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From: ebiederm@xmission.com (Eric W. Biederman)
To: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>,
	Tetsuo Handa <penguin-kernel@i-love.sakura.ne.jp>,
	Linux Kernel Mailing List <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>, Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>,
	Greg Ungerer <gerg@linux-m68k.org>, Rob Landley <rob@landley.net>,
	Bernd Edlinger <bernd.edlinger@hotmail.de>,
	linux-fsdevel <linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org>,
	Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>,
	Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>,
	Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>,
	Casey Schaufler <casey@schaufler-ca.com>,
	LSM List <linux-security-module@vger.kernel.org>,
	James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>,
	"Serge E. Hallyn" <serge@hallyn.com>,
	Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 3/5] exec: Remove recursion from search_binary_handler
Date: Thu, 14 May 2020 09:56:36 -0500
Message-ID: <87sgg2ftuj.fsf@x220.int.ebiederm.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <202005121649.4ED677068@keescook> (Kees Cook's message of "Tue, 12 May 2020 16:51:29 -0700")

Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> writes:

> On Tue, May 12, 2020 at 04:47:14PM -0700, Kees Cook wrote:
>> And now I wonder if qemu actually uses the resulting AT_EXECFD ...
>
> It does, though I'm not sure if this is to support crossing mount points,
> dropping privileges, or something else, since it does fall back to just
> trying to open the file.
>
>     execfd = qemu_getauxval(AT_EXECFD);
>     if (execfd == 0) {
>         execfd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
>         if (execfd < 0) {
>             printf("Error while loading %s: %s\n", filename, strerror(errno));
>             _exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
>         }
>     }

My hunch is that the fallback exists from a time when the kernel did not
implement AT_EXECFD, or so that qemu can run on kernels that don't
implement AT_EXECFD.  It doesn't really matter unless the executable is
suid, or otherwise changes privileges.


I looked into this a bit to remind myself why exec works the way it
works, with changing privileges.

The classic attack is pointing a symlink at a #! script that is suid or
otherwise changes privileges.  The kernel will open the script and set
the privileges, read the interpreter from the first line, and proceed to
exec the interpreter.  The interpreter will then open the script using
the pathname supplied by the kernel.  The name of the symlink.
Before the interpreter reopens the script the attack would replace
the symlink with a script that does something else, but gets to run
with the privileges of the script.


Defending against that time of check vs time of use attack is why
bprm_fill_uid, and cap_bprm_set_creds use the credentials derived from
the interpreter instead of the credentials derived from the script.


The other defense is to replace the pathname of the executable that the
intepreter will open with /dev/fd/N.

All of this predates Linux entirely.  I do remember this was fixed at
some point in Linux but I don't remember the details.  I can just read
the solution that was picked in the code.



All of this makes me wonder how are the LSMs protected against this
attack.

Let's see the following LSMS implement brpm_set_creds:
tomoyo   - Abuses bprm_set_creds to call tomoyo_load_policy [ safe ]
smack    - Requires CAP_MAC_ADMIN to smack setxattrs        [ vulnerable? ]
           Uses those xattrs in smack_bprm_set_creds
apparmor - Everything is based on names so the symlink      [ safe? ]
           attack won't work as it has the wrong name.
           As long as the trusted names can't be renamed
           apparmor appears good.
selinux  - Appears to let anyone set selinux xattrs         [ safe? ]
           Requires permission for a sid transfer
           As the attack appears not to allow anything that
           would not be allowed anyway it looks like selinux
           is safe.

LSM folks, especially Casey am I reading this correctly?  Did I
correctly infer how your LSMs deal with the time of check to time of use
attack on the script name?

