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From: Kieran Bingham <kieran.bingham@ideasonboard.com>
To: Brendan Higgins <brendanhiggins@google.com>,
	gregkh@linuxfoundation.org, keescook@google.com,
	mcgrof@kernel.org, shuah@kernel.org
Cc: brakmo@fb.com, jdike@addtoit.com,
	dri-devel@lists.freedesktop.org, linux-kselftest@vger.kernel.org,
	frowand.list@gmail.com, robh@kernel.org,
	linux-nvdimm@lists.01.org, richard@nod.at, knut.omang@oracle.com,
	Felix Guo <felixguoxiuping@gmail.com>,
	joel@jms.id.au, khilman@baylibre.com, Tim.Bird@sony.com,
	linux-um@lists.infradead.org, rostedt@goodmis.org,
	julia.lawall@lip6.fr, kunit-dev@googlegroups.com,
	linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, daniel@ffwll.ch,
	mpe@ellerman.id.au, joe@perches.com
Subject: Re: [RFC v3 14/19] Documentation: kunit: add documentation for KUnit
Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 13:56:37 +0000
Message-ID: <b4c72234-8c56-6efa-8003-f89d99a9779e@ideasonboard.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20181128193636.254378-15-brendanhiggins@google.com>

Hi Brendan,

Please excuse the top posting, but I'm replying here as I'm following
the section "Creating a kunitconfig" in Documentation/kunit/start.rst.

Could the three line kunitconfig file live under say
	 arch/um/configs/kunit_defconfig?

So that it's always provided? And could even be extended with tests
which people would expect to be run by default? (say in distributions)

--
Kieran




On 28/11/2018 19:36, Brendan Higgins wrote:
> Add documentation for KUnit, the Linux kernel unit testing framework.
> - Add intro and usage guide for KUnit
> - Add API reference
> 
> Signed-off-by: Felix Guo <felixguoxiuping@gmail.com>
> Signed-off-by: Brendan Higgins <brendanhiggins@google.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/index.rst           |   1 +
>  Documentation/kunit/api/index.rst |  16 ++
>  Documentation/kunit/api/test.rst  |  15 +
>  Documentation/kunit/faq.rst       |  46 +++
>  Documentation/kunit/index.rst     |  80 ++++++
>  Documentation/kunit/start.rst     | 180 ++++++++++++
>  Documentation/kunit/usage.rst     | 447 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  7 files changed, 785 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/kunit/api/index.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/kunit/api/test.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/kunit/faq.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/kunit/index.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/kunit/start.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/kunit/usage.rst
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/index.rst b/Documentation/index.rst
> index 5db7e87c7cb1d..275ef4db79f61 100644
> --- a/Documentation/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/index.rst
> @@ -68,6 +68,7 @@ merged much easier.
>     kernel-hacking/index
>     trace/index
>     maintainer/index
> +   kunit/index
>  
>  Kernel API documentation
>  ------------------------
> diff --git a/Documentation/kunit/api/index.rst b/Documentation/kunit/api/index.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000000..c31c530088153
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kunit/api/index.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +=============
> +API Reference
> +=============
> +.. toctree::
> +
> +	test
> +
> +This section documents the KUnit kernel testing API. It is divided into 3
> +sections:
> +
> +================================= ==============================================
> +:doc:`test`                       documents all of the standard testing API
> +                                  excluding mocking or mocking related features.
> +================================= ==============================================
> diff --git a/Documentation/kunit/api/test.rst b/Documentation/kunit/api/test.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000000..7c926014f047c
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kunit/api/test.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +========
> +Test API
> +========
> +
> +This file documents all of the standard testing API excluding mocking or mocking
> +related features.
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: include/kunit/test.h
> +   :internal:
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: include/kunit/kunit-stream.h
> +   :internal:
> +
> diff --git a/Documentation/kunit/faq.rst b/Documentation/kunit/faq.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000000..cb8e4fb2257a0
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kunit/faq.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +=========================================
> +Frequently Asked Questions
> +=========================================
> +
> +How is this different from Autotest, kselftest, etc?
> +====================================================
> +KUnit is a unit testing framework. Autotest, kselftest (and some others) are
> +not.
> +
> +A `unit test <https://martinfowler.com/bliki/UnitTest.html>`_ is supposed to
> +test a single unit of code in isolation, hence the name. A unit test should be
> +the finest granularity of testing and as such should allow all possible code
> +paths to be tested in the code under test; this is only possible if the code
> +under test is very small and does not have any external dependencies outside of
> +the test's control like hardware.
> +
> +There are no testing frameworks currently available for the kernel that do not
> +require installing the kernel on a test machine or in a VM and all require
> +tests to be written in userspace and run on the kernel under test; this is true
> +for Autotest, kselftest, and some others, disqualifying any of them from being
> +considered unit testing frameworks.
