Linux-Fsdevel Archive on lore.kernel.org
 help / color / Atom feed
From: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
To: 王贇 <yun.wang@linux.alibaba.com>, "Ingo Molnar" <mingo@redhat.com>,
	"Peter Zijlstra" <peterz@infradead.org>,
	"Juri Lelli" <juri.lelli@redhat.com>,
	"Vincent Guittot" <vincent.guittot@linaro.org>,
	"Dietmar Eggemann" <dietmar.eggemann@arm.com>,
	"Steven Rostedt" <rostedt@goodmis.org>,
	"Ben Segall" <bsegall@google.com>, "Mel Gorman" <mgorman@suse.de>,
	"Luis Chamberlain" <mcgrof@kernel.org>,
	"Kees Cook" <keescook@chromium.org>,
	"Iurii Zaikin" <yzaikin@google.com>,
	"Michal Koutný" <mkoutny@suse.com>,
	linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-doc@vger.kernel.org,
	"Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>,
	"Jonathan Corbet" <corbet@lwn.net>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v4 2/2] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa statistics
Date: Wed, 4 Dec 2019 19:40:40 -0800
Message-ID: <e3b3bdd9-af30-d759-dc9b-bb01c440cb44@infradead.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <e6f1aa2f-37ac-d9bc-09a5-29229559b1a6@linux.alibaba.com>

On 12/4/19 12:00 AM, 王贇 wrote:
> Add the description for 'numa_locality', also a new doc to explain
> the details on how to deal with the per-cgroup numa statistics.
> 
> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
> Cc: Michal Koutný <mkoutny@suse.com>
> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
> Cc: Iurii Zaikin <yzaikin@google.com>
> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
> Signed-off-by: Michael Wang <yun.wang@linux.alibaba.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/admin-guide/cg-numa-stat.rst      | 178 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  Documentation/admin-guide/index.rst             |   1 +
>  Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt |   4 +
>  Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/kernel.rst     |   9 ++
>  init/Kconfig                                    |   6 +-
>  5 files changed, 196 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/cg-numa-stat.rst
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/cg-numa-stat.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/cg-numa-stat.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..5d1f623451d5
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/cg-numa-stat.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,178 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +===============================
> +Per-cgroup NUMA statistics
> +===============================
> +
> +Background
> +----------
> +
> +On NUMA platforms, remote memory accessing always has a performance penalty.
> +Although we have NUMA balancing working hard to maximize the access locality,
> +there are still situations it can't help.
> +
> +This could happen in modern production environment. When a large number of
> +cgroups are used to classify and control resources, this creates a complex
> +configuration for memory policy, CPUs and NUMA nodes. In such cases NUMA
> +balancing could end up with the wrong memory policy or exhausted local NUMA
> +node, which would lead to low percentage of local page accesses.
> +
> +We need to detect such cases, figure out which workloads from which cgroup
> +have introduced the issues, then we get chance to do adjustment to avoid
> +performance degradation.
> +
> +However, there are no hardware counters for per-task local/remote accessing
> +info, we don't know how many remote page accesses have occurred for a
> +particular task.
> +
> +NUMA Locality
> +-------------
> +
> +Fortunately, we have NUMA Balancing which scans task's mapping and triggers
> +page fault periodically, giving us the opportunity to record per-task page
> +accessing info, when the CPU fall into PF is from the same node of pages, we
> +consider task as doing local page accessing, otherwise the remote page
> +accessing, we call these two counter the locality info.
> +
> +On each tick, we acquire the locality info of current task on that CPU, update
> +the increments into it's cgroup, becoming the group locality info.

                       its
(it's means it is, which is not correct here)

> +
> +By "echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/numa_locality" at runtime or adding boot parameter
> +'numa_locality', we will enable the accounting of per-cgroup NUMA locality info,
> +the 'cpu.numa_stat' entry of CPU cgroup will show statistics::
> +
> +  page_access local=NR_LOCAL_PAGE_ACCESS remote=NR_REMOTE_PAGE_ACCESS
> +
> +We define 'NUMA locality' as::
> +
> +  NR_LOCAL_PAGE_ACCESS * 100 / (NR_LOCAL_PAGE_ACCESS + NR_REMOTE_PAGE_ACCESS)
> +
> +This per-cgroup percentage number help to represent the NUMA Balancing behavior.