Eric


  reply index

Thread overview: 108+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
     [not found] <87h7wujhmz.fsf@x220.int.ebiederm.org>
     [not found] ` <87sgga6ze4.fsf@x220.int.ebiederm.org>
2020-05-09 19:40   ` [PATCH 0/5] exec: Control flow simplifications Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-09 19:40     ` [PATCH 1/5] exec: Call cap_bprm_set_creds directly from prepare_binprm Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-09 20:04       ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-09 19:41     ` [PATCH 2/5] exec: Directly call security_bprm_set_creds from __do_execve_file Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-09 20:07       ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-09 20:12         ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-09 20:19           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-11  3:15       ` Kees Cook
2020-05-11 16:52         ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-11 21:18           ` Kees Cook
2020-05-09 19:41     ` [PATCH 3/5] exec: Remove recursion from search_binary_handler Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-09 20:16       ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-10  4:22       ` Tetsuo Handa
2020-05-10 19:38         ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-11 14:33           ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-11 19:10             ` Rob Landley
2020-05-13 21:59               ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-14 18:46                 ` Rob Landley
2020-05-11 21:55             ` Kees Cook
2020-05-12 18:42               ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-12 19:25                 ` Kees Cook
2020-05-12 20:31                   ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-12 23:08                     ` Kees Cook
2020-05-12 23:47                       ` Kees Cook
2020-05-12 23:51                         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-14 14:56                           ` Eric W. Biederman [this message]
2020-05-14 16:56                             ` Casey Schaufler
2020-05-14 17:02                               ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-13  0:20                 ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-13  2:39                   ` Rob Landley
2020-05-13 19:51                     ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-14 16:49                   ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-09 19:42     ` [PATCH 4/5] exec: Allow load_misc_binary to call prepare_binfmt unconditionally Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-11 22:09       ` Kees Cook
2020-05-09 19:42     ` [PATCH 5/5] exec: Move the call of prepare_binprm into search_binary_handler Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-11 22:24       ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19  0:29     ` [PATCH v2 0/8] exec: Control flow simplifications Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19  0:29       ` [PATCH v2 1/8] exec: Teach prepare_exec_creds how exec treats uids & gids Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 18:03         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 18:28           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-19 18:57             ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19  0:30       ` [PATCH v2 2/8] exec: Factor security_bprm_creds_for_exec out of security_bprm_set_creds Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 15:34         ` Casey Schaufler
2020-05-19 18:10         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 21:28           ` James Morris
2020-05-19  0:31       ` [PATCH v2 3/8] exec: Convert security_bprm_set_creds into security_bprm_repopulate_creds Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 18:21         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 19:03           ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 19:14             ` Kees Cook
2020-05-20 20:22               ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-20 20:53                 ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 21:52         ` James Morris
2020-05-20 12:40           ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19  0:31       ` [PATCH v2 4/8] exec: Allow load_misc_binary to call prepare_binfmt unconditionally Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 18:27         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 19:08           ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 19:17             ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19  0:32       ` [PATCH v2 5/8] exec: Move the call of prepare_binprm into search_binary_handler Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 18:27         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 21:30         ` James Morris
2020-05-19  0:33       ` [PATCH v2 6/8] exec/binfmt_script: Don't modify bprm->buf and then return -ENOEXEC Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 19:08         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 19:19           ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19  0:33       ` [PATCH v2 7/8] exec: Generic execfd support Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 19:46         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19 19:54           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-19 20:20             ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 21:59         ` Rob Landley
2020-05-20 16:05           ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-21 22:50             ` Rob Landley
2020-05-22  3:28               ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-22  4:51                 ` Rob Landley
2020-05-22 13:35                   ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19  0:34       ` [PATCH v2 8/8] exec: Remove recursion from search_binary_handler Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-19 20:37         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-19  1:25       ` [PATCH v2 0/8] exec: Control flow simplifications Linus Torvalds
2020-05-19 21:55       ` Kees Cook
2020-05-20 13:02         ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-20 22:12       ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-20 23:43         ` Kees Cook
2020-05-21 11:53           ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:38       ` [PATCH 0/11] exec: cred calculation simplifications Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:41         ` [PATCH 01/11] exec: Reduce bprm->per_clear to a single bit Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 19:04           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-28 19:17             ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:42         ` [PATCH 02/11] exec: Introduce active_per_clear the per file version of per_clear Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 19:05           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-28 15:42         ` [PATCH 03/11] exec: Compute file based creds only once Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:43         ` [PATCH 04/11] exec: Move uid/gid handling from creds_from_file into bprm_fill_uid Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:44         ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:44         ` [PATCH 05/11] exec: In bprm_fill_uid use CAP_SETGID to see if a gid change is safe Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:48         ` [PATCH 06/11] exec: Don't set secureexec when the uid or gid changes are abandoned Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:48         ` [PATCH 07/11] exec: Set saved, fs, and effective ids together in bprm_fill_uid Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:49         ` [PATCH 08/11] exec: In bprm_fill_uid remove unnecessary no new privs check Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:49         ` [PATCH 09/11] exec: In bprm_fill_uid only set per_clear when honoring suid or sgid Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 19:08           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-05-28 19:21             ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:50         ` [PATCH 10/11] exec: In bprm_fill_uid set secureexec at same time as per_clear Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-28 15:50         ` [PATCH 11/11] exec: Remove the label after_setid from bprm_fill_uid Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-29 16:45         ` [PATCH 0/2] exec: Remove the computation of bprm->cred Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-29 16:46           ` [PATCH 1/2] exec: Add a per bprm->file version of per_clear Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-29 21:06             ` Kees Cook
2020-05-30  3:23               ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-30  5:14                 ` Kees Cook
2020-05-29 16:47           ` [PATCH 2/2] exec: Compute file based creds only once Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-29 21:24             ` Kees Cook
2020-05-30  3:28               ` Eric W. Biederman
2020-05-30  5:18                 ` Kees Cook

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