> +
> +What is the difference between a unit test and these other kinds of tests?
> +==========================================================================
> +Most existing tests for the Linux kernel would be categorized as an integration
> +test, or an end-to-end test.
> +
> +- A unit test is supposed to test a single unit of code in isolation, hence the
> +  name. A unit test should be the finest granularity of testing and as such
> +  should allow all possible code paths to be tested in the code under test; this
> +  is only possible if the code under test is very small and does not have any
> +  external dependencies outside of the test's control like hardware.
> +- An integration test tests the interaction between a minimal set of components,
> +  usually just two or three. For example, someone might write an integration
> +  test to test the interaction between a driver and a piece of hardware, or to
> +  test the interaction between the userspace libraries the kernel provides and
> +  the kernel itself; however, one of these tests would probably not test the
> +  entire kernel along with hardware interactions and interactions with the
> +  userspace.
> +- An end-to-end test usually tests the entire system from the perspective of the
> +  code under test. For example, someone might write an end-to-end test for the
> +  kernel by installing a production configuration of the kernel on production
> +  hardware with a production userspace and then trying to exercise some behavior
> +  that depends on interactions between the hardware, the kernel, and userspace.
> diff --git a/Documentation/kunit/index.rst b/Documentation/kunit/index.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000000..c6710211b647f
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kunit/index.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,80 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +=========================================
> +KUnit - Unit Testing for the Linux Kernel
> +=========================================
> +
> +.. toctree::
> +	:maxdepth: 2
> +
> +	start
> +	usage
> +	api/index
> +	faq
> +
> +What is KUnit?
> +==============
> +
> +KUnit is a lightweight unit testing and mocking framework for the Linux kernel.
> +These tests are able to be run locally on a developer's workstation without a VM
> +or special hardware.
> +
> +KUnit is heavily inspired by JUnit, Python's unittest.mock, and
> +Googletest/Googlemock for C++. KUnit provides facilities for defining unit test
> +cases, grouping related test cases into test suites, providing common
> +infrastructure for running tests, and much more.
> +
> +Get started now: :doc:`start`
> +
> +Why KUnit?
> +==========
> +
> +A unit test is supposed to test a single unit of code in isolation, hence the
> +name. A unit test should be the finest granularity of testing and as such should
> +allow all possible code paths to be tested in the code under test; this is only
> +possible if the code under test is very small and does not have any external
> +dependencies outside of the test's control like hardware.
> +
> +Outside of KUnit, there are no testing frameworks currently
> +available for the kernel that do not require installing the kernel on a test
> +machine or in a VM and all require tests to be written in userspace running on
> +the kernel; this is true for Autotest, and kselftest, disqualifying
> +any of them from being considered unit testing frameworks.
> +
> +KUnit addresses the problem of being able to run tests without needing a virtual
> +machine or actual hardware with User Mode Linux. User Mode Linux is a Linux
> +architecture, like ARM or x86; however, unlike other architectures it compiles
> +to a standalone program that can be run like any other program directly inside
> +of a host operating system; to be clear, it does not require any virtualization
> +support; it is just a regular program.
> +
> +KUnit is fast. Excluding build time, from invocation to completion KUnit can run
> +several dozen tests in only 10 to 20 seconds; this might not sound like a big
> +deal to some people, but having such fast and easy to run tests fundamentally
> +changes the way you go about testing and even writing code in the first place.
> +Linus himself said in his `git talk at Google
> +<https://gist.github.com/lorn/1272686/revisions#diff-53c65572127855f1b003db4064a94573R874>`_:
> +
> +	"... a lot of people seem to think that performance is about doing the
> +	same thing, just doing it faster, and that is not true. That is not what
> +	performance is all about. If you can do something really fast, really
> +	well, people will start using it differently."
> +
> +In this context Linus was talking about branching and merging,
> +but this point also applies to testing. If your tests are slow, unreliable, are
> +difficult to write, and require a special setup or special hardware to run,
> +then you wait a lot longer to write tests, and you wait a lot longer to run
> +tests; this means that tests are likely to break, unlikely to test a lot of
> +things, and are unlikely to be rerun once they pass. If your tests are really
> +fast, you run them all the time, every time you make a change, and every time
> +someone sends you some code. Why trust that someone ran all their tests
> +correctly on every change when you can just run them yourself in less time than
> +it takes to read his / her test log?
> +
> +How do I use it?
> +===================
> +
> +*   :doc:`start` - for new users of KUnit
> +*   :doc:`usage` - for a more detailed explanation of KUnit features
> +*   :doc:`api/index` - for the list of KUnit APIs used for testing
> +
> diff --git a/Documentation/kunit/start.rst b/Documentation/kunit/start.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000000..5cdba5091905e
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kunit/start.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,180 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +===============
> +Getting Started
> +===============
> +
> +Installing dependencies
> +=======================
> +KUnit has the same dependencies as the Linux kernel. As long as you can build
> +the kernel, you can run KUnit.