                                     helps

> +
> +Note that the accounting is hierarchical, which means the NUMA locality info for
> +a given group represent not only the workload of this group, but also the
> +workloads of all its descendants.
> +
> +For example the 'cpu.numa_stat' show::

                                   shows::

> +
> +  page_access local=129909383 remote=18265810
> +
> +The NUMA locality calculated as::
> +
> +  129909383 * 100 / (129909383 + 18265810) = 87.67
> +
> +Thus we know the workload of this group and its descendants have totally done
> +129909383 times of local page accessing and 18265810 times of remotes, locality
> +is 87.67% which imply most of the memory access are local.
> +
> +NUMA Consumption
> +----------------
> +
> +There are also other cgroup entry help us to estimate NUMA efficiency, which is
> +'cpuacct.usage_percpu' and 'memory.numa_stat'.
> +
> +By reading 'cpuacct.usage_percpu' we will get per-cpu runtime (in nanoseconds)
> +info (in hierarchy) as::
> +
> +  CPU_0_RUNTIME CPU_1_RUNTIME CPU_2_RUNTIME ... CPU_X_RUNTIME
> +
> +Combined with the info from::
> +
> +  cat /sys/devices/system/node/nodeX/cpulist
> +
> +We would be able to accumulate the runtime of CPUs into NUMA nodes, to get the
> +per-cgroup node runtime info.
> +
> +By reading 'memory.numa_stat' we will get per-cgroup node memory consumption
> +info as::
> +
> +  total=TOTAL_MEM N0=MEM_ON_NODE0 N1=MEM_ON_NODE1 ... NX=MEM_ON_NODEX
> +
> +Together we call these the per-cgroup NUMA consumption info, tell us how many
> +resources a particular workload has consumed, on a particular NUMA node.
> +
> +Monitoring
> +----------
> +
> +By monitoring the increments of locality info, we can easily know whether NUMA
> +Balancing is working well for a particular workload.
> +
> +For example we take a 5 seconds sample period, then on each sampling we have::
> +
> +  local_diff = last_nr_local_page_access - nr_local_page_access
> +  remote_diff = last_nr_remote_page_access - nr_remote_page_access
> +
> +and we get the locality in this period as::
> +
> +  locality = local_diff * 100 / (local_diff + remote_diff)
> +
> +We can plot a line for locality, when the line close to 100% things are good,
> +when getting close to 0% something is wrong, we can pick a proper watermark to
> +trigger warning message.
> +
> +You may want to drop the data if the local/remote_diff is too small, which
> +implies there are not many available pages for NUMA Balancing to scan, ignoring
> +would be fine since most likely the workload is insensitive to NUMA, or the
> +memory topology is already good enough.
> +
> +Monitoring root group helps you control the overall situation, while you may
> +also want to monitor all the leaf groups which contain the workloads, this
> +helps to catch the mouse.
> +
> +Try to put your workload into also the cpuacct & memory cgroup, when NUMA
> +Balancing is disabled or locality becomes too small, we may want to monitoring

