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From: Casey Schaufler <casey@schaufler-ca.com>
To: Adrian Reber <areber@redhat.com>
Cc: "Christian Brauner" <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>,
	"Eric Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>,
	"Pavel Emelyanov" <ovzxemul@gmail.com>,
	"Oleg Nesterov" <oleg@redhat.com>,
	"Dmitry Safonov" <0x7f454c46@gmail.com>,
	"Andrei Vagin" <avagin@gmail.com>,
	"Nicolas Viennot" <Nicolas.Viennot@twosigma.com>,
	"Michał Cłapiński" <mclapinski@google.com>,
	"Kamil Yurtsever" <kyurtsever@google.com>,
	"Dirk Petersen" <dipeit@gmail.com>,
	"Christine Flood" <chf@redhat.com>,
	"Mike Rapoport" <rppt@linux.ibm.com>,
	"Radostin Stoyanov" <rstoyanov1@gmail.com>,
	"Cyrill Gorcunov" <gorcunov@openvz.org>,
	"Serge Hallyn" <serge@hallyn.com>,
	"Stephen Smalley" <stephen.smalley.work@gmail.com>,
	"Sargun Dhillon" <sargun@sargun.me>,
	"Arnd Bergmann" <arnd@arndb.de>,
	"Aaron Goidel" <acgoide@tycho.nsa.gov>,
	linux-security-module@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, selinux@vger.kernel.org,
	"Eric Paris" <eparis@parisplace.org>,
	"Jann Horn" <jannh@google.com>,
	"Casey Schaufler" <casey@schaufler-ca.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH] capabilities: Introduce CAP_RESTORE
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 11:55:20 -0700
Message-ID: <a75f3f71-66cf-e615-2cd5-86ac65a3bbdc@schaufler-ca.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20200525080541.GF104922@dcbz.redhat.com>

On 5/25/2020 1:05 AM, Adrian Reber wrote:
> On Fri, May 22, 2020 at 09:40:37AM -0700, Casey Schaufler wrote:
>> On 5/21/2020 10:53 PM, Adrian Reber wrote:
>>> This enables CRIU to checkpoint and restore a process as non-root.
>> I know it sounds pedantic, but could you spell out CRIU once?
>> While I know that everyone who cares either knows or can guess
>> what you're talking about, it may be a mystery to some of the
>> newer kernel developers.
> Sure. CRIU - Checkpoint/Restore In Userspace.

Thanks. I blew out my acronym processor in the 1990's while
working on trusted Unix system security evaluations.

>>> Over the last years CRIU upstream has been asked a couple of time if it
>>> is possible to checkpoint and restore a process as non-root. The answer
>>> usually was: 'almost'.
>>>
>>> The main blocker to restore a process was that selecting the PID of the
>>> restored process, which is necessary for CRIU, is guarded by CAP_SYS_ADMIN.
>> What are the other blockers? Are you going to suggest additional new
>> capabilities to clear them?
> As mentioned somewhere else access to /proc/<pid>/map_files/ would be
> helpful. Right now I am testing with a JVM and it works without root
> just with the attached patch. Without access to /proc/<pid>/map_files/
> not everything CRIU can do will actually work, but we are a lot closer
> to what our users have been asking for.

Are you talking about read access to map_files owned by other users
or write access to map_files for the current user?
 

>>> In the last two years the questions about checkpoint/restore as non-root
>>> have increased and especially in the last few months we have seen
>>> multiple people inventing workarounds.
>> Giving a process CAP_SYS_ADMIN is a non-root solution.
> Yes, but like mentioned somewhere else not a solution that actually
> works,

It's a solution that will execute and do what you're asking of it ...

>  because CAP_SYS_ADMIN allows too much.

... but apparently not one that your users find satisfactory.

