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From: Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org>
To: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>,
	LKML <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	linux-mm <linux-mm@kvack.org>,
	Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>,
	Tim Murray <timmurray@google.com>,
	Joel Fernandes <joel@joelfernandes.org>,
	Suren Baghdasaryan <surenb@google.com>,
	Daniel Colascione <dancol@google.com>,
	Shakeel Butt <shakeelb@google.com>,
	Sonny Rao <sonnyrao@google.com>,
	Brian Geffon <bgeffon@google.com>,
	linux-api@vger.kernel.org
Subject: Re: [RFC 0/7] introduce memory hinting API for external process
Date: Mon, 20 May 2019 11:28:54 +0200
Message-ID: <20190520092854.GB6836@dhcp22.suse.cz> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20190520035254.57579-1-minchan@kernel.org>

[Cc linux-api]

On Mon 20-05-19 12:52:47, Minchan Kim wrote:
> - Background
> 
> The Android terminology used for forking a new process and starting an app
> from scratch is a cold start, while resuming an existing app is a hot start.
> While we continually try to improve the performance of cold starts, hot
> starts will always be significantly less power hungry as well as faster so
> we are trying to make hot start more likely than cold start.
> 
> To increase hot start, Android userspace manages the order that apps should
> be killed in a process called ActivityManagerService. ActivityManagerService
> tracks every Android app or service that the user could be interacting with
> at any time and translates that into a ranked list for lmkd(low memory
> killer daemon). They are likely to be killed by lmkd if the system has to
> reclaim memory. In that sense they are similar to entries in any other cache.
> Those apps are kept alive for opportunistic performance improvements but
> those performance improvements will vary based on the memory requirements of
> individual workloads.
> 
> - Problem
> 
> Naturally, cached apps were dominant consumers of memory on the system.
> However, they were not significant consumers of swap even though they are
> good candidate for swap. Under investigation, swapping out only begins
> once the low zone watermark is hit and kswapd wakes up, but the overall
> allocation rate in the system might trip lmkd thresholds and cause a cached
> process to be killed(we measured performance swapping out vs. zapping the
> memory by killing a process. Unsurprisingly, zapping is 10x times faster
> even though we use zram which is much faster than real storage) so kill
> from lmkd will often satisfy the high zone watermark, resulting in very
> few pages actually being moved to swap.
> 
> - Approach
> 
> The approach we chose was to use a new interface to allow userspace to
> proactively reclaim entire processes by leveraging platform information.
> This allowed us to bypass the inaccuracy of the kernel’s LRUs for pages
> that are known to be cold from userspace and to avoid races with lmkd
> by reclaiming apps as soon as they entered the cached state. Additionally,
> it could provide many chances for platform to use much information to
> optimize memory efficiency.
> 
> IMHO we should spell it out that this patchset complements MADV_WONTNEED
> and MADV_FREE by adding non-destructive ways to gain some free memory
> space. MADV_COLD is similar to MADV_WONTNEED in a way that it hints the
> kernel that memory region is not currently needed and should be reclaimed
> immediately; MADV_COOL is similar to MADV_FREE in a way that it hints the
> kernel that memory region is not currently needed and should be reclaimed
> when memory pressure rises.
> 
> To achieve the goal, the patchset introduce two new options for madvise.
> One is MADV_COOL which will deactive activated pages and the other is
> MADV_COLD which will reclaim private pages instantly. These new options
> complement MADV_DONTNEED and MADV_FREE by adding non-destructive ways to
> gain some free memory space. MADV_COLD is similar to MADV_DONTNEED in a way
> that it hints the kernel that memory region is not currently needed and
> should be reclaimed immediately; MADV_COOL is similar to MADV_FREE in a way
> that it hints the kernel that memory region is not currently needed and
> should be reclaimed when memory pressure rises.
> 
> This approach is similar in spirit to madvise(MADV_WONTNEED), but the
> information required to make the reclaim decision is not known to the app.
> Instead, it is known to a centralized userspace daemon, and that daemon
> must be able to initiate reclaim on its own without any app involvement.
> To solve the concern, this patch introduces new syscall -
> 
> 	struct pr_madvise_param {
> 		int size;
> 		const struct iovec *vec;
> 	}
> 
> 	int process_madvise(int pidfd, ssize_t nr_elem, int *behavior,
> 				struct pr_madvise_param *restuls,
> 				struct pr_madvise_param *ranges,
> 				unsigned long flags);
> 
> The syscall get pidfd to give hints to external process and provides
> pair of result/ranges vector arguments so that it could give several
> hints to each address range all at once.
> 
> I guess others have different ideas about the naming of syscall and options
> so feel free to suggest better naming.
> 
> - Experiment
> 
> We did bunch of testing with several hundreds of real users, not artificial
> benchmark on android. We saw about 17% cold start decreasement without any
> significant battery/app startup latency issues. And with artificial benchmark
> which launches and switching apps, we saw average 7% app launching improvement,
> 18% less lmkd kill and good stat from vmstat.
> 
> A is vanilla and B is process_madvise.
> 
> 
>                                        A          B      delta   ratio(%)