> +
> +KUnit Wrapper
> +=============
> +Included with KUnit is a simple Python wrapper that helps format the output to
> +easily use and read KUnit output. It handles building and running the kernel, as
> +well as formatting the output.
> +
> +The wrapper can be run with:
> +
> +.. code-block:: bash
> +
> +   ./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py
> +
> +Creating a kunitconfig
> +======================
> +The Python script is a thin wrapper around Kbuild as such, it needs to be
> +configured with a ``kunitconfig`` file. This file essentially contains the
> +regular Kernel config, with the specific test targets as well.
> +
> +.. code-block:: bash
> +
> +	git clone -b master https://kunit.googlesource.com/kunitconfig $PATH_TO_KUNITCONFIG_REPO
> +	cd $PATH_TO_LINUX_REPO
> +	ln -s $PATH_TO_KUNIT_CONFIG_REPO/kunitconfig kunitconfig
> +
> +You may want to add kunitconfig to your local gitignore.> +
> +Verifying KUnit Works
> +-------------------------
> +
> +To make sure that everything is set up correctly, simply invoke the Python
> +wrapper from your kernel repo:
> +
> +.. code-block:: bash
> +
> +	./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py
> +
> +.. note::
> +   You may want to run ``make mrproper`` first.
> +
> +If everything worked correctly, you should see the following:
> +
> +.. code-block:: bash
> +
> +	Generating .config ...
> +	Building KUnit Kernel ...
> +	Starting KUnit Kernel ...
> +
> +followed by a list of tests that are run. All of them should be passing.
> +
> +.. note::
> +   Because it is building a lot of sources for the first time, the ``Building
> +   kunit kernel`` step may take a while.
> +
> +Writing your first test
> +==========================
> +
> +In your kernel repo let's add some code that we can test. Create a file
> +``drivers/misc/example.h`` with the contents:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	int misc_example_add(int left, int right);
> +
> +create a file ``drivers/misc/example.c``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	#include <linux/errno.h>
> +
> +	#include "example.h"
> +
> +	int misc_example_add(int left, int right)
> +	{
> +		return left + right;
> +	}
> +
> +Now add the following lines to ``drivers/misc/Kconfig``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: kconfig
> +
> +	config MISC_EXAMPLE
> +		bool "My example"
> +
> +and the following lines to ``drivers/misc/Makefile``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: make
> +
> +	obj-$(CONFIG_MISC_EXAMPLE) += example.o
> +
> +Now we are ready to write the test. The test will be in
> +``drivers/misc/example-test.c``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	#include <kunit/test.h>
> +	#include "example.h"
> +
> +	/* Define the test cases. */
> +
> +	static void misc_example_add_test_basic(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 1, misc_example_add(1, 0));
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 2, misc_example_add(1, 1));
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 0, misc_example_add(-1, 1));
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, INT_MAX, misc_example_add(0, INT_MAX));
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, -1, misc_example_add(INT_MAX, INT_MIN));
> +	}
> +
> +	static void misc_example_test_failure(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_FAIL(test, "This test never passes.");
> +	}
> +
> +	static struct kunit_case misc_example_test_cases[] = {
> +		KUNIT_CASE(misc_example_add_test_basic),
> +		KUNIT_CASE(misc_example_test_failure),
> +		{},
> +	};
> +
> +	static struct kunit_module misc_example_test_module = {
> +		.name = "misc-example",
> +		.test_cases = misc_example_test_cases,
> +	};
> +	module_test(misc_example_test_module);
> +
> +Now add the following to ``drivers/misc/Kconfig``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: kconfig
> +
> +	config MISC_EXAMPLE_TEST
> +		bool "Test for my example"
> +		depends on MISC_EXAMPLE && KUNIT
> +
> +and the following to ``drivers/misc/Makefile``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: make
> +
> +	obj-$(CONFIG_MISC_EXAMPLE_TEST) += example-test.o
> +
> +Now add it to your ``kunitconfig``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: none
> +
> +	CONFIG_MISC_EXAMPLE=y
> +	CONFIG_MISC_EXAMPLE_TEST=y
> +
> +Now you can run the test:
> +
> +.. code-block:: bash
> +
> +	./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py
> +
> +You should see the following failure:
> +
> +.. code-block:: none
> +
> +	...
> +	[16:08:57] [PASSED] misc-example:misc_example_add_test_basic
> +	[16:08:57] [FAILED] misc-example:misc_example_test_failure
> +	[16:08:57] EXPECTATION FAILED at drivers/misc/example-test.c:17
> +	[16:08:57] 	This test never passes.