                                                                    to monitor

> +the per-node runtime & memory info to see if the node consumption meet the
> +requirements.
> +
> +For NUMA node X on each sampling we have::
> +
> +  runtime_X_diff = runtime_X - last_runtime_X
> +  runtime_all_diff = runtime_all - last_runtime_all
> +
> +  runtime_percent_X = runtime_X_diff * 100 / runtime_all_diff
> +  memory_percent_X = memory_X * 100 / memory_all
> +
> +These two percentages are usually matched on each node, workload should execute
> +mostly on the node that contains most of its memory, but it's not guaranteed.
> +
> +The workload may only access a small part of its memory, in such cases although
> +the majority of memory are remotely, locality could still be good.
> +
> +Thus to tell if things are fine or not depends on the understanding of system
> +resource deployment, however, if you find node X got 100% memory percent but 0%
> +runtime percent, definitely something is wrong.
> +
> +Troubleshooting
> +---------------
> +
> +After identifying which workload introduced the bad locality, check:
> +
> +1). Is the workload bound to a particular NUMA node?
> +2). Has any NUMA node run out of resources?
> +
> +There are several ways to bind task's memory with a NUMA node, the strict way
> +like the MPOL_BIND memory policy or 'cpuset.mems' will limit the memory
> +node where to allocate pages. In this situation, admin should make sure the
> +task is allowed to run on the CPUs of that NUMA node, and make sure there are
> +available CPU resource there.
> +
> +There are also ways to bind task's CPU with a NUMA node, like 'cpuset.cpus' or
> +sched_setaffinity() syscall. In this situation, NUMA Balancing help to migrate
> +pages into that node, admin should make sure there are available memory there.
> +
> +Admin could try to rebind or unbind the NUMA node to erase the damage, make a
> +change then observe the statistics to see if things get better until the
> +situation is acceptable.
> +
> +Highlights
> +----------
> +
> +For some tasks, NUMA Balancing may found no necessary to scan pages, and

                                  may be found to be unnecessary

> +locality could always be 0 or small number, don't pay attention to them
> +since they most likely insensitive to NUMA.
> +
> +There is no accounting until the option is turned on, so enable it in advance
> +if you want to have the whole history.
> +
> +We have per-task migfailed counter to tell how many page migration has been
> +failed for a particular task, you will find it in /proc/PID/sched entry.