>  Especially for the
> checkpoint/restore case, we really need one (setting the PID of a new
> process) and to make it complete a second (reading map_files).
>
> Reading the comments in include/uapi/linux/capability.h concerning
> CAP_SYS_ADMIN it allows the binary to do at least 35 things. The two
> (three) I mentioned above (ns_last_pid (clone3) map_files) are not
> mentioned in that list, so CAP_SYS_ADMIN allows probably much more.
>
> To allow checkpoint/restore as non-root nobody will give CRIU
> CAP_SYS_ADMIN because it is too wide.

CAP_SYS_ADMIN exists for system behaviors that are not policy enforcement,
but important to the system nonetheless. If you argue that checkpoint/restart
is system policy enforcement rather then an administrative task it would
be easier to sell.

Nobody likes CAP_SYS_ADMIN, but usually a process that does one of the
things it covers will do more (sometimes many more) of the things it
covers. The longstanding problem with breaking up CAP_SYS_ADMIN is that
most breakouts result in programs that still need CAP_SYS_ADMIN anyway.

>>> The use-cases so far and their workarounds:
>>>
>>>  * Checkpoint/Restore in an HPC environment in combination with
>>>    a resource manager distributing jobs. Users are always running
>>>    as non root, but there was the desire to provide a way to
>>>    checkpoint and restore long running jobs.
>>>    Workaround: setuid wrapper to start CRIU as root as non-root
>>>    https://github.com/FredHutch/slurm-examples/blob/master/checkpointer/lib/checkpointer/checkpointer-suid.c
>> This is a classic and well understood mechanism for dealing with
>> this kind of situation. You could have checkpointer-filecap-sys_admin.c
>> instead, if you want to reduce use of the super-user.
>>
>>> * Another use case to checkpoint/restore processes as non-root
>>>    uses as workaround a non privileged process which cycles through
>>>    PIDs by calling fork() as fast as possible with a rate of
>>>    100,000 pids/s instead of writing to ns_last_pid
>>>    https://github.com/twosigma/set_ns_last_pid
>> Oh dear.
>>
>>>  * Fast Java startup using checkpoint/restore.
>>>    We have been in contact with JVM developers who are integrating
>>>    CRIU into a JVM to decrease the startup time.
>>>    Workaround so far: patch out CAP_SYS_ADMIN checks in the kernel
>> That's not a workaround, it's a policy violation.
>> Bad JVM! No biscuit!
> This was used as a proof of concept to see if we can checkpoint and
> restore a JVM without root. Only the ns_last_pid check was removed to
> see if it works and it does.
>
>>>  * Container migration as non root. There are people already
>>>    using CRIU to migrate containers as non-root. The solution
>>>    there is to run it in a user namespace. So if you are able
>>>    to carefully setup your environment with the namespaces
>>>    it is already possible to restore a container/process as non-root.
>> This is exactly the kind of situation that user namespaces are
>> supposed to address.
>>
>>>    Unfortunately it is not always possible to setup an environment
>>>    in such a way and for easier access to non-root based container
>>>    migration this patch is also required.
>> If a user namespace solution is impossible or (more likely) too
>> expensive, there's always the checkpointer-filecap-sys_admin option.
> But then again we open up all of CAP_SYS_ADMIN, which is not necessary.

Right, I understand that.

>>> There are probably a few more things guarded by CAP_SYS_ADMIN required
>>> to run checkpoint/restore as non-root,
>> If you need CAP_SYS_ADMIN anyway you're not gaining anything by
>> separating out CAP_RESTORE.
> No, as described we can checkpoint and restore a JVM with this patch and
> it also solves the problem the set_ns_last_pid fork() loop daemon tries
> to solve. It is not enough to support the full functionality of CRIU as
> map_files is also important, but we do not need CAP_SYS_ADMIN and
> CAP_RESTORE. Only CAP_RESTORE would be necessary.

Excellent!

Now, is there any reason other than your program that a process would
use CAP_RESTORE? If a process has this capability what damage could it
do to the system?