> +	...
> +
> +Congrats! You just wrote your first KUnit test!
> +
> +Next Steps
> +=============
> +*   Check out the :doc:`usage` page for a more
> +    in-depth explanation of KUnit.
> diff --git a/Documentation/kunit/usage.rst b/Documentation/kunit/usage.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000000..96ef7f9a1add4
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/kunit/usage.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,447 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +=============
> +Using KUnit
> +=============
> +
> +The purpose of this document is to describe what KUnit is, how it works, how it
> +is intended to be used, and all the concepts and terminology that are needed to
> +understand it. This guide assumes a working knowledge of the Linux kernel and
> +some basic knowledge of testing.
> +
> +For a high level introduction to KUnit, including setting up KUnit for your
> +project, see :doc:`start`.
> +
> +Organization of this document
> +=================================
> +
> +This document is organized into two main sections: Testing and Isolating
> +Behavior. The first covers what a unit test is and how to use KUnit to write
> +them. The second covers how to use KUnit to isolate code and make it possible
> +to unit test code that was otherwise un-unit-testable.
> +
> +Testing
> +==========
> +
> +What is KUnit?
> +------------------
> +
> +"K" is short for "kernel" so "KUnit" is the "(Linux) Kernel Unit Testing
> +Framework." KUnit is intended first and foremost for writing unit tests; it is
> +general enough that it can be used to write integration tests; however, this is
> +a secondary goal. KUnit has no ambition of being the only testing framework for
> +the kernel; for example, it does not intend to be an end-to-end testing
> +framework.
> +
> +What is Unit Testing?
> +-------------------------
> +
> +A `unit test <https://martinfowler.com/bliki/UnitTest.html>`_ is a test that
> +tests code at the smallest possible scope, a *unit* of code. In the C
> +programming language that's a function.
> +
> +Unit tests should be written for all the publicly exposed functions in a
> +compilation unit; so that is all the functions that are exported in either a
> +*class* (defined below) or all functions which are **not** static.
> +
> +Writing Tests
> +-------------
> +
> +Test Cases
> +~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The fundamental unit in KUnit is the test case. A test case is a function with
> +the signature ``void (*)(struct kunit *test)``. It calls a function to be tested
> +and then sets *expectations* for what should happen. For example:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	void example_test_success(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +	}
> +
> +	void example_test_failure(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_FAIL(test, "This test never passes.");
> +	}
> +
> +In the above example ``example_test_success`` always passes because it does
> +nothing; no expectations are set, so all expectations pass. On the other hand
> +``example_test_failure`` always fails because it calls ``KUNIT_FAIL``, which is
> +a special expectation that logs a message and causes the test case to fail.
> +
> +Expectations
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +An *expectation* is a way to specify that you expect a piece of code to do
> +something in a test. An expectation is called like a function. A test is made
> +by setting expectations about the behavior of a piece of code under test; when
> +one or more of the expectations fail, the test case fails and information about
> +the failure is logged. For example:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	void add_test_basic(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 1, add(1, 0));
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 2, add(1, 1));
> +	}
> +
> +In the above example ``add_test_basic`` makes a number of assertions about the
> +behavior of a function called ``add``; the first parameter is always of type
> +``struct kunit *``, which contains information about the current test context;
> +the second parameter, in this case, is what the value is expected to be; the
> +last value is what the value actually is. If ``add`` passes all of these
> +expectations, the test case, ``add_test_basic`` will pass; if any one of these
> +expectations fail, the test case will fail.
> +
> +It is important to understand that a test case *fails* when any expectation is
> +violated; however, the test will continue running, potentially trying other
> +expectations until the test case ends or is otherwise terminated. This is as
> +opposed to *assertions* which are discussed later.
> +
> +To learn about more expectations supported by KUnit, see :doc:`api/test`.
> +
> +.. note::
> +   A single test case should be pretty short, pretty easy to understand,
> +   focused on a single behavior.
> +
> +For example, if we wanted to properly test the add function above, we would
> +create additional tests cases which would each test a different property that an
> +add function should have like this:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	void add_test_basic(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 1, add(1, 0));
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 2, add(1, 1));
> +	}
> +
> +	void add_test_negative(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, 0, add(-1, 1));
> +	}
> +
> +	void add_test_max(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, INT_MAX, add(0, INT_MAX));
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, -1, add(INT_MAX, INT_MIN));
> +	}
> +
> +	void add_test_overflow(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, INT_MIN, add(INT_MAX, 1));
> +	}
> +
> +Notice how it is immediately obvious what all the properties that we are testing
> +for are.
> +
> +Assertions
> +~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +KUnit also has the concept of an *assertion*. An assertion is just like an
> +expectation except the assertion immediately terminates the test case if it is
> +not satisfied.
