Linux-USB Archive on lore.kernel.org
 help / color / Atom feed
* [PATCH v2] usb: core: Solve race condition in anchor cleanup functions
@ 2020-07-29 10:31 eli.billauer
  2020-07-29 13:38 ` Alan Stern
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 4+ messages in thread
From: eli.billauer @ 2020-07-29 10:31 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: gregkh, linux-usb; +Cc: hdegoede, oneukum, stern, Eli Billauer

From: Eli Billauer <eli.billauer@gmail.com>

usb_kill_anchored_urbs() is commonly used to cancel all URBs on an
anchor just before releasing resources which the URBs rely on. By doing
so, users of this function rely on that no completer callbacks will take
place from any URB on the anchor after it returns.

However if this function is called in parallel with __usb_hcd_giveback_urb
processing a URB on the anchor, the latter may call the completer
callback after usb_kill_anchored_urbs() returns. This can lead to a
kernel panic due to use after release of memory in interrupt context.

The race condition is that __usb_hcd_giveback_urb() first unanchors the URB
and then makes the completer callback. Such URB is hence invisible to
usb_kill_anchored_urbs(), allowing it to return before the completer has
been called, since the anchor's urb_list is empty.

Even worse, if the racing completer callback resubmits the URB, it may
remain in the system long after usb_kill_anchored_urbs() returns.

Hence list_empty(&anchor->urb_list), which is used in the existing
while-loop, doesn't reliably ensure that all URBs of the anchor are gone.

A similar problem exists with usb_poison_anchored_urbs() and
usb_scuttle_anchored_urbs().

This patch adds an external do-while loop, which ensures that all URBs
are indeed handled before these three functions return. This change has
no effect at all unless the race condition occurs, in which case the
loop will busy-wait until the racing completer callback has finished.
This is a rare condition, so the CPU waste of this spinning is
negligible.

The additional do-while loop relies on the new usb_anchor_safe_empty()
function, which is like usb_anchor_check_wakeup(), only the former takes
the anchor's lock before checking. Both functions return true iff the
anchor list is empty, and there is no __usb_hcd_giveback_urb() in the
system that is in the middle of the unanchor-before-complete phase.
The @suspend_wakeups member of struct usb_anchor is used for this purpose,
which was introduced to solve another problem which the same race
condition causes, in commit 6ec4147e7bdb ("usb-anchor: Delay
usb_wait_anchor_empty_timeout wake up till completion is done").

To summarize, using usb_anchor_safe_empty() means that the patched
functions can return only when the anchor's list is empty, and there is
no invisible URB being processed. Since the inner while loop finishes on
the empty list condition, the new do-while loop will terminate as well,
except for when the said race condition occurs.

Signed-off-by: Eli Billauer <eli.billauer@gmail.com>
---
 drivers/usb/core/urb.c | 90 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
 1 file changed, 55 insertions(+), 35 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/usb/core/urb.c b/drivers/usb/core/urb.c
index da923ec17612..44db8b8fabc9 100644
--- a/drivers/usb/core/urb.c
+++ b/drivers/usb/core/urb.c
@@ -145,6 +145,19 @@ static int usb_anchor_check_wakeup(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
 		list_empty(&anchor->urb_list);
 }
 
+static int usb_anchor_safe_empty(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
+{
+	unsigned long flags;
+	int ret;
+
+	spin_lock_irqsave(&anchor->lock, flags);
+	ret = atomic_read(&anchor->suspend_wakeups) == 0 &&
+		list_empty(&anchor->urb_list);
+	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&anchor->lock, flags);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
 /* Callers must hold anchor->lock */
 static void __usb_unanchor_urb(struct urb *urb, struct usb_anchor *anchor)
 {
@@ -772,11 +785,12 @@ void usb_block_urb(struct urb *urb)
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(usb_block_urb);
 
 /**
- * usb_kill_anchored_urbs - cancel transfer requests en masse
+ * usb_kill_anchored_urbs - kill all URBs associated with an anchor
  * @anchor: anchor the requests are bound to
  *
- * this allows all outstanding URBs to be killed starting
- * from the back of the queue
+ * This kills all outstanding URBs starting from the back of the queue,
+ * with guarantee that no completer callbacks will take place from the
+ * anchor after this function returns.
  *
  * This routine should not be called by a driver after its disconnect
  * method has returned.
@@ -785,19 +799,21 @@ void usb_kill_anchored_urbs(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
 {
 	struct urb *victim;
 