>
> With a new capability users can enable checkpoint/restore as non-root
> without giving CRIU access to any of the other possibilities offered by
> CAP_SYS_ADMIN. Setting a PID and map_files have been introduced for CRIU
> and used to live behind CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE. Having a capability
> for checkpoint/restore would make it easier for CRIU users to run it as
> non-root and make it very clear what is possible when giving CRIU the
> new capability. No other things would be allowed than necessary for
> checkpoint/restore. Setting a PID is most important for the restore part
> and reading map_files would be helpful during checkpoint. So it actually
> should be called CAP_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE as Christian mentioned in
> another email.
>
>>>  but by applying this patch I can
>>> already checkpoint and restore processes as non-root. As there are
>>> already multiple workarounds I would prefer to do it correctly in the
>>> kernel to avoid that CRIU users are starting to invent more workarounds.
>> You've presented a couple of really inappropriate implementations
>> that would qualify as workarounds. But the other two are completely
>> appropriate within the system security policy. They don't "get around"
>> the problem, they use existing mechanisms as they are intended.
> I agree with the user namespace approach to be appropriate, but not the
> CAP_SYS_ADMIN approach as CRIU only needs a tiny subset (2 things) of
> what CAP_SYS_ADMIN allows.
>
>>> I have used the following tests to verify that this change works as
>>> expected by setting the new capability CAP_RESTORE on the two resulting
>>> test binaries:
>>>
>>> $ cat ns_last_pid.c
>>>  // http://efiop-notes.blogspot.com/2014/06/how-to-set-pid-using-nslastpid.html
>>>  #include <stdio.h>
>>>  #include <stdlib.h>
>>>  #include <string.h>
>>>  #include <sys/file.h>
>>>  #include <sys/types.h>
>>>  #include <unistd.h>
>>>
>>> int main(int argc, char *argv[])
>>> {
>>> 	pid_t pid, new_pid;
>>> 	char buf[32];
>>> 	int fd;
>>>
>>> 	if (argc != 2)
>>> 		return 1;
>>>
>>> 	printf("Opening ns_last_pid...\n");
>>> 	fd = open("/proc/sys/kernel/ns_last_pid", O_RDWR | O_CREAT, 0644);
>>> 	if (fd < 0) {
>>> 		perror("Cannot open ns_last_pid");
>>> 		return 1;
>>> 	}
>>>
>>> 	printf("Locking ns_last_pid...\n");
>>> 	if (flock(fd, LOCK_EX)) {
>>> 		close(fd);
>>> 		printf("Cannot lock ns_last_pid\n");
>>> 		return 1;
>>> 	}
>>>
>>> 	pid = atoi(argv[1]);
>>> 	snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d", pid - 1);
>>> 	printf("Writing pid-1 to ns_last_pid...\n");
>>> 	if (write(fd, buf, strlen(buf)) != strlen(buf)) {
>>> 		printf("Cannot write to buf\n");
>>> 		return 1;
>>> 	}
>>>
>>> 	printf("Forking...\n");
>>> 	new_pid = fork();
>>> 	if (new_pid == 0) {
>>> 		printf("I am the child!\n");
>>> 		exit(0);
>>> 	} else if (new_pid == pid)
>>> 		printf("I am the parent. My child got the pid %d!\n", new_pid);
>>> 	else
>>> 		printf("pid (%d) does not match expected pid (%d)\n", new_pid, pid);
>>>
>>> 	printf("Cleaning up...\n");
>>> 	if (flock(fd, LOCK_UN))
>>> 		printf("Cannot unlock\n");
>>> 	close(fd);
>>> 	return 0;
>>> }
>>> $ id -u; /home/libcap/ns_last_pid 300000
>>> 1001
>>> Opening ns_last_pid...
>>> Locking ns_last_pid...
>>> Writing pid-1 to ns_last_pid...
>>> Forking...
>>> I am the parent. My child got the pid 300000!
>>> I am the child!
>>> Cleaning up...
>>>
>>> For the clone3() based approach:
>>> $ cat clone3_set_tid.c
>>>  #define _GNU_SOURCE
>>>  #include <linux/sched.h>
>>>  #include <stdint.h>
>>>  #include <stdio.h>
>>>  #include <stdlib.h>
>>>  #include <string.h>
>>>  #include <sys/types.h>
>>>  #include <sys/stat.h>
>>>  #include <sys/syscall.h>
>>>  #include <unistd.h>
>>>
>>>  #define ptr_to_u64(ptr) ((__u64)((uintptr_t)(ptr)))
>>>
>>> int main(int argc, char *argv[])
>>> {
>>> 	struct clone_args c_args = { };
>>> 	pid_t pid, new_pid;
>>>
>>> 	if (argc != 2)
>>> 		return 1;
>>>
>>> 	pid = atoi(argv[1]);
>>> 	c_args.set_tid = ptr_to_u64(&pid);
>>> 	c_args.set_tid_size = 1;
>>>
>>> 	printf("Forking...\n");
