Linux-Fsdevel Archive on lore.kernel.org
 help / color / Atom feed
From: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com>
To: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Cc: Jerome Glisse <jglisse@redhat.com>,
	John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>,
	Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>,
	Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>,
	John Hubbard <john.hubbard@gmail.com>,
	Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>,
	Linux MM <linux-mm@kvack.org>,
	tom@talpey.com, Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>,
	benve@cisco.com, Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>,
	Christopher Lameter <cl@linux.com>,
	"Dalessandro, Dennis" <dennis.dalessandro@intel.com>,
	Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com>,
	Jason Gunthorpe <jgg@ziepe.ca>, Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org>,
	mike.marciniszyn@intel.com, rcampbell@nvidia.com,
	Linux Kernel Mailing List <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	linux-fsdevel <linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 1/2] mm: introduce put_user_page*(), placeholder versions
Date: Wed, 19 Dec 2018 10:42:54 +1100
Message-ID: <20181218234254.GC31274@dastard> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20181218103306.GC18032@quack2.suse.cz>

On Tue, Dec 18, 2018 at 11:33:06AM +0100, Jan Kara wrote:
> On Mon 17-12-18 08:58:19, Dave Chinner wrote:
> > On Fri, Dec 14, 2018 at 04:43:21PM +0100, Jan Kara wrote:
> > > Hi!
> > > 
> > > On Thu 13-12-18 08:46:41, Dave Chinner wrote:
> > > > On Wed, Dec 12, 2018 at 10:03:20AM -0500, Jerome Glisse wrote:
> > > > > On Mon, Dec 10, 2018 at 11:28:46AM +0100, Jan Kara wrote:
> > > > > > On Fri 07-12-18 21:24:46, Jerome Glisse wrote:
> > > > > > So this approach doesn't look like a win to me over using counter in struct
> > > > > > page and I'd rather try looking into squeezing HMM public page usage of
> > > > > > struct page so that we can fit that gup counter there as well. I know that
> > > > > > it may be easier said than done...
> > > > > 
> > > > > So i want back to the drawing board and first i would like to ascertain
> > > > > that we all agree on what the objectives are:
> > > > > 
> > > > >     [O1] Avoid write back from a page still being written by either a
> > > > >          device or some direct I/O or any other existing user of GUP.
> > > > >          This would avoid possible file system corruption.
> > > > > 
> > > > >     [O2] Avoid crash when set_page_dirty() is call on a page that is
> > > > >          considered clean by core mm (buffer head have been remove and
> > > > >          with some file system this turns into an ugly mess).
> > > > 
> > > > I think that's wrong. This isn't an "avoid a crash" case, this is a
> > > > "prevent data and/or filesystem corruption" case. The primary goal
> > > > we have here is removing our exposure to potential corruption, which
> > > > has the secondary effect of avoiding the crash/panics that currently
> > > > occur as a result of inconsistent page/filesystem state.
> > > > 
> > > > i.e. The goal is to have ->page_mkwrite() called on the clean page
> > > > /before/ the file-backed page is marked dirty, and hence we don't
> > > > expose ourselves to potential corruption or crashes that are a
> > > > result of inappropriately calling set_page_dirty() on clean
> > > > file-backed pages.
> > > 
> > > I agree that [O1] - i.e., avoid corrupting fs data - is more important and
> > > [O2] is just one consequence of [O1].
> > > 
> > > > > For [O1] and [O2] i believe a solution with mapcount would work. So
> > > > > no new struct, no fake vma, nothing like that. In GUP for file back
> > > > > pages we increment both refcount and mapcount (we also need a special
> > > > > put_user_page to decrement mapcount when GUP user are done with the
> > > > > page).
> > > > 
> > > > I don't see how a mapcount can prevent anyone from calling
> > > > set_page_dirty() inappropriately.
> > > > 
> > > > > Now for [O1] the write back have to call page_mkclean() to go through
> > > > > all reverse mapping of the page and map read only. This means that
> > > > > we can count the number of real mapping and see if the mapcount is
> > > > > bigger than that. If mapcount is bigger than page is pin and we need
> > > > > to use a bounce page to do the writeback.
> > > > 
> > > > Doesn't work. Generally filesystems have already mapped the page
> > > > into bios before they call clear_page_dirty_for_io(), so it's too
> > > > late for the filesystem to bounce the page at that point.
> > > 
> > > Yes, for filesystem it is too late. But the plan we figured back in October
> > > was to do the bouncing in the block layer. I.e., mark the bio (or just the
> > > particular page) as needing bouncing and then use the existing page
> > > bouncing mechanism in the block layer to do the bouncing for us. Ext3 (when
> > > it was still a separate fs driver) has been using a mechanism like this to
> > > make DIF/DIX work with its metadata.
> > 
> > Sure, that's a possibility, but that doesn't close off any race
> > conditions because there can be DMA into the page in progress while
> > the page is being bounced, right? AFAICT this ext3+DIF/DIX case is
> > different in that there is no 3rd-party access to the page while it
> > is under IO (ext3 arbitrates all access to it's metadata), and so
> > nothing can actually race for modification of the page between
> > submission and bouncing at the block layer.
> >
> > In this case, the moment the page is unlocked, anyone else can map
> > it and start (R)DMA on it, and that can happen before the bio is
> > bounced by the block layer. So AFAICT, block layer bouncing doesn't
> > solve the problem of racing writeback and DMA direct to the page we
> > are doing IO on. Yes, it reduces the race window substantially, but
> > it doesn't get rid of it.
> 
> The scenario you describe here cannot happen exactly because of the
> wait_for_stable_page() in ->page_mkwrite() you mention below.

