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* [patch]: mmap.2: New sample code: persistent data structure
@ 2019-11-26  5:46 Terence Kelly
  0 siblings, 0 replies; only message in thread
From: Terence Kelly @ 2019-11-26  5:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: mtk.manpages; +Cc: linux-man, Christoph Hellwig, Michael Kerrisk (man7.org)

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[Verbatim re-transmission of my very recent e-mail (below), this time with 
the correct TO: and CC: and SUBJECT: fields.  Sorry about the confusion; 
I'm new at the manpage patch game.]


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 25 Nov 2019 23:51:53 -0500 (EST)
From: Terence Kelly <tpkelly@email.eecs.umich.edu>
To: "Michael Kerrisk (man7.org)" <mtk@man7.org>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
Subject: Re: suggesting an enhancement for man mmap(2)



Hi Michael,

Per our earlier conversation, attached is a patch for the mmap(2) manpage
(against man-pages-5.04/man2/mmap.2, which I downloaded earlier today and which
I believe is the latest version).  Per the online instructions, the patch is
also inline below (apologies if my e-mail software mangles it).

My intent is to illustrate succinctly mmap()'s versatility and its most
important virtues:

Laying out application data structures in memory-mapped files obviates the need
for serializing/parsing for persistence by enabling applications to manipulate
persistent data with CPU instructions (LOAD and STORE). Moreover mmap() offers
high efficiency:  Only accessed data are faulted in, and only modified data are
pushed back down to durability; in my example program, only the first and last
pages move between storage and memory.

I've tried to strike a tasteful division of labor between shell commands and C
code.  My code compiles cleanly with all warnings enabled and it checks syscall
return values carefully.

Regarding my qualifications on this topic:  I've been working on it for years;
search the ACM Digital Library for "persistent memory programming" to see a
recent example of my work.

Please let me know what you think.  I'm willing to iterate with you on this.  I
firmly believe that the full power of mmap() should be documented for developers
and I'll do whatever I can toward that end.

Thanks.

-- Terence




--- mmap.2_latest_from_man-pages-5.04	2019-11-25 19:00:44.908460718 -0800
+++ mmap.2_modified_by_Terence_Kelly	2019-11-25 20:17:13.843893947 -0800
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@
  .\" Modified 2006-12-04, mtk, various parts rewritten
  .\" 2007-07-10, mtk, Added an example program.
  .\" 2008-11-18, mtk, document MAP_STACK
+.\" 2019-11-25, Terence Kelly <tpkelly@eecs.umich.edu>, Added new example
program.
  .\"
  .TH MMAP 2 2019-10-10 "Linux" "Linux Programmer's Manual"
  .SH NAME
@@ -900,7 +901,7 @@
  .BR tmpfs (5)
  (for example, when using the POSIX shared memory interface documented in
  .BR shm_overview (7)).
-.SH EXAMPLE
+.SH EXAMPLES
  .\" FIXME . Add an example here that uses an anonymous shared region for
  .\" IPC between parent and child.
  .PP
@@ -985,6 +986,100 @@
      exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
  }
  .EE
+.PP
+The following program maintains within a memory-mapped file a
+.I persistent data structure
+that outlives invocations of the program.  Compile the program to
+.B a.out
+and use the
+.B truncate
+shell utility to create a sparse file named "pstack" that the program
+will populate with a persistent stack-of-integers data structure.
+Invoke the program with two kinds of command-line arguments:
+integers, which are pushed onto the persistent stack, and the string
+"pop," which causes the top integer on the stack to be printed and
+removed.  In the sample shell session below, note that values pushed
+onto the stack by the first invocation of the program persist beyond
+program exit; the second invocation of the program pops these values.
+.PP
+.in +4n
+.EX
+.B $ truncate -s `getconf PAGESIZE` pstack
+.B $ ./a.out 1 2 3
+.B $ ./a.out pop pop pop pop
+3
+2
+1
+<stack empty>
+.EE
+.in
+.SS Program source
+.EX
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+
+#define handle_error(msg) \\
+    do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)
+
+int
+main(int argc, char *argv[])
+{
+    int fd, a;
+    struct stat sb;
+    size_t len;
+    struct pstack {             /* persistent stack header */
+        int32_t n;              /* number of items in stack */
+        int32_t s[];            /* array containing stack */
+    } *p;                       /* ptr to mmap'd stack file */
+
+    fd = open("pstack", O_RDWR);
+    if (fd == \-1)
+        handle_error("open");
+
+    if (fstat(fd, &sb) != 0)    /* to obtain file size */
+        handle_error("fstat");
+
+    len = (size_t) sb.st_size;
+
+    p = (struct pstack *) mmap(NULL, len, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE,
+                               MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
+    if (p == MAP_FAILED)
+        handle_error("mmap");
+
+    for (a = 1; a < argc; a++) {
+        if (strcmp(argv[a], "pop") == 0) {
+            if (p->n <= 0) {
+                printf("<stack empty>\\n");
+                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+            } else {
+                printf("%" PRId32 "\\n", p->s[--p->n]);
+            }
+        } else {
+            if (sizeof *p + (size_t) p->n * sizeof p->n >= len) {
+                printf("<stack full>\\n");
+                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+            } else {
+                p->s[p->n++] = atoi(argv[a]);
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (close(fd) != 0)         /* implicit on exit() */
+        handle_error("close");
+
+    if (munmap(p, len) != 0)    /* implicit on exit() */
+        handle_error("munmap");
+
+    exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
+}
+.EE
  .SH SEE ALSO
  .BR ftruncate (2),
  .BR getpagesize (2),
@@ -1010,6 +1105,13 @@
  .IR /proc/[pid]/smaps .
  .PP
  B.O. Gallmeister, POSIX.4, O'Reilly, pp. 128\(en129 and 389\(en391.
+.PP
+T. Kelly, "Persistent Memory Programming on Conventional Hardware,"
+ACM
+.I
+Queue
+magazine, Vol. 17, No. 4, July/August 2019
+\%https://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=3358957
  .\"
  .\" Repeat after me: private read-only mappings are 100% equivalent to
  .\" shared read-only mappings. No ifs, buts, or maybes. -- Linus