>>> 	new_pid = syscall(__NR_clone3, &c_args, sizeof(c_args));
>>> 	if (new_pid == 0) {
>>> 		printf("I am the child!\n");
>>> 		exit(0);
>>> 	} else if (new_pid == pid)
>>> 		printf("I am the parent. My child got the pid %d!\n", new_pid);
>>> 	else
>>> 		printf("pid (%d) does not match expected pid (%d)\n", new_pid, pid);
>>> 	printf("Done\n");
>>>
>>> 	return 0;
>>> }
>>> $ id -u; /home/libcap/clone3_set_tid 300000
>>> 1001
>>> Forking...
>>> I am the parent. My child got the pid 300000!
>>> Done
>>> I am the child!
>>>
>>> Signed-off-by: Adrian Reber <areber@redhat.com>
>>> ---
>>>  include/linux/capability.h          | 5 +++++
>>>  include/uapi/linux/capability.h     | 9 ++++++++-
>>>  kernel/pid.c                        | 2 +-
>>>  kernel/pid_namespace.c              | 2 +-
>>>  security/selinux/include/classmap.h | 5 +++--
>>>  5 files changed, 18 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
>>>
>>> diff --git a/include/linux/capability.h b/include/linux/capability.h
>>> index b4345b38a6be..1278313cb2bc 100644
>>> --- a/include/linux/capability.h
>>> +++ b/include/linux/capability.h
>>> @@ -261,6 +261,11 @@ static inline bool bpf_capable(void)
>>>  	return capable(CAP_BPF) || capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN);
>>>  }
>>>  
>>> +static inline bool restore_ns_capable(struct user_namespace *ns)
>>> +{
>>> +	return ns_capable(ns, CAP_RESTORE) || ns_capable(ns, CAP_SYS_ADMIN);
>>> +}
>>> +
>>>  /* audit system wants to get cap info from files as well */
>>>  extern int get_vfs_caps_from_disk(const struct dentry *dentry, struct cpu_vfs_cap_data *cpu_caps);
>>>  
>>> diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/capability.h b/include/uapi/linux/capability.h
>>> index c7372180a0a9..4bcc4e3d41ff 100644
>>> --- a/include/uapi/linux/capability.h
>>> +++ b/include/uapi/linux/capability.h
>>> @@ -406,7 +406,14 @@ struct vfs_ns_cap_data {
>>>   */
>>>  #define CAP_BPF			39
>>>  
>>> -#define CAP_LAST_CAP         CAP_BPF
>>> +
>>> +/* Allow checkpoint/restore related operations */
>>> +/* Allow PID selection during clone3() */
>>> +/* Allow writing to ns_last_pid */
>>> +
>>> +#define CAP_RESTORE		40
>>> +
>>> +#define CAP_LAST_CAP         CAP_RESTORE
>>>  
>>>  #define cap_valid(x) ((x) >= 0 && (x) <= CAP_LAST_CAP)
>>>  
>>> diff --git a/kernel/pid.c b/kernel/pid.c
>>> index 3122043fe364..bbc26f2bcff6 100644
>>> --- a/kernel/pid.c
>>> +++ b/kernel/pid.c
>>> @@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ struct pid *alloc_pid(struct pid_namespace *ns, pid_t *set_tid,
>>>  			if (tid != 1 && !tmp->child_reaper)
>>>  				goto out_free;
>>>  			retval = -EPERM;
>>> -			if (!ns_capable(tmp->user_ns, CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
>>> +			if (!restore_ns_capable(tmp->user_ns))
>>>  				goto out_free;
>>>  			set_tid_size--;
>>>  		}
>>> diff --git a/kernel/pid_namespace.c b/kernel/pid_namespace.c
>>> index 0e5ac162c3a8..f58186b31ce6 100644
>>> --- a/kernel/pid_namespace.c
>>> +++ b/kernel/pid_namespace.c
>>> @@ -269,7 +269,7 @@ static int pid_ns_ctl_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
>>>  	struct ctl_table tmp = *table;
>>>  	int ret, next;
>>>  
>>> -	if (write && !ns_capable(pid_ns->user_ns, CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
>>> +	if (write && !restore_ns_capable(pid_ns->user_ns))
>>>  		return -EPERM;
>>>  
>>>  	/*
>>> diff --git a/security/selinux/include/classmap.h b/security/selinux/include/classmap.h
>>> index 98e1513b608a..f8b8f12a6ebd 100644
>>> --- a/security/selinux/include/classmap.h
>>> +++ b/security/selinux/include/classmap.h
>>> @@ -27,9 +27,10 @@
>>>  	    "audit_control", "setfcap"
>>>  
>>>  #define COMMON_CAP2_PERMS  "mac_override", "mac_admin", "syslog", \
>>> -		"wake_alarm", "block_suspend", "audit_read", "perfmon", "bpf"
>>> +		"wake_alarm", "block_suspend", "audit_read", "perfmon", "bpf", \
>>> +		"restore"
>>>  
>>> -#if CAP_LAST_CAP > CAP_BPF
>>> +#if CAP_LAST_CAP > CAP_RESTORE
>>>  #error New capability defined, please update COMMON_CAP2_PERMS.
>>>  #endif
>>>  
>>>
>>> base-commit: e8f3274774b45b5f4e9e3d5cad7ff9f43ae3add5