In general, no, because stable pages are controlled by block
devices.

void wait_for_stable_page(struct page *page)
{
        if (bdi_cap_stable_pages_required(inode_to_bdi(page->mapping->host)))
                wait_on_page_writeback(page);
}


I have previously advocated for the filesystem to be in control of
stable pages but, well, too many people shouted "but performance!"
and so we still have all these holes I wanted to close in our
code...

> If someone
> will try to GUP a page that is under writeback (has already PageWriteback
> set), GUP will have to do a write fault because the page is writeprotected
> in page tables and go into ->page_mkwrite() which will wait.

Correct, but that doesn't close the problem down because stable
pages are something we cannot rely on right now. We need to fix
wait_for_stable_page() to always block on page writeback before
this specific race condition goes away.

> The problem rather is with someone mapping the page *before* writeback
> starts, giving the page to HW. Then clear_page_dirty_for_io() writeprotects
> the page in PTEs but the HW gives a damn about that. Then, after we add the
> page to the bio but before the page gets bounced by the block layer, the HW
> can still modify it.

Sure, that's yet another aspect of the same problem - not getting a
write fault when the page is being written to. If we got a write
fault, then the wait_for_stable_page() call in ->page_mkwrite would
then solve the problem.

Essentially, what we are talking about is how to handle broken
hardware. I say we should just brun it with napalm and thermite
(i.e. taint the kernel with "unsupportable hardware") and force
wait_for_stable_page() to trigger when there are GUP mappings if
the underlying storage doesn't already require it.

> So for anything in the block layer and below, doing the bouncing in the
> block layer is enough. So DIF/DIX will work, device mapper targets will
> work etc.  But you are right that if the filesystem itself needs stable
> data, then bouncing in the block layer is not enough. Thanks for catching
> this hole, I didn't think of that. Ext4 does not need stable data during
> writeback, btrfs probably does as it needs to compute data checksums during
> writeout. So we'll probably need something like clear_page_dirty_for_io()
> returning a bounced page for data integrity writeback of a pinned page. And
> the filesystem would then need to submit this page for IO.
> 
> > /me points to wait_for_stable_page() in ->page_mkwrite as the
> > mechanism we already have to avoid races between dirtying mapped
> > pages and page writeback....
> 
> Yes, the problem is that some RDMA hardware does not (and AFAIU cannot be
> made to) follow the wait_for_stable_page() rules. And we have a userspace
> visible API by which application can ask the kernel to give mapped file
> pages to the HW as a buffer and the HW can fill in the contents at its will
> until userspace tells the kernel to remove these mapped pages from the HW.
> The interval how long userspace leaves these pages to the HW is upto
> userspace and in practice it is often counted in hours.

Yes, and as we've discussed in previous threads and at LSFMM, that
needs to die and be replaced with file leases that allow the kernel
to revoke the GUP mappings by breaking the lease.

> If you want to tell me this is broken and could always corrupt data and
> kill the kernel and what not, I agree. The goal is to avoid at least the
> worst issues without breaking userspace too badly.

