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From: Beau Belgrave <beaub@linux.microsoft.com>
To: Christian Brauner <brauner@kernel.org>
Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <alexei.starovoitov@gmail.com>,
	Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>,
	Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>,
	LKML <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	linux-trace-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>,
	Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>,
	Andrii Nakryiko <andrii@kernel.org>, bpf <bpf@vger.kernel.org>,
	David Vernet <void@manifault.com>,
	Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>,
	Dave Thaler <dthaler@microsoft.com>,
	Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH] tracing/user_events: Run BPF program if attached
Date: Thu, 1 Jun 2023 09:29:21 -0700	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20230601162921.GA152@W11-BEAU-MD.localdomain> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20230601-legten-festplatten-fe053c6f16a4@brauner>

On Thu, Jun 01, 2023 at 05:57:22PM +0200, Christian Brauner wrote:
> On Thu, Jun 01, 2023 at 08:24:14AM -0700, Beau Belgrave wrote:
> > On Thu, Jun 01, 2023 at 11:46:13AM +0200, Christian Brauner wrote:
> > > On Wed, May 17, 2023 at 05:10:47PM -0700, Alexei Starovoitov wrote:
> > > > On Wed, May 17, 2023 at 9:50 AM Beau Belgrave <beaub@linux.microsoft.com> wrote:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Looks like user events were designed with intention to be unprivileged.
> > > > > > > When I looked at kernel/trace/trace_events_user.c I assumed root.
> > > > > > > I doubt other people reviewed it from security perspective.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Recommending "chmod a+rw /sys/kernel/tracing/user_events_data" doesn't sound like a good idea.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > For example, I think the following is possible:
> > > > > > > fd = open("/sys/kernel/tracing/user_events_data")
> > > > > > > ioclt(fd, DIAG_IOCSDEL)
> > > > > > >   user_events_ioctl_del
> > > > > > >      delete_user_event(info->group, name);
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > 'info' is different for every FD, but info->group is the same for all users/processes/fds,
> > > > > > > because only one global init_group is created.
> > > > > > > So one user can unregister other user event by knowing 'name'.
> > > > > > > A security hole, no?
> > > > 
> > > > ...
> > > > 
> > > > > Regarding deleting events, only users that are given access can delete
> > > > > events. They must know the event name, just like users with access to
> > > > > delete files must know a path (and have access to it). Since the
> > > > > write_index and other details are per-process, unless the user has
> > > > > access to either /sys/kernel/tracing/events/user_events/* or
> > > > > /sys/kernel/tracing/user_events_status, they do not know which names are
> > > > > being used.
> > > > >
> > > > > If that is not enough, we could require CAP_SYSADMIN to be able to
> > > > > delete events even when they have access to the file. Users can also
> > > > > apply SELinux policies per-file to achieve further isolation, if
> > > > > required.
> > > > 
> > > > Whether /sys/kernel/tracing/user_events_status gets g+rw
> > > > or it gets a+rw (as your documentation recommends)
> > > > it is still a security issue.
> > > > The "event name" is trivial to find out by looking at the source code
> > > > of the target process or just "string target_binary".
> > > > Restricting to cap_sysadmin is not the answer, since you want unpriv.
> > > > SElinux is not the answer either.
> > > > Since it's unpriv, different processes should not be able to mess with
> > > > user events of other processes.
> > > > It's a fundamental requirement of any kernel api.
> > > > This has to be fixed before any bpf discussion.
> > > > If it means that you need to redesign user_events do it now and
> > > > excuses like "it's uapi now, so we cannot fix it" are not going to fly.
> > > 
> > > Looking at this a little because I have a few minutes.
> > > What's all this unused code?
> > > 
> > 
> > These are stubs to integrate namespace support. I've been working on a
> > series that adds a tracing namespace support similiar to the IMA
> > namespace work [1]. That series is ending up taking more time than I
> 
> Look, this is all well and nice but you've integrated user events with
> tracefs. This is currently a single-instance global filesystem. So what
> you're effectively implying is that you're namespacing tracefs by
> hanging it off of struct user namespace making it mountable by
> unprivileged users. Or what's the plan?
> 

We don't have plans for unprivileged users currently. I think that is a
great goal and requires a proper tracing namespace, which we currently
don't have. I've done some thinking on this, but I would like to hear
your thoughts and others on how to do this properly. We do talk about
this in the tracefs meetings (those might be out of your time zone
unfortunately).

> That alone is massive work with _wild_ security implications. My
> appetite for exposing more stuff under user namespaces is very low given
> the amount of CVEs we've had over the years.
> 

Ok, I based that approach on the feedback given in LPC 2022 - Containers
and Checkpoint/Retore MC [1]. I believe you gave feedback to use user
namespaces to provide the encapsulation that was required :)

> > anticipated.
> 
> Yet you were confident enough to leave the namespacing stubs for this
> functionality in the code. ;)
> 
> What is the overall goal here? Letting arbitrary unprivileged containers
> define their own custom user event type by mounting tracefs inside
> unprivileged containers? If so, what security story is going to
> guarantee that writing arbitrary tracepoints from random unprivileged
> containers is safe?
> 

Unprivileged containers is not a goal, however, having a per-pod
user_event system name, such as user_event_<pod_name>, would be ideal
for certain diagnostic scenarios, such as monitoring the entire pod.

When you have a lot of containers, you also want to limit how many
tracepoints each container can create, even if they are given access to
the tracefs file. The per-group can limit how many events/tracepoints
that container can go create, since we currently only have 16-bit
identifiers for trace_event's we need to be cautious we don't run out.

user_events in general has tracepoint validators to ensure the payloads
coming in are "safe" from what the kernel might do with them, such as
filtering out data.