HTH.
-- 
~Randy


  reply index

Thread overview: 62+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2019-11-13  3:43 [PATCH 0/3] sched/numa: introduce advanced numa statistic 王贇
2019-11-13  3:44 ` [PATCH 1/3] sched/numa: advanced per-cgroup " 王贇
2019-11-13  3:45 ` [PATCH 2/3] sched/numa: expose per-task pages-migration-failure 王贇
2019-11-13  3:45 ` [PATCH 3/3] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa stat 王贇
2019-11-13 15:09   ` Jonathan Corbet
2019-11-14  1:52     ` 王贇
2019-11-13 18:28   ` Iurii Zaikin
2019-11-14  2:22     ` 王贇
2019-11-15  2:29   ` [PATCH v2 " 王贇
2019-11-20  9:45 ` [PATCH 0/3] sched/numa: introduce advanced numa statistic 王贇
2019-11-25  1:35 ` 王贇
2019-11-27  1:48 ` [PATCH v2 " 王贇
2019-11-27  1:49   ` [PATCH v2 1/3] sched/numa: advanced per-cgroup " 王贇
2019-11-27 10:19     ` Mel Gorman
2019-11-28  2:09       ` 王贇
2019-11-28 12:39         ` Michal Koutný
2019-11-28 13:41           ` 王贇
2019-11-28 15:58             ` Michal Koutný
2019-11-29  1:52               ` 王贇
2019-11-29  5:19                 ` 王贇
2019-11-29 10:06                   ` Michal Koutný
2019-12-02  2:11                     ` 王贇
2019-11-27  1:50   ` [PATCH v2 2/3] sched/numa: expose per-task pages-migration-failure 王贇
2019-11-27 10:00     ` Mel Gorman
2019-12-02  2:22     ` 王贇
2019-11-27  1:50   ` [PATCH v2 3/3] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa stat 王贇
2019-11-27  4:58     ` Randy Dunlap
2019-11-27  5:54       ` 王贇
2019-12-03  5:59   ` [PATCH v3 0/2] sched/numa: introduce numa locality 王贇
2019-12-03  6:00     ` [PATCH v3 1/2] sched/numa: introduce per-cgroup NUMA locality info 王贇
2019-12-04  2:33       ` Randy Dunlap
2019-12-04  2:38         ` 王贇
2019-12-03  6:02     ` [PATCH v3 2/2] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa statistics 王贇
2019-12-03 13:43       ` Jonathan Corbet
2019-12-04  2:27         ` 王贇
2019-12-04  7:58     ` [PATCH v4 0/2] sched/numa: introduce numa locality 王贇
2019-12-04  7:59       ` [PATCH v4 1/2] sched/numa: introduce per-cgroup NUMA locality info 王贇
2019-12-05  3:28         ` Randy Dunlap
2019-12-05  3:29           ` Randy Dunlap
2019-12-05  3:52             ` 王贇
2019-12-04  8:00       ` [PATCH v4 2/2] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa statistics 王贇
2019-12-05  3:40         ` Randy Dunlap [this message]
2019-12-05  6:53       ` [PATCH v5 0/2] sched/numa: introduce numa locality 王贇
2019-12-05  6:53         ` [PATCH v5 1/2] sched/numa: introduce per-cgroup NUMA locality info 王贇
2019-12-05  6:54         ` [PATCH v5 2/2] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa, statistics 王贇
2019-12-10  2:19         ` [PATCH v5 0/2] sched/numa: introduce numa locality 王贇
2019-12-13  1:43         ` [PATCH v6 " 王贇
2019-12-13  1:47           ` [PATCH v6 1/2] sched/numa: introduce per-cgroup NUMA locality info 王贇
2020-01-03 15:14             ` Michal Koutný
2020-01-04  4:51               ` 王贇
2019-12-13  1:48           ` [PATCH v6 2/2] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa 王贇
2019-12-27  2:22           ` [PATCH v6 0/2] sched/numa: introduce numa locality 王贇
2020-01-17  2:19           ` 王贇
2020-01-19  6:08           ` [PATCH v7 " 王贇
2020-01-19  6:09             ` [PATCH v7 1/2] sched/numa: introduce per-cgroup NUMA locality info 王贇
2020-01-19  6:09             ` [PATCH v7 2/2] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa, statistics 王贇
2020-01-21  0:12               ` Randy Dunlap
2020-01-21  1:58                 ` 王贇
2020-01-21  1:56             ` [PATCH v8 0/2] sched/numa: introduce numa locality 王贇
2020-01-21  1:57               ` [PATCH v8 1/2] sched/numa: introduce per-cgroup NUMA locality info 王贇
2020-01-21  1:57               ` [PATCH v8 2/2] sched/numa: documentation for per-cgroup numa, statistics 王贇
2020-01-21  2:08                 ` Randy Dunlap

Reply instructions:

You may reply publically to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=e3b3bdd9-af30-d759-dc9b-bb01c440cb44@infradead.org \
    --to=rdunlap@infradead.org \
    --cc=bsegall@google.com \
    --cc=corbet@lwn.net \
    --cc=dietmar.eggemann@arm.com \
    --cc=juri.lelli@redhat.com \
    --cc=keescook@chromium.org \
    --cc=linux-doc@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=mcgrof@kernel.org \
    --cc=mgorman@suse.de \
    --cc=mingo@redhat.com \
    --cc=mkoutny@suse.com \
    --cc=paulmck@linux.ibm.com \
    --cc=peterz@infradead.org \
    --cc=rostedt@goodmis.org \
    --cc=vincent.guittot@linaro.org \
    --cc=yun.wang@linux.alibaba.com \
    --cc=yzaikin@google.com \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

Linux-Fsdevel Archive on lore.kernel.org

Archives are clonable:
	git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/linux-fsdevel/0 linux-fsdevel/git/0.git

	# If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may
	# initialize and index your mirror using the following commands:
	public-inbox-init -V2 linux-fsdevel linux-fsdevel/ https://lore.kernel.org/linux-fsdevel \
		linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org
	public-inbox-index linux-fsdevel

Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.linux-fsdevel


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git