My goal is to create infrastructure that is sane, reliable,
verifiable and doesn't have gaping data integrity holes in it that
performs as well as the current nasty kernel bypass hacks we have
now. i.e. I don't care about the current mess as it's largely
unfixable - we're at the point where we need to fix the
architecture, not keep trying to slap band-aids over the worst of
the symptoms of the current mess.

> > If it's permanently dirty, how do we trigger new COW operations
> > after writeback has "cleaned" the page? i.e. we still need a
> > ->page_mkwrite call to run before we allow the next write to the
> > page to be done, regardless of whether the page is "permanently
> > dirty" or not....
> 
> Interaction with COW is certainly an interesting problem. When the page
> gets pinned, GUP will make sure the page is writeably mapped and trigger a
> write fault if not. So at the moment the page is pinned, we are sure the
> page is COWed. Now the question is what should happen when the file A
> containing this pinned page gets reflinked to file B while the page is still
> pinned.
> 
> Options I can see are:
> 
> 1) Fail the reflink.
>   - difficult for sysadmin to discover the source of failure
>
> 2) Block reflink until the pin of the page is released.
>   - can last for a long time, again difficult to discover
> 
> 3) Don't do anything special.
>   - can corrupt data as read accesses through file B won't see
>     modifications done to the page (and thus eventually the corresponding disk
>     block) by the HW.
> 
> 4) Immediately COW the block during reflink when the corresponding page
>    cache page is pinned.
>   - seems as the best solution at this point, although sadly also requires
>     the most per-filesystem work

None of the above are acceptable solutions - they all have nasty
corner cases which are going to be difficult to get right, test,
etc. IMO, the robust, reliable, testable solution is this:

5) The reflink breaks the file lease, the userspace app releases the
pinned pages on the file and drops the lease. The reflink proceeds,
does it's work, and then the app gets a new lease on the file. When
the app pins the pages again, it triggers new ->page_mkwrite calls
to break any sharing that the reflink created. And if the app fails
to drop the lease, then we can either fail with a lease related
error or kill it....

XFS already has all the file lease breaking stuff in it, we just
need userspace interfaces to expose them and userspace apps to start
using them.