> +
> +For example:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	static void mock_test_do_expect_default_return(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		struct mock_test_context *ctx = test->priv;
> +		struct mock *mock = ctx->mock;
> +		int param0 = 5, param1 = -5;
> +		const char *two_param_types[] = {"int", "int"};
> +		const void *two_params[] = {&param0, &param1};
> +		const void *ret;
> +
> +		ret = mock->do_expect(mock,
> +				      "test_printk", test_printk,
> +				      two_param_types, two_params,
> +				      ARRAY_SIZE(two_params));
> +		KUNIT_ASSERT_NOT_ERR_OR_NULL(test, ret);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, -4, *((int *) ret));
> +	}
> +
> +In this example, the method under test should return a pointer to a value, so
> +if the pointer returned by the method is null or an errno, we don't want to
> +bother continuing the test since the following expectation could crash the test
> +case. `ASSERT_NOT_ERR_OR_NULL(...)` allows us to bail out of the test case if
> +the appropriate conditions have not been satisfied to complete the test.
> +
> +Modules / Test Suites
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +Now obviously one unit test isn't very helpful; the power comes from having
> +many test cases covering all of your behaviors. Consequently it is common to
> +have many *similar* tests; in order to reduce duplication in these closely
> +related tests most unit testing frameworks provide the concept of a *test
> +suite*, in KUnit we call it a *test module*; all it is is just a collection of
> +test cases for a unit of code with a set up function that gets invoked before
> +every test cases and then a tear down function that gets invoked after every
> +test case completes.
> +
> +Example:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	static struct kunit_case example_test_cases[] = {
> +		KUNIT_CASE(example_test_foo),
> +		KUNIT_CASE(example_test_bar),
> +		KUNIT_CASE(example_test_baz),
> +		{},
> +	};
> +
> +	static struct kunit_module example_test_module[] = {
> +		.name = "example",
> +		.init = example_test_init,
> +		.exit = example_test_exit,
> +		.test_cases = example_test_cases,
> +	};
> +	module_test(example_test_module);
> +
> +In the above example the test suite, ``example_test_module``, would run the test
> +cases ``example_test_foo``, ``example_test_bar``, and ``example_test_baz``, each
> +would have ``example_test_init`` called immediately before it and would have
> +``example_test_exit`` called immediately after it.
> +``module_test(example_test_module)`` registers the test suite with the KUnit
> +test framework.
> +
> +.. note::
> +   A test case will only be run if it is associated with a test suite.
> +
> +For a more information on these types of things see the :doc:`api/test`.
> +
> +Isolating Behavior
> +==================
> +
> +The most important aspect of unit testing that other forms of testing do not
> +provide is the ability to limit the amount of code under test to a single unit.
> +In practice, this is only possible by being able to control what code gets run
> +when the unit under test calls a function and this is usually accomplished
> +through some sort of indirection where a function is exposed as part of an API
> +such that the definition of that function can be changed without affecting the
> +rest of the code base. In the kernel this primarily comes from two constructs,
> +classes, structs that contain function pointers that are provided by the
> +implementer, and architecture specific functions which have definitions selected
> +at compile time.
> +
> +Classes
> +-------
> +
> +Classes are not a construct that is built into the C programming language;
> +however, it is an easily derived concept. Accordingly, pretty much every project
> +that does not use a standardized object oriented library (like GNOME's GObject)
> +has their own slightly different way of doing object oriented programming; the
> +Linux kernel is no exception.
> +
> +The central concept in kernel object oriented programming is the class. In the
> +kernel, a *class* is a struct that contains function pointers. This creates a
> +contract between *implementers* and *users* since it forces them to use the
> +same function signature without having to call the function directly. In order
> +for it to truly be a class, the function pointers must specify that a pointer
> +to the class, known as a *class handle*, be one of the parameters; this makes
> +it possible for the member functions (also known as *methods*) to have access
> +to member variables (more commonly known as *fields*) allowing the same
> +implementation to have multiple *instances*.
> +
> +Typically a class can be *overridden* by *child classes* by embedding the
> +*parent class* in the child class. Then when a method provided by the child
> +class is called, the child implementation knows that the pointer passed to it is
> +of a parent contained within the child; because of this, the child can compute
> +the pointer to itself because the pointer to the parent is always a fixed offset
> +from the pointer to the child; this offset is the offset of the parent contained
> +in the child struct. For example:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	struct shape {
> +		int (*area)(struct shape *this);
> +	};
> +
> +	struct rectangle {
> +		struct shape parent;
> +		int length;
> +		int width;
> +	};
> +
> +	int rectangle_area(struct shape *this)
> +	{
> +		struct rectangle *self = container_of(this, struct shape, parent);
> +
> +		return self->length * self->width;
> +	};
> +
> +	void rectangle_new(struct rectangle *self, int length, int width)
> +	{
> +		self->parent.area = rectangle_area;
> +		self->length = length;
> +		self->width = width;
> +	}
> +
> +In this example (as in most kernel code) the operation of computing the pointer
> +to the child from the pointer to the parent is done by ``container_of``.