-	spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
-	while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
-		victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev, struct urb,
-				    anchor_list);
-		/* we must make sure the URB isn't freed before we kill it*/
-		usb_get_urb(victim);
-		spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
-		/* this will unanchor the URB */
-		usb_kill_urb(victim);
-		usb_put_urb(victim);
+	do {
 		spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
-	}
-	spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+		while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
+			victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev,
+					    struct urb, anchor_list);
+			/* make sure the URB isn't freed before we kill it */
+			usb_get_urb(victim);
+			spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+			/* this will unanchor the URB */
+			usb_kill_urb(victim);
+			usb_put_urb(victim);
+			spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+		}
+		spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+	} while (unlikely(!usb_anchor_safe_empty(anchor)));
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(usb_kill_anchored_urbs);
 
@@ -817,20 +833,22 @@ void usb_poison_anchored_urbs(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
 {
 	struct urb *victim;
 
-	spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
-	anchor->poisoned = 1;
-	while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
-		victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev, struct urb,
-				    anchor_list);
-		/* we must make sure the URB isn't freed before we kill it*/
-		usb_get_urb(victim);
-		spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
-		/* this will unanchor the URB */
-		usb_poison_urb(victim);
-		usb_put_urb(victim);
+	do {
 		spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
-	}
-	spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+		anchor->poisoned = 1;
+		while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
+			victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev,
+					    struct urb, anchor_list);
+			/* make sure the URB isn't freed before we kill it */
+			usb_get_urb(victim);
+			spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+			/* this will unanchor the URB */
+			usb_poison_urb(victim);
+			usb_put_urb(victim);
+			spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+		}
+		spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
+	} while (unlikely(!usb_anchor_safe_empty(anchor)));
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(usb_poison_anchored_urbs);
 
@@ -971,13 +989,15 @@ void usb_scuttle_anchored_urbs(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
 	struct urb *victim;
 	unsigned long flags;
 
-	spin_lock_irqsave(&anchor->lock, flags);
-	while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
-		victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev, struct urb,
-				    anchor_list);
-		__usb_unanchor_urb(victim, anchor);
-	}
-	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&anchor->lock, flags);
+	do {
+		spin_lock_irqsave(&anchor->lock, flags);
+		while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
+			victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev,
+					    struct urb, anchor_list);
+			__usb_unanchor_urb(victim, anchor);
+		}
+		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&anchor->lock, flags);
+	} while (unlikely(!usb_anchor_safe_empty(anchor)));
 }
 
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(usb_scuttle_anchored_urbs);
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 4+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2] usb: core: Solve race condition in anchor cleanup functions
  2020-07-29 10:31 [PATCH v2] usb: core: Solve race condition in anchor cleanup functions eli.billauer
@ 2020-07-29 13:38 ` Alan Stern
  2020-07-29 15:08   ` Eli Billauer
  2020-07-30  7:28   ` Oliver Neukum
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 4+ messages in thread
From: Alan Stern @ 2020-07-29 13:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: eli.billauer; +Cc: gregkh, linux-usb, hdegoede, oneukum