Cheers,

Dave.
-- 
Dave Chinner
david@fromorbit.com

  reply index

Thread overview: 207+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2018-12-04  0:17 [PATCH 0/2] put_user_page*(): start converting the call sites john.hubbard
2018-12-04  0:17 ` [PATCH 1/2] mm: introduce put_user_page*(), placeholder versions john.hubbard
2018-12-04  7:53   ` Mike Rapoport
2018-12-05  1:40     ` John Hubbard
2018-12-04 20:28   ` Dan Williams
2018-12-04 21:56     ` John Hubbard
2018-12-04 23:03       ` Dan Williams
2018-12-05  0:36         ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-05  0:40           ` Dan Williams
2018-12-05  0:59             ` John Hubbard
2018-12-05  0:58         ` John Hubbard
2018-12-05  1:00           ` Dan Williams
2018-12-05  1:15           ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-05  1:44             ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-05  1:57               ` John Hubbard
2018-12-07  2:45                 ` John Hubbard
2018-12-07 19:16                   ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-07 19:26                     ` Dan Williams
2018-12-07 19:40                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-08  0:52                     ` John Hubbard
2018-12-08  2:24                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-10 10:28                         ` Jan Kara
2018-12-12 15:03                           ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 16:27                             ` Dan Williams
2018-12-12 17:02                               ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 17:49                                 ` Dan Williams
2018-12-12 19:07                                   ` John Hubbard
2018-12-12 21:30                               ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 21:40                                 ` Dan Williams
2018-12-12 21:53                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 22:11                                     ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-12 22:16                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 23:37                                     ` Jason Gunthorpe
2018-12-12 23:46                                       ` John Hubbard
2018-12-12 23:54                                       ` Dan Williams
2018-12-13  0:01                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-13  0:18                                         ` Dan Williams
2018-12-13  0:44                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-13  3:26                                             ` Jason Gunthorpe
2018-12-13  3:20                                         ` Jason Gunthorpe
2018-12-13 12:43                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-13 13:40                                             ` Tom Talpey
2018-12-13 14:18                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-13 14:51                                                 ` Tom Talpey
2018-12-13 15:18                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-13 18:12                                                     ` Tom Talpey
2018-12-13 19:18                                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-14 10:41                                             ` Jan Kara
2018-12-14 15:25                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 21:56                                 ` John Hubbard
2018-12-12 22:04                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 22:11                                     ` John Hubbard
2018-12-12 22:14                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-12 22:17                                         ` John Hubbard
2018-12-12 21:46                             ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-12 21:59                               ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-13  0:51                                 ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-13  2:02                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-13 15:56                                     ` Christopher Lameter
2018-12-13 16:02                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-14  6:00                                     ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-14 15:13                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-14  3:52                                   ` John Hubbard
2018-12-14  5:21                                     ` Dan Williams
2018-12-14  6:11                                       ` John Hubbard
2018-12-14 15:20                                         ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-14 19:38                                         ` Dan Williams
2018-12-14 19:48                                           ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-14 19:53                                             ` Dave Hansen
2018-12-14 20:03                                               ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-14 20:17                                                 ` Dan Williams
2018-12-14 20:29                                                   ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-15  0:41                                                 ` John Hubbard
2018-12-17  8:56                                           ` Jan Kara
2018-12-17 18:28                                             ` Dan Williams
2018-12-14 15:43                               ` Jan Kara
2018-12-16 21:58                                 ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-17 18:11                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-17 18:34                                     ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-17 19:48                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-17 19:51                                         ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-17 19:54                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-17 19:59                                             ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-17 20:55                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-17 21:03                                                 ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-17 21:15                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-18  1:09                                       ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-18  6:12                                       ` Darrick J. Wong
2018-12-18  9:30                                       ` Jan Kara
2018-12-18 23:29                                         ` John Hubbard
2018-12-19  2:07                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-19 11:08                                             ` Jan Kara
2018-12-20 10:54                                               ` John Hubbard
2018-12-20 16:50                                                 ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-20 16:57                                                   ` Dan Williams
2018-12-20 16:49                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-03  1:55                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-03  3:27                                                 ` John Hubbard
2019-01-03 14:57                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-03  9:26                                                 ` Jan Kara
2019-01-03 14:44                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-11  2:59                                                     ` John Hubbard
2019-01-11  2:59                                                       ` John Hubbard
2019-01-11 16:51                                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-11 16:51                                                         ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12  1:04                                                         ` John Hubbard
2019-01-12  1:04                                                           ` John Hubbard
2019-01-12  2:02                                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12  2:02                                                             ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12  2:38                                                             ` John Hubbard
2019-01-12  2:38                                                               ` John Hubbard
2019-01-12  2:46                                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12  2:46                                                                 ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12  3:06                                                                 ` John Hubbard
2019-01-12  3:06                                                                   ` John Hubbard
2019-01-12  3:25                                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12  3:25                                                                     ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12 20:46                                                                     ` John Hubbard
2019-01-12 20:46                                                                       ` John Hubbard
2019-01-14 14:54                                                                   ` Jan Kara
2019-01-14 14:54                                                                     ` Jan Kara
2019-01-14 17:21                                                                     ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-14 17:21                                                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-14 19:09                                                                       ` John Hubbard
2019-01-14 19:09                                                                         ` John Hubbard
2019-01-15  8:34                                                                         ` Jan Kara
2019-01-15  8:34                                                                           ` Jan Kara
2019-01-15 21:39                                                                           ` John Hubbard
2019-01-15 21:39                                                                             ` John Hubbard
2019-01-15  8:07                                                                       ` Jan Kara
2019-01-15  8:07                                                                         ` Jan Kara
2019-01-15 17:15                                                                         ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-15 17:15                                                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-15 21:56                                                                           ` John Hubbard
2019-01-15 21:56                                                                             ` John Hubbard
2019-01-15 22:12                                                                             ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-15 22:12                                                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16  0:44                                                                               ` John Hubbard
2019-01-16  0:44                                                                                 ` John Hubbard
2019-01-16  1:56                                                                                 ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16  1:56                                                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16  2:01                                                                                   ` Dan Williams
2019-01-16  2:01                                                                                     ` Dan Williams
2019-01-16  2:23                                                                                     ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16  2:23                                                                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16  4:34                                                                                       ` Dave Chinner
2019-01-16  4:34                                                                                         ` Dave Chinner
2019-01-16 14:50                                                                                         ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16 14:50                                                                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16 22:51                                                                                           ` Dave Chinner
2019-01-16 22:51                                                                                             ` Dave Chinner
2019-01-16 11:38                                                                         ` Jan Kara
2019-01-16 11:38                                                                           ` Jan Kara
2019-01-16 13:08                                                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-16 13:08                                                                             ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-17  5:42                                                                             ` John Hubbard
2019-01-17  5:42                                                                               ` John Hubbard
2019-01-17 15:21                                                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-17 15:21                                                                                 ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-18  0:16                                                                                 ` Dave Chinner
2019-01-18  1:59                                                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-17  9:30                                                                             ` Jan Kara
2019-01-17  9:30                                                                               ` Jan Kara
2019-01-17 15:17                                                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-17 15:17                                                                                 ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-22 15:24                                                                                 ` Jan Kara
2019-01-22 16:46                                                                                   ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-23 18:02                                                                                     ` Jan Kara
2019-01-23 19:04                                                                                       ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-29  0:22                                                                                         ` John Hubbard
2019-01-29  1:23                                                                                           ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-29  6:41                                                                                             ` John Hubbard
2019-01-29 10:12                                                                                               ` Jan Kara
2019-01-30  2:21                                                                                                 ` John Hubbard
2019-01-17  5:25                                                                         ` John Hubbard
2019-01-17  5:25                                                                           ` John Hubbard
2019-01-17  9:04                                                                           ` Jan Kara
2019-01-17  9:04                                                                             ` Jan Kara
2019-01-12  3:14                                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2019-01-12  3:14                                                                 ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-18 10:33                                   ` Jan Kara
2018-12-18 23:42                                     ` Dave Chinner [this message]
2018-12-19  3:03                                       ` Jason Gunthorpe
2018-12-19  5:26                                         ` Dan Williams
2018-12-19 11:19                                           ` Jan Kara
2018-12-19 10:28                                         ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-19 11:35                                           ` Jan Kara
2018-12-19 16:56                                             ` Jason Gunthorpe
2018-12-19 22:33                                             ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-20  9:07                                               ` Jan Kara
2018-12-20 16:54                                               ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-19 13:24                                       ` Jan Kara
2018-12-08  5:18                       ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-12 19:13                         ` John Hubbard
2018-12-08  7:16                       ` Dan Williams
2018-12-08 16:33                         ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-08 16:48                           ` Christoph Hellwig
2018-12-08 17:47                             ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-08 18:26                               ` Christoph Hellwig
2018-12-08 18:45                                 ` Jerome Glisse
2018-12-08 18:09                             ` Dan Williams
2018-12-08 18:12                               ` Christoph Hellwig
2018-12-11  6:18                               ` Dave Chinner
2018-12-05  5:52             ` Dan Williams
2018-12-05 11:16       ` Jan Kara
2019-02-08  7:56 [PATCH 0/2] mm: put_user_page() call site conversion first john.hubbard
2019-02-08  7:56 ` [PATCH 1/2] mm: introduce put_user_page*(), placeholder versions john.hubbard
2019-02-08 10:32   ` Mike Rapoport
2019-02-08 20:44     ` John Hubbard