On Thu, 21 Nov 2019, Michael Kerrisk (man7.org) wrote:

> Hello Terence,
> 
> My apologies for the slow reply. Manual page topics should really be
> directed as per https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/contributing.html
> 
> I'm agnostic about your proposal. It could be interesting and useful,
> but I wonder if the example itself might be a large piece of code?
> 
> Thanks,
> 
> Michael
> 
> On Wed, 18 Sep 2019 at 05:59, Terence Kelly <tpkelly@eecs.umich.edu> wrote:
> > 
> > 
> > 
> > Mr. Kerrisk,
> > 
> > First, many thanks for your efforts to improve the Linux man pages, and
> > for your excellent book.  The community owes you a debt of gratitude.
> > 
> > I'm writing to suggest an enhancement for man mmap(2).  My goal is to
> > teach readers that good old fashioned mmap(2) can support what we might
> > call "the persistent memory style of programming" on conventional hardware
> > and OSes.  I've written an article on this subject containing simple
> > example programs:
> > 
> > https://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=3358957
> > 
> > Nowadays often lost in the hype surrounding non-volatile memory hardware
> > (Intel Optane) is the simple fact that mmap() alone, together with a few
> > very simple idioms and tricks, can support a useful software abstraction
> > of persistent memory on conventional hardware.
> > 
> > With your permission I'd like to write a new example program for the
> > mmap(2) man page.  You might also consider including a pointer to the
> > article above if you deem it appropriate.
> > 
> > If you're open to my basic suggestion, please advise how I may help.
> > 
> > Thank you.
> > 
> > -- Terence Kelly
> > 
> > P.S.:  I notice from your Web site that you're a Kiwi.  When the
> > ionosphere is in a cooperative mood I often get my news from Radio New
> > Zealand via shortwave.
> > 
> 
> 
> -- 
> Michael Kerrisk, man7.org Training and Consulting
> mtk@man7.org, http://man7.org/training/
> "The Linux Programming Interface" -- http://man7.org/tlpi/

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2019-11-26  5:46 [patch]: mmap.2: New sample code: persistent data structure Terence Kelly

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