  reply index

Thread overview: 25+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-05-22  5:53 Adrian Reber
2020-05-22  7:53 ` Christian Brauner
2020-05-22 18:02   ` Andrei Vagin
2020-05-22 13:41 ` Christian Brauner
2020-05-22 16:40 ` Casey Schaufler
2020-05-23  4:27   ` Andrei Vagin
2020-05-25  2:01     ` Casey Schaufler
2020-05-25  8:05   ` Adrian Reber
2020-05-25 18:55     ` Casey Schaufler [this message]
2020-05-27 13:48       ` Adrian Reber
2020-05-27 15:57         ` Casey Schaufler
2020-05-27 16:37           ` Nicolas Viennot
2020-05-27 16:46             ` Casey Schaufler
2020-05-26 13:59     ` Eric W. Biederman
     [not found]       ` <CALKUemw0UZ67yaDwAomHh0n8QZfjd52QvgEXTJ4R3JSrQjZX9g@mail.gmail.com>
2020-05-26 19:19         ` Casey Schaufler
2020-05-26 19:51         ` Jann Horn
2020-05-27 14:14       ` Adrian Reber
2020-05-27 15:29         ` Christian Brauner
2020-05-27 18:05           ` Nicolas Viennot
2020-05-28  9:48             ` Christian Brauner
2020-06-08  2:09               ` Andrei Vagin
2020-05-25 21:53 ` Jann Horn
2020-05-26  9:09   ` Radostin Stoyanov
2020-06-12  0:17 ` Matt Helsley
2020-06-12 14:39   ` Christian Brauner

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