> +
> +Faking Classes
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +In order to unit test a piece of code that calls a method in a class, the
> +behavior of the method must be controllable, otherwise the test ceases to be a
> +unit test and becomes an integration test.
> +
> +A fake just provides an implementation of a piece of code that is different than
> +what runs in a production instance, but behaves identically from the standpoint
> +of the callers; this is usually done to replace a dependency that is hard to
> +deal with, or is slow.
> +
> +A good example for this might be implementing a fake EEPROM that just stores the
> +"contents" in an internal buffer. For example, let's assume we have a class that
> +represents an EEPROM:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	struct eeprom {
> +		ssize_t (*read)(struct eeprom *this, size_t offset, char *buffer, size_t count);
> +		ssize_t (*write)(struct eeprom *this, size_t offset, const char *buffer, size_t count);
> +	};
> +
> +And we want to test some code that buffers writes to the EEPROM:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	struct eeprom_buffer {
> +		ssize_t (*write)(struct eeprom_buffer *this, const char *buffer, size_t count);
> +		int flush(struct eeprom_buffer *this);
> +		size_t flush_count; /* Flushes when buffer exceeds flush_count. */
> +	};
> +
> +	struct eeprom_buffer *new_eeprom_buffer(struct eeprom *eeprom);
> +	void destroy_eeprom_buffer(struct eeprom *eeprom);
> +
> +We can easily test this code by *faking out* the underlying EEPROM:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	struct fake_eeprom {
> +		struct eeprom parent;
> +		char contents[FAKE_EEPROM_CONTENTS_SIZE];
> +	};
> +
> +	ssize_t fake_eeprom_read(struct eeprom *parent, size_t offset, char *buffer, size_t count)
> +	{
> +		struct fake_eeprom *this = container_of(parent, struct fake_eeprom, parent);
> +
> +		count = min(count, FAKE_EEPROM_CONTENTS_SIZE - offset);
> +		memcpy(buffer, this->contents + offset, count);
> +
> +		return count;
> +	}
> +
> +	ssize_t fake_eeprom_write(struct eeprom *this, size_t offset, const char *buffer, size_t count)
> +	{
> +		struct fake_eeprom *this = container_of(parent, struct fake_eeprom, parent);
> +
> +		count = min(count, FAKE_EEPROM_CONTENTS_SIZE - offset);
> +		memcpy(this->contents + offset, buffer, count);
> +
> +		return count;
> +	}
> +
> +	void fake_eeprom_init(struct fake_eeprom *this)
> +	{
> +		this->parent.read = fake_eeprom_read;
> +		this->parent.write = fake_eeprom_write;
> +		memset(this->contents, 0, FAKE_EEPROM_CONTENTS_SIZE);
> +	}
> +
> +We can now use it to test ``struct eeprom_buffer``:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +	struct eeprom_buffer_test {
> +		struct fake_eeprom *fake_eeprom;
> +		struct eeprom_buffer *eeprom_buffer;
> +	};
> +
> +	static void eeprom_buffer_test_does_not_write_until_flush(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		struct eeprom_buffer_test *ctx = test->priv;
> +		struct eeprom_buffer *eeprom_buffer = ctx->eeprom_buffer;
> +		struct fake_eeprom *fake_eeprom = ctx->fake_eeprom;
> +		char buffer[] = {0xff};
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->flush_count = SIZE_MAX;
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->write(eeprom_buffer, buffer, 1);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[0], 0);
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->write(eeprom_buffer, buffer, 1);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[1], 0);
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->flush(eeprom_buffer);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[0], 0xff);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[1], 0xff);
> +	}
> +
> +	static void eeprom_buffer_test_flushes_after_flush_count_met(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		struct eeprom_buffer_test *ctx = test->priv;
> +		struct eeprom_buffer *eeprom_buffer = ctx->eeprom_buffer;
> +		struct fake_eeprom *fake_eeprom = ctx->fake_eeprom;
> +		char buffer[] = {0xff};
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->flush_count = 2;
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->write(eeprom_buffer, buffer, 1);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[0], 0);
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->write(eeprom_buffer, buffer, 1);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[0], 0xff);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[1], 0xff);
> +	}
> +
> +	static void eeprom_buffer_test_flushes_increments_of_flush_count(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		struct eeprom_buffer_test *ctx = test->priv;
> +		struct eeprom_buffer *eeprom_buffer = ctx->eeprom_buffer;
> +		struct fake_eeprom *fake_eeprom = ctx->fake_eeprom;
> +		char buffer[] = {0xff, 0xff};
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->flush_count = 2;
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->write(eeprom_buffer, buffer, 1);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[0], 0);
> +
> +		eeprom_buffer->write(eeprom_buffer, buffer, 2);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[0], 0xff);
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[1], 0xff);