Reply instructions:

You may reply publically to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=20181218234254.GC31274@dastard \
    --to=david@fromorbit.com \
    --cc=akpm@linux-foundation.org \
    --cc=benve@cisco.com \
    --cc=cl@linux.com \
    --cc=dan.j.williams@intel.com \
    --cc=dennis.dalessandro@intel.com \
    --cc=dledford@redhat.com \
    --cc=hch@infradead.org \
    --cc=jack@suse.cz \
    --cc=jgg@ziepe.ca \
    --cc=jglisse@redhat.com \
    --cc=jhubbard@nvidia.com \
    --cc=john.hubbard@gmail.com \
    --cc=linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-mm@kvack.org \
    --cc=mhocko@kernel.org \
    --cc=mike.marciniszyn@intel.com \
    --cc=rcampbell@nvidia.com \
    --cc=tom@talpey.com \
    --cc=viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk \
    --cc=willy@infradead.org \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

Linux-Fsdevel Archive on lore.kernel.org

Archives are clonable:
	git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/linux-fsdevel/0 linux-fsdevel/git/0.git

	# If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may
	# initialize and index your mirror using the following commands:
	public-inbox-init -V2 linux-fsdevel linux-fsdevel/ https://lore.kernel.org/linux-fsdevel \
		linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org linux-fsdevel@archiver.kernel.org
	public-inbox-index linux-fsdevel


Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.linux-fsdevel


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/ public-inbox