> > 
> > > static inline struct user_event_group
> > > *user_event_group_from_user_ns(struct user_namespace *user_ns)
> > > {
> > >         if (user_ns == &init_user_ns)
> > >                 return init_group;
> > > 
> > >         return NULL;
> > > }
> > > 
> > > static struct user_event_group *current_user_event_group(void)
> > > {
> > >         struct user_namespace *user_ns = current_user_ns();
> > >         struct user_event_group *group = NULL;
> > > 
> > >         while (user_ns) {
> > >                 group = user_event_group_from_user_ns(user_ns);
> > > 
> > >                 if (group)
> > >                         break;
> > > 
> > >                 user_ns = user_ns->parent;
> > >         }
> > > 
> > >         return group;
> > > }
> > > 
> > > User namespaces form strict hierarchies so you always end up at
> > > init_user_ns no matter where you start from in the hierarchy. Return the
> > > init_group and delete that code above.
> > > 
> > 
> > This is a good point, I'll delete this code and bring it back as part of
> > the namespace support patch series when appropriate.
> > 
> > > static char *user_event_group_system_name(struct user_namespace *user_ns)
> > > {
> > >         char *system_name;
> > >         int len = sizeof(USER_EVENTS_SYSTEM) + 1;
> > > 
> > >         if (user_ns != &init_user_ns) {
> > >                 /*
> > >                  * Unexpected at this point:
> > >                  * We only currently support init_user_ns.
> > >                  * When we enable more, this will trigger a failure so log.
> > >                  */
> > >                 pr_warn("user_events: Namespace other than init_user_ns!\n");
> > >                 return NULL;
> > >         }
> > > 
> > > Your delegation model is premised on file permissions of a single file
> > > in global tracefs. It won't work with user namespaces so let's not give
> > > the false impression that this is on the table.
> > > 
> > 
> > Users that are given access to the single file still should be able to
> > be isolated for each other. The series I'm working on does this by
> 
> How? You currently have a single file that will have to be shared across
> all unprivileged containers which ultimately can only mean that you need
> to either bind-mount tracefs or bind-mount the single file into each
> container. If you have 1000 containers each with isolated idmaps from
> each other you're going to have a lot of fun trying to ensure that each
> container has access rights to that file.
> 

I followed the patch I already stated, there would be a new tracefs file
that only admins have access to. Admins can then create groups, assign
limits, then finally attach them user namespaces once they have been
configured.

I'm sure there are other approaches, see [1] where another approach was
proposed by Mathieu, but then feedback in the crowd was to use user
namespaces instead.

> > changing the system name of user_events on a per-namespace basis.
> 
> What is the "system name" and how does it protect against namespaces
> messing with each other?

trace_events in the tracing facility require both a system name and an
event name. IE: sched/sched_waking, sched is the system name,
sched_waking is the event name. For user_events in the root group, the
system name is "user_events". When groups are introduced, the system
name can be "user_events_<GUID>" for example.

The user_events ABI never lets anyone dictate the system name to allow
for this isolation. IE: user_events/myevent vs
user_events<GUID>/myevent are entirely different trace_events on the
system. This is called out as a note in the user_events documentation
today that the system name can and will change to allow for isolation in
the future.

Thanks,
-Beau

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zai3gvpuEHc&t=4403s

  reply	other threads:[~2023-06-01 16:29 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 52+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2023-05-08 16:37 [PATCH] tracing/user_events: Run BPF program if attached Beau Belgrave
2023-05-09 15:24 ` Alexei Starovoitov
2023-05-09 17:01   ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-09 20:30     ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-09 20:42       ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-15 16:57       ` Alexei Starovoitov
2023-05-15 18:33         ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-15 19:35           ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-15 21:38             ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-15 19:24         ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-15 21:57           ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-17  0:36           ` Alexei Starovoitov
2023-05-17  0:56             ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17  1:46               ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17  2:29                 ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-17  3:03                   ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17 17:22                     ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-17 18:15                       ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17 19:07                         ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-17 19:26                           ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17 19:36                             ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-17 19:36                             ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17 19:37                               ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17 23:00                                 ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-17 23:14                                   ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17 23:25                                     ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-18  0:14                                       ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-18  0:23                                         ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17 20:08                               ` Linus Torvalds
2023-05-17  1:26             ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-17 16:50               ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-18  0:10                 ` Alexei Starovoitov
2023-05-18  0:19                   ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-18  0:56                     ` Alexei Starovoitov
2023-05-18  1:18                       ` Beau Belgrave
2023-05-18  2:08                         ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-18  3:14                           ` Alexei Starovoitov
2023-05-18 13:36                             ` Steven Rostedt
2023-05-18 17:28                               ` Beau Belgrave
2023-06-01  9:46                   ` Christian Brauner
2023-06-01 15:24                     ` Beau Belgrave
2023-06-01 15:57                       ` Christian Brauner
2023-06-01 16:29                         ` Beau Belgrave [this message]
2023-06-06 13:37                           ` Masami Hiramatsu
2023-06-06 17:05                             ` Beau Belgrave
2023-06-07 14:07                               ` Masami Hiramatsu
2023-06-07 19:26                                 ` Beau Belgrave
2023-06-08  0:25                                   ` Masami Hiramatsu
2023-05-17 17:51             ` Beau Belgrave
2023-06-06 13:57             ` Masami Hiramatsu
2023-06-06 16:57               ` Andrii Nakryiko
2023-06-06 20:57                 ` Beau Belgrave

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