> +		/* Should have only flushed the first two bytes. */
> +		KUNIT_EXPECT_EQ(test, fake_eeprom->contents[2], 0);
> +	}
> +
> +	static int eeprom_buffer_test_init(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		struct eeprom_buffer_test *ctx;
> +
> +		ctx = kunit_kzalloc(test, sizeof(*ctx), GFP_KERNEL);
> +		ASSERT_NOT_ERR_OR_NULL(test, ctx);
> +
> +		ctx->fake_eeprom = kunit_kzalloc(test, sizeof(*ctx->fake_eeprom), GFP_KERNEL);
> +		ASSERT_NOT_ERR_OR_NULL(test, ctx->fake_eeprom);
> +
> +		ctx->eeprom_buffer = new_eeprom_buffer(&ctx->fake_eeprom->parent);
> +		ASSERT_NOT_ERR_OR_NULL(test, ctx->eeprom_buffer);
> +
> +		test->priv = ctx;
> +
> +		return 0;
> +	}
> +
> +	static void eeprom_buffer_test_exit(struct kunit *test)
> +	{
> +		struct eeprom_buffer_test *ctx = test->priv;
> +
> +		destroy_eeprom_buffer(ctx->eeprom_buffer);
> +	}
> +
> 

-- 
Regards
--
Kieran
_______________________________________________
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  reply index

Thread overview: 118+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2018-11-28 19:36 [RFC v3 00/19] kunit: introduce KUnit, the Linux kernel unit testing framework Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36 ` [RFC v3 01/19] kunit: test: add KUnit test runner core Brendan Higgins
2018-11-30  3:14   ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-01  1:51     ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-01  2:57       ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-05 13:15     ` Anton Ivanov
2018-12-05 14:45       ` Arnd Bergmann
2018-12-05 14:49         ` Anton Ivanov
2018-11-30  3:28   ` Luis Chamberlain
     [not found]     ` <20181130032802.GG18410-dAjH6bxAqesAS62YNPtMr3dQhYtBYE6JAL8bYrjMMd8@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-01  2:08       ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-01  3:10         ` Luis Chamberlain
     [not found]           ` <20181201031049.GL28501-dAjH6bxAqesAS62YNPtMr3dQhYtBYE6JAL8bYrjMMd8@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-03 22:47             ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-01  3:02   ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-11-28 19:36 ` [RFC v3 10/19] kunit: test: add test managed resource tests Brendan Higgins
     [not found] ` <20181128193636.254378-1-brendanhiggins-hpIqsD4AKlfQT0dZR+AlfA@public.gmane.org>
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 02/19] kunit: test: add test resource management API Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 03/19] kunit: test: add string_stream a std::stream like string builder Brendan Higgins
2018-11-30  3:29     ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-01  2:14       ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-01  3:12         ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-03 10:55       ` Petr Mladek
2018-12-04  0:35         ` Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 04/19] kunit: test: add test_stream a std::stream like logger Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 05/19] kunit: test: add the concept of expectations Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 06/19] arch: um: enable running kunit from User Mode Linux Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 21:26     ` Rob Herring
2018-11-30  3:37       ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-11-30 14:05         ` Rob Herring
2018-11-30 18:22           ` Luis Chamberlain
     [not found]             ` <20181130182203.GS18410-dAjH6bxAqesAS62YNPtMr3dQhYtBYE6JAL8bYrjMMd8@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-03 23:22               ` Brendan Higgins
2018-11-30  3:30     ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 07/19] kunit: test: add initial tests Brendan Higgins
2018-11-30  3:40     ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-03 23:26       ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-03 23:43         ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 08/19] arch: um: add shim to trap to allow installing a fault catcher for tests Brendan Higgins
2018-11-30  3:34     ` Luis Chamberlain
     [not found]       ` <20181130033429.GK18410-dAjH6bxAqesAS62YNPtMr3dQhYtBYE6JAL8bYrjMMd8@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-03 23:34         ` Brendan Higgins
     [not found]           ` <CAFd5g45+MAVaSW8HN9x57Y8Um=TV1Oa=-K8yExPBS-4KjLyciQ-JsoAwUIsXosN+BqQ9rBEUg@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-03 23:46             ` Luis Chamberlain
     [not found]               ` <20181203234628.GR28501-dAjH6bxAqesAS62YNPtMr3dQhYtBYE6JAL8bYrjMMd8@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-04  0:44                 ` Brendan Higgins
2018-11-30  3:41     ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-03 23:37       ` Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 09/19] kunit: test: add the concept of assertions Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 11/19] kunit: add Python libraries for handing KUnit config and kernel Brendan Higgins
2018-11-29 13:54     ` Kieran Bingham