>                allocstall_dma          0          0          0       0.00
>            allocstall_movable       1464        457      -1007     -69.00
>             allocstall_normal     263210     190763     -72447     -28.00
>              allocstall_total     264674     191220     -73454     -28.00
>           compact_daemon_wake      26912      25294      -1618      -7.00
>                  compact_fail      17885      14151      -3734     -21.00
>          compact_free_scanned 4204766409 3835994922 -368771487      -9.00
>              compact_isolated    3446484    2967618    -478866     -14.00
>       compact_migrate_scanned 1621336411 1324695710 -296640701     -19.00
>                 compact_stall      19387      15343      -4044     -21.00
>               compact_success       1502       1192       -310     -21.00
> kswapd_high_wmark_hit_quickly        234        184        -50     -22.00
>             kswapd_inodesteal     221635     233093      11458       5.00
>  kswapd_low_wmark_hit_quickly      66065      54009     -12056     -19.00
>                    nr_dirtied     259934     296476      36542      14.00
>   nr_vmscan_immediate_reclaim       2587       2356       -231      -9.00
>               nr_vmscan_write    1274232    2661733    1387501     108.00
>                    nr_written    1514060    2937560    1423500      94.00
>                    pageoutrun      67561      55133     -12428     -19.00
>                    pgactivate    2335060    1984882    -350178     -15.00
>                   pgalloc_dma   13743011   14096463     353452       2.00
>               pgalloc_movable          0          0          0       0.00
>                pgalloc_normal   18742440   16802065   -1940375     -11.00
>                 pgalloc_total   32485451   30898528   -1586923      -5.00
>                  pgdeactivate    4262210    2930670   -1331540     -32.00
>                       pgfault   30812334   31085065     272731       0.00
>                        pgfree   33553970   31765164   -1788806      -6.00
>                  pginodesteal      33411      15084     -18327     -55.00
>                   pglazyfreed          0          0          0       0.00
>                    pgmajfault     551312    1508299     956987     173.00
>                pgmigrate_fail      43927      29330     -14597     -34.00
>             pgmigrate_success    1399851    1203922    -195929     -14.00
>                        pgpgin   24141776   19032156   -5109620     -22.00
>                       pgpgout     959344    1103316     143972      15.00
>                  pgpgoutclean    4639732    3765868    -873864     -19.00
>                      pgrefill    4884560    3006938   -1877622     -39.00
>                     pgrotated      37828      25897     -11931     -32.00
>                 pgscan_direct    1456037     957567    -498470     -35.00
>        pgscan_direct_throttle          0          0          0       0.00
>                 pgscan_kswapd    6667767    5047360   -1620407     -25.00
>                  pgscan_total    8123804    6004927   -2118877     -27.00
>                    pgskip_dma          0          0          0       0.00
>                pgskip_movable          0          0          0       0.00
>                 pgskip_normal      14907      25382      10475      70.00
>                  pgskip_total      14907      25382      10475      70.00
>                pgsteal_direct    1118986     690215    -428771     -39.00
>                pgsteal_kswapd    4750223    3657107   -1093116     -24.00
>                 pgsteal_total    5869209    4347322   -1521887     -26.00
>                        pswpin     417613    1392647     975034     233.00
>                       pswpout    1274224    2661731    1387507     108.00
>                 slabs_scanned   13686905   10807200   -2879705     -22.00
>           workingset_activate     668966     569444     -99522     -15.00
>        workingset_nodereclaim      38957      32621      -6336     -17.00
>            workingset_refault    2816795    2179782    -637013     -23.00
>            workingset_restore     294320     168601    -125719     -43.00
> 
> pgmajfault is increased by 173% because swapin is increased by 200% by
> process_madvise hint. However, swap read based on zram is much cheaper
> than file IO in performance point of view and app hot start by swapin is
> also cheaper than cold start from the beginning of app which needs many IO
> from storage and initialization steps.
> 
> This patchset is against on next-20190517.
> 
> Minchan Kim (7):
>   mm: introduce MADV_COOL
>   mm: change PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN with PAGE_REFRECLAIM
>   mm: introduce MADV_COLD
>   mm: factor out madvise's core functionality
>   mm: introduce external memory hinting API
>   mm: extend process_madvise syscall to support vector arrary
>   mm: madvise support MADV_ANONYMOUS_FILTER and MADV_FILE_FILTER
> 
>  arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_32.tbl |   1 +
>  arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl |   1 +
>  include/linux/page-flags.h             |   1 +
>  include/linux/page_idle.h              |  15 +
>  include/linux/proc_fs.h                |   1 +
>  include/linux/swap.h                   |   2 +
>  include/linux/syscalls.h               |   2 +
>  include/uapi/asm-generic/mman-common.h |  12 +
>  include/uapi/asm-generic/unistd.h      |   2 +
>  kernel/signal.c                        |   2 +-
>  kernel/sys_ni.c                        |   1 +
>  mm/madvise.c                           | 600 +++++++++++++++++++++----
>  mm/swap.c                              |  43 ++
>  mm/vmscan.c                            |  80 +++-
>  14 files changed, 680 insertions(+), 83 deletions(-)
> 
> -- 
> 2.21.0.1020.gf2820cf01a-goog
> 

