52/83] Rebuild: file inode Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 53/83] Namei: lookup Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 54/83] Namei: create and mknod Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 55/83] Namei: mkdir Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 56/83] Namei: link and unlink Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 57/83] Namei: rmdir Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 58/83] Namei: rename Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 59/83] Namei: setattr Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 60/83] Add special inode operations Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 61/83] Super: Add nova_export_ops Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 62/83] File: getattr and file inode operations Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 63/83] File operation: llseek Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 64/83] File operation: open, fsync, flush Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 65/83] File operation: read Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 66/83] Super: Add file write item cache Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 67/83] Dax: commit list of file write items to log Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 68/83] File operation: copy-on-write write Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 69/83] Super: Add module param inplace_data_updates Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 70/83] File operation: Inplace write Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 71/83] Symlink support Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 72/83] File operation: fallocate Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 73/83] Dax: Add iomap operations Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 74/83] File operation: Mmap Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 75/83] File operation: read/write iter Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 76/83] Ioctl support Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 77/83] GC: Fast garbage collection Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:18 ` [RFC v2 78/83] GC: Thorough " Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:19 ` [RFC v2 79/83] Normal recovery Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:19 ` [RFC v2 80/83] Failure recovery: bitmap operations Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:19 ` [RFC v2 81/83] Failure recovery: Inode pages recovery routines Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:19 ` [RFC v2 82/83] Failure recovery: Per-CPU recovery Andiry Xu
2018-03-10 18:19 ` [RFC v2 83/83] Sysfs support Andiry Xu
2018-03-15  0:33   ` Randy Dunlap
2018-03-15  6:07     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-22 15:00   ` David Sterba
2018-03-23  0:31     ` Andiry Xu
2018-03-11  2:14 ` [RFC v2 00/83] NOVA: a new file system for persistent memory Theodore Y. Ts'o
2018-03-11  4:58   ` Andiry Xu

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