On Wed, Jul 29, 2020 at 01:31:39PM +0300, eli.billauer@gmail.com wrote:
> From: Eli Billauer <eli.billauer@gmail.com>
> 
> usb_kill_anchored_urbs() is commonly used to cancel all URBs on an
> anchor just before releasing resources which the URBs rely on. By doing
> so, users of this function rely on that no completer callbacks will take
> place from any URB on the anchor after it returns.
> 
> However if this function is called in parallel with __usb_hcd_giveback_urb
> processing a URB on the anchor, the latter may call the completer
> callback after usb_kill_anchored_urbs() returns. This can lead to a
> kernel panic due to use after release of memory in interrupt context.
> 
> The race condition is that __usb_hcd_giveback_urb() first unanchors the URB
> and then makes the completer callback. Such URB is hence invisible to
> usb_kill_anchored_urbs(), allowing it to return before the completer has
> been called, since the anchor's urb_list is empty.
> 
> Even worse, if the racing completer callback resubmits the URB, it may
> remain in the system long after usb_kill_anchored_urbs() returns.
> 
> Hence list_empty(&anchor->urb_list), which is used in the existing
> while-loop, doesn't reliably ensure that all URBs of the anchor are gone.
> 
> A similar problem exists with usb_poison_anchored_urbs() and
> usb_scuttle_anchored_urbs().
> 
> This patch adds an external do-while loop, which ensures that all URBs
> are indeed handled before these three functions return. This change has
> no effect at all unless the race condition occurs, in which case the
> loop will busy-wait until the racing completer callback has finished.
> This is a rare condition, so the CPU waste of this spinning is
> negligible.
> 
> The additional do-while loop relies on the new usb_anchor_safe_empty()
> function, which is like usb_anchor_check_wakeup(), only the former takes
> the anchor's lock before checking. Both functions return true iff the
> anchor list is empty, and there is no __usb_hcd_giveback_urb() in the
> system that is in the middle of the unanchor-before-complete phase.
> The @suspend_wakeups member of struct usb_anchor is used for this purpose,
> which was introduced to solve another problem which the same race
> condition causes, in commit 6ec4147e7bdb ("usb-anchor: Delay
> usb_wait_anchor_empty_timeout wake up till completion is done").
> 
> To summarize, using usb_anchor_safe_empty() means that the patched
> functions can return only when the anchor's list is empty, and there is
> no invisible URB being processed. Since the inner while loop finishes on
> the empty list condition, the new do-while loop will terminate as well,
> except for when the said race condition occurs.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Eli Billauer <eli.billauer@gmail.com>
> ---
>  drivers/usb/core/urb.c | 90 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
>  1 file changed, 55 insertions(+), 35 deletions(-)

With a small amount of restructuring you can eliminate three unlock-lock 
pairs and avoid the need for usb_anchor_safe_empty():

> diff --git a/drivers/usb/core/urb.c b/drivers/usb/core/urb.c
> index da923ec17612..44db8b8fabc9 100644
> --- a/drivers/usb/core/urb.c
> +++ b/drivers/usb/core/urb.c
> @@ -145,6 +145,19 @@ static int usb_anchor_check_wakeup(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
>  		list_empty(&anchor->urb_list);
>  }
>  
> +static int usb_anchor_safe_empty(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
> +{
> +	unsigned long flags;
> +	int ret;
> +
> +	spin_lock_irqsave(&anchor->lock, flags);
> +	ret = atomic_read(&anchor->suspend_wakeups) == 0 &&
> +		list_empty(&anchor->urb_list);
> +	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&anchor->lock, flags);
> +
> +	return ret;
> +}
> +
>  /* Callers must hold anchor->lock */
>  static void __usb_unanchor_urb(struct urb *urb, struct usb_anchor *anchor)
>  {
> @@ -772,11 +785,12 @@ void usb_block_urb(struct urb *urb)
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(usb_block_urb);
>  
>  /**
> - * usb_kill_anchored_urbs - cancel transfer requests en masse
> + * usb_kill_anchored_urbs - kill all URBs associated with an anchor
>   * @anchor: anchor the requests are bound to
>   *
> - * this allows all outstanding URBs to be killed starting
> - * from the back of the queue
> + * This kills all outstanding URBs starting from the back of the queue,
> + * with guarantee that no completer callbacks will take place from the
> + * anchor after this function returns.
>   *
>   * This routine should not be called by a driver after its disconnect
>   * method has returned.
> @@ -785,19 +799,21 @@ void usb_kill_anchored_urbs(struct usb_anchor *anchor)
>  {
>  	struct urb *victim;
>  
> -	spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> -	while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
> -		victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev, struct urb,
> -				    anchor_list);
> -		/* we must make sure the URB isn't freed before we kill it*/
> -		usb_get_urb(victim);
> -		spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> -		/* this will unanchor the URB */
> -		usb_kill_urb(victim);
> -		usb_put_urb(victim);
> +	do {
>  		spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);

All you have to do is move this spin_lock_irq() above the start of the 
outer loop...

> -	}
> -	spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> +		while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
> +			victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev,
> +					    struct urb, anchor_list);
> +			/* make sure the URB isn't freed before we kill it */
> +			usb_get_urb(victim);
> +			spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> +			/* this will unanchor the URB */
> +			usb_kill_urb(victim);
> +			usb_put_urb(victim);
> +			spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> +		}
> +		spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);

... and move this spin_unlock_irq() below the end of the outer loop.
Likewise for the two other routines.