-- 
Michal Hocko
SUSE Labs


  parent reply index

Thread overview: 138+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2019-05-20  3:52 Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  3:52 ` [RFC 1/7] mm: introduce MADV_COOL Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  8:16   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-20  8:19     ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-20 15:08       ` Suren Baghdasaryan
2019-05-20 22:55       ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20 22:54     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:04       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  9:11         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 10:05           ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28  8:53   ` Hillf Danton
2019-05-28 10:58   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  3:52 ` [RFC 2/7] mm: change PAGEREF_RECLAIM_CLEAN with PAGE_REFRECLAIM Minchan Kim
2019-05-20 16:50   ` Johannes Weiner
2019-05-20 22:57     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  3:52 ` [RFC 3/7] mm: introduce MADV_COLD Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  8:27   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-20 23:00     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:08       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  9:13         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28 14:54   ` Hillf Danton
2019-05-30  0:45   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  3:52 ` [RFC 4/7] mm: factor out madvise's core functionality Minchan Kim
2019-05-20 14:26   ` Oleksandr Natalenko
2019-05-21  1:26     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:36       ` Oleksandr Natalenko
2019-05-21  6:50         ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  7:06           ` Oleksandr Natalenko
2019-05-21 10:52             ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 11:00               ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21 11:24                 ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 11:32                   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21 10:49         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 10:55           ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-20  3:52 ` [RFC 5/7] mm: introduce external memory hinting API Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  9:18   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  2:41     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:17       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21 10:32         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  9:01   ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-21 11:35     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 11:51       ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-21 15:31   ` Oleg Nesterov
2019-05-27  7:43     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-27 15:12       ` Oleg Nesterov
2019-05-27 23:33         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28  7:23           ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-29  3:41   ` Hillf Danton
2019-05-30  0:38   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  3:52 ` [RFC 6/7] mm: extend process_madvise syscall to support vector arrary Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  9:22   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  2:48     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:24       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21 10:26         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 10:37           ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-27  7:49             ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-29 10:08               ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-29 10:33                 ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-30  2:17                   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-30  6:57                     ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-30  8:02                       ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-30 16:19                         ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-30 18:47                         ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-29  4:14   ` Hillf Danton
2019-05-30  0:35   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  3:52 ` [RFC 7/7] mm: madvise support MADV_ANONYMOUS_FILTER and MADV_FILE_FILTER Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  9:28   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  2:55     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:26       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-27  7:58         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-27 12:44           ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28  3:26             ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28  6:29               ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28  8:13                 ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28  8:31                   ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-28  8:49                     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28  9:08                       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28  9:39                         ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-28 10:33                           ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 11:21                             ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-28 11:49                               ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 12:11                                 ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-28 12:32                                   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 10:32                         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28 10:41                           ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 11:12                             ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28 11:28                               ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 11:42                                 ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-28 11:56                                   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 12:18                                     ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-28 12:38                                       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 12:10                                   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28 11:44                                 ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28 11:51                                   ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-28 12:06                                   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 12:22                                     ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-28 11:28                             ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-21 15:33       ` Johannes Weiner
2019-05-22  1:50         ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-29  4:36   ` Hillf Danton
2019-05-30  1:00   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20  6:37 ` [RFC 0/7] introduce memory hinting API for external process Anshuman Khandual
2019-05-20 16:59   ` Tim Murray
2019-05-21  2:55     ` Anshuman Khandual
2019-05-21  5:14       ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 10:34       ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-28 10:50         ` Anshuman Khandual
2019-05-21 12:56       ` Shakeel Butt
2019-05-22  4:15         ` Brian Geffon
2019-05-22  4:23         ` Brian Geffon
2019-05-20  9:28 ` Michal Hocko [this message]
2019-05-20 14:42 ` Oleksandr Natalenko
2019-05-21  2:56   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-20 16:46 ` Johannes Weiner
2019-05-21  4:39   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:32     ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  1:44 ` Matthew Wilcox
2019-05-21  5:01   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21  6:34   ` Michal Hocko
2019-05-21  8:42 ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-21 11:05   ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 11:30     ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-21 11:39       ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-22  5:11         ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-22  8:22           ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-22 13:16             ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-22 14:52               ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-22 15:17                 ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-22 15:48                   ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-22 15:57                     ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-22 16:01                       ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-22 16:01                         ` Daniel Colascione
2019-05-23 13:07                           ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-27  8:06                             ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 11:41       ` Minchan Kim
2019-05-21 12:04         ` Christian Brauner
2019-05-21 12:15           ` Oleksandr Natalenko
2019-05-21 12:53 ` Shakeel Butt

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