     [not found]       ` <841cf4ae-501b-05ae-5863-a51010709b67-ryLnwIuWjnjg/C1BVhZhaw@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-03 23:48         ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-04 20:47           ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-06 12:32             ` Kieran Bingham
2018-12-06 15:37               ` Matthew Wilcox
2018-12-07 11:30                 ` Kieran Bingham
2018-12-11 14:09                 ` Petr Mladek
2018-12-11 14:41                   ` Steven Rostedt
2018-12-11 17:01                     ` Anton Ivanov
2019-02-09  0:40                       ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-07  1:05               ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-07 18:35               ` Kent Overstreet
2018-11-30  3:44     ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-03 23:50       ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-04 20:48         ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 12/19] kunit: add KUnit wrapper script and simple output parser Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 13/19] kunit: improve output from python wrapper Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 14/19] Documentation: kunit: add documentation for KUnit Brendan Higgins
2018-11-29 13:56     ` Kieran Bingham [this message]
2018-11-30  3:45       ` Luis Chamberlain
     [not found]         ` <20181130034525.GP18410-dAjH6bxAqesAS62YNPtMr3dQhYtBYE6JAL8bYrjMMd8@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-03 23:53           ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-06 12:16             ` Kieran Bingham
2019-02-09  0:56               ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-11 12:16                 ` Kieran Bingham
2019-02-12 22:10                   ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-13 21:55                     ` Kieran Bingham
2019-02-14  0:17                       ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-14 17:26                         ` Luis Chamberlain
2019-02-14 22:07                           ` Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 15/19] MAINTAINERS: add entry for KUnit the unit testing framework Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 17/19] of: unittest: migrate tests to run on KUnit Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 20:56     ` Rob Herring
2018-11-30  0:39       ` Randy Dunlap
     [not found]         ` <18814973-8f0a-4647-a097-fcc3dc0b3cd3-wEGCiKHe2LqWVfeAwA7xHQ@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-04  0:13           ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-04 13:40             ` Rob Herring
     [not found]               ` <CAL_JsqL_PivQbrJFEusdKAy-2EQtKL3OHbmyYSK9bzuTOQegqA-JsoAwUIsXosN+BqQ9rBEUg@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-05 23:42                 ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-07  0:41                   ` Rob Herring
2018-12-04  0:08       ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-13  1:44       ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-14 20:10         ` Rob Herring
2019-02-14 21:52           ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-18 22:56         ` Frank Rowand
2019-02-28  0:29           ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-04 10:56     ` Frank Rowand
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 18/19] of: unittest: split out a couple of test cases from unittest Brendan Higgins
2018-12-04 10:58     ` Frank Rowand
2018-12-05 23:54       ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-14 23:57         ` Frank Rowand
2019-02-15  0:56           ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-15  2:05             ` Frank Rowand
2019-02-15 10:56               ` Brendan Higgins
2019-02-18 22:25                 ` Frank Rowand
2019-02-20 20:44                   ` Frank Rowand
2019-02-20 20:47                     ` Frank Rowand
2019-02-28  3:52                     ` Brendan Higgins
2019-03-22  0:22                       ` Frank Rowand
2019-03-22  1:30                         ` Brendan Higgins
2019-03-22  1:47                           ` Frank Rowand
2019-03-25 22:15                             ` Brendan Higgins
2019-09-20 16:57                           ` Rob Herring
2019-09-21 23:57                             ` Frank Rowand
2019-03-22  1:34                         ` Frank Rowand
2019-03-25 22:18                           ` Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36   ` [RFC v3 19/19] of: unittest: split up some super large test cases Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 19:36 ` [RFC v3 16/19] arch: um: make UML unflatten device tree when testing Brendan Higgins
2018-11-28 21:16   ` Rob Herring
     [not found]     ` <CAL_JsqK5cG=QzMBFSZ31_-3ujnxqxv=jj3XYajbRLT7yWYZbfw-JsoAwUIsXosN+BqQ9rBEUg@public.gmane.org>
2018-12-04  0:00       ` Brendan Higgins
2018-11-30  3:46   ` Luis Chamberlain
2018-12-04  0:02     ` Brendan Higgins
2018-12-04 10:52 ` [RFC v3 00/19] kunit: introduce KUnit, the Linux kernel unit testing framework Frank Rowand
2018-12-04 11:40 ` Frank Rowand
2018-12-04 13:49   ` Rob Herring
2018-12-05 23:10     ` Brendan Higgins
2019-03-22  0:27       ` Frank Rowand
2019-03-25 22:04         ` Brendan Higgins

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