> +	} while (unlikely(!usb_anchor_safe_empty(anchor)));

likely() and unlikely() are frowned upon unless you can provide actual 
measurements showing that they make a significant difference.  In this 
case they don't matter, since the bottleneck is the usb_kill_urb() call.

Alan Stern

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 4+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2] usb: core: Solve race condition in anchor cleanup functions
  2020-07-29 13:38 ` Alan Stern
@ 2020-07-29 15:08   ` Eli Billauer
  2020-07-30  7:28   ` Oliver Neukum
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 4+ messages in thread
From: Eli Billauer @ 2020-07-29 15:08 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Alan Stern; +Cc: gregkh, linux-usb, hdegoede, oneukum

On 29/07/20 16:38, Alan Stern wrote:
> With a small amount of restructuring you can eliminate three unlock-lock
> pairs and avoid the need for usb_anchor_safe_empty():
> [ ... ]
> All you have to do is move this spin_lock_irq() above the start of the
> outer loop...
> [ ... ]
> .. and move this spin_unlock_irq() below the end of the outer loop.
> Likewise for the two other routines.
>
>    
I'm afraid that might not work. The whole purpose of the outer loop is 
to kick in when urb_list is empty, but there's this unanchor-completer 
race going on. So the inner loop will be skipped, because 
list_empty(&anchor->urb_list) will evaluate true. As a result, the 
spinlock will be held as the loop spins, until the completer has finished.

But if the completer tries to take the same lock, we're deadlocked. For 
example, if it resubmits the URB, which is pretty much the point of this 
extra while loop.

This is also the reason why I didn't just modify the original 
while-loop's condition, so it would go on spinning as long the race 
condition is in effect. It mustn't spin with the lock held.
>> >  +	} while (unlikely(!usb_anchor_safe_empty(anchor)));
>>      
> likely() and unlikely() are frowned upon unless you can provide actual
> measurements showing that they make a significant difference.  In this
> case they don't matter, since the bottleneck is the usb_kill_urb() call.
>    
The irony is that I added this "unlikely" for the human reader, and not 
for the compiler: I wanted to communicate that the outer loop is 
unlikely to kick in. I'll keep that in mind for v3 of this patch.

Thanks,
    Eli


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 4+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2] usb: core: Solve race condition in anchor cleanup functions
  2020-07-29 13:38 ` Alan Stern
  2020-07-29 15:08   ` Eli Billauer
@ 2020-07-30  7:28   ` Oliver Neukum
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 4+ messages in thread
From: Oliver Neukum @ 2020-07-30  7:28 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Alan Stern, eli.billauer; +Cc: gregkh, linux-usb, hdegoede

Am Mittwoch, den 29.07.2020, 09:38 -0400 schrieb Alan Stern:
 
> > -     spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> > -     while (!list_empty(&anchor->urb_list)) {
> > -             victim = list_entry(anchor->urb_list.prev, struct urb,
> > -                                 anchor_list);
> > -             /* we must make sure the URB isn't freed before we kill it*/
> > -             usb_get_urb(victim);
> > -             spin_unlock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> > -             /* this will unanchor the URB */
> > -             usb_kill_urb(victim);
> > -             usb_put_urb(victim);
> > +     do {
> >                spin_lock_irq(&anchor->lock);
> 
> All you have to do is move this spin_lock_irq() above the start of the 
> outer loop...

usb_kill_urb() is unfortunately an operation that can sleep.

	Regards
		Oliver


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 4+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 4+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-07-29 10:31 [PATCH v2] usb: core: Solve race condition in anchor cleanup functions eli.billauer
2020-07-29 13:38 ` Alan Stern
2020-07-29 15:08   ` Eli Billauer
2020-07-30  7:28   ` Oliver Neukum

Linux-USB Archive on lore.kernel.org

Archives are clonable:
	git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/linux-usb/0 linux-usb/git/0.git

	# If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may
	# initialize and index your mirror using the following commands:
	public-inbox-init -V2 linux-usb linux-usb/ https://lore.kernel.org/linux-usb \
		linux-usb@vger.kernel.org
	public-inbox-index linux-usb

Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.linux-usb


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git