From: "Madhavan T. Venkataraman" <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: Mark Rutland <email@example.com> Cc: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH v1 1/1] arm64: Implement stack trace termination record Date: Mon, 29 Mar 2021 11:46:08 -0500 [thread overview] Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> (raw) In-Reply-To: <20210329112724.GA93057@C02TD0UTHF1T.local> On 3/29/21 6:27 AM, Mark Rutland wrote: > Hi Madhavan, > > Overall this looks pretty good; I have a few comments below. > > On Wed, Mar 24, 2021 at 01:46:07PM -0500, email@example.com wrote: >> From: "Madhavan T. Venkataraman" <firstname.lastname@example.org> >> >> The unwinder needs to be able to reliably tell when it has reached the end >> of a stack trace. One way to do this is to have the last stack frame at a >> fixed offset from the base of the task stack. When the unwinder reaches >> that offset, it knows it is done. > > To make the relationship with reliable stacktrace clearer, how about: > > | Reliable stacktracing requires that we identify when a stacktrace is > | terminated early. We can do this by ensuring all tasks have a final > | frame record at a known location on their task stack, and checking > | that this is the final frame record in the chain. > > Currently we use inconsistent terminology to refer to the final frame > record, and it would be good if we could be consistent. The existing > code uses "terminal record" (which I appreciate isn't clear), and this > series largely uses "last frame". It'd be nice to make that consistent. > > For clarity could we please use "final" rather than "last"? That avoids > the ambiguity of "last" also meaning "previous". > > e.g. below this'd mean having `setup_final_frame`. OK. I will make the above changes. > >> >> Kernel Tasks >> ============ >> >> All tasks except the idle task have a pt_regs structure right after the >> task stack. This is called the task pt_regs. The pt_regs structure has a >> special stackframe field. Make this stackframe field the last frame in the >> task stack. This needs to be done in copy_thread() which initializes a new >> task's pt_regs and initial CPU context. >> >> For the idle task, there is no task pt_regs. For our purpose, we need one. >> So, create a pt_regs just like other kernel tasks and make >> pt_regs->stackframe the last frame in the idle task stack. This needs to be >> done at two places: >> >> - On the primary CPU, the boot task runs. It calls start_kernel() >> and eventually becomes the idle task for the primary CPU. Just >> before start_kernel() is called, set up the last frame. >> >> - On each secondary CPU, a startup task runs that calls >> secondary_startup_kernel() and eventually becomes the idle task >> on the secondary CPU. Just before secondary_start_kernel() is >> called, set up the last frame. >> >> User Tasks >> ========== >> >> User tasks are initially set up like kernel tasks when they are created. >> Then, they return to userland after fork via ret_from_fork(). After that, >> they enter the kernel only on an EL0 exception. (In arm64, system calls are >> also EL0 exceptions). The EL0 exception handler stores state in the task >> pt_regs and calls different functions based on the type of exception. The >> stack trace for an EL0 exception must end at the task pt_regs. So, make >> task pt_regs->stackframe as the last frame in the EL0 exception stack. >> >> In summary, task pt_regs->stackframe is where a successful stack trace ends. >> >> Stack trace termination >> ======================= >> >> In the unwinder, terminate the stack trace successfully when >> task_pt_regs(task)->stackframe is reached. For stack traces in the kernel, >> this will correctly terminate the stack trace at the right place. >> >> However, debuggers terminate the stack trace when FP == 0. In the >> pt_regs->stackframe, the PC is 0 as well. So, stack traces taken in the >> debugger may print an extra record 0x0 at the end. While this is not >> pretty, this does not do any harm. This is a small price to pay for >> having reliable stack trace termination in the kernel. >> >> Signed-off-by: Madhavan T. Venkataraman <email@example.com> >> --- >> arch/arm64/kernel/entry.S | 8 +++++--- >> arch/arm64/kernel/head.S | 28 ++++++++++++++++++++++++---- >> arch/arm64/kernel/process.c | 5 +++++ >> arch/arm64/kernel/stacktrace.c | 8 ++++---- >> 4 files changed, 38 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-) >> >> diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/entry.S b/arch/arm64/kernel/entry.S >> index a31a0a713c85..e2dc2e998934 100644 >> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/entry.S >> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/entry.S >> @@ -261,16 +261,18 @@ alternative_else_nop_endif >> stp lr, x21, [sp, #S_LR] >> >> /* >> - * For exceptions from EL0, terminate the callchain here. >> + * For exceptions from EL0, terminate the callchain here at >> + * task_pt_regs(current)->stackframe. >> + * >> * For exceptions from EL1, create a synthetic frame record so the >> * interrupted code shows up in the backtrace. >> */ >> .if \el == 0 >> - mov x29, xzr >> + stp xzr, xzr, [sp, #S_STACKFRAME] >> .else >> stp x29, x22, [sp, #S_STACKFRAME] >> - add x29, sp, #S_STACKFRAME >> .endif >> + add x29, sp, #S_STACKFRAME >> >> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_SW_TTBR0_PAN >> alternative_if_not ARM64_HAS_PAN >> diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S b/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S >> index 840bda1869e9..b8003fb9cfa5 100644 >> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S >> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/head.S >> @@ -393,6 +393,28 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_LOCAL(__create_page_tables) >> ret x28 >> SYM_FUNC_END(__create_page_tables) >> >> + /* >> + * The boot task becomes the idle task for the primary CPU. The >> + * CPU startup task on each secondary CPU becomes the idle task >> + * for the secondary CPU. >> + * >> + * The idle task does not require pt_regs. But create a dummy >> + * pt_regs so that task_pt_regs(idle_task)->stackframe can be >> + * set up to be the last frame on the idle task stack just like >> + * all the other kernel tasks. This helps the unwinder to >> + * terminate the stack trace at a well-known stack offset. >> + * >> + * Also, set up the last return PC to be ret_from_fork() just >> + * like all the other kernel tasks so that the stack trace of >> + * all kernel tasks ends with the same function. >> + */ >> + .macro setup_last_frame >> + sub sp, sp, #PT_REGS_SIZE >> + stp xzr, xzr, [sp, #S_STACKFRAME] >> + add x29, sp, #S_STACKFRAME >> + ldr x30, =ret_from_fork >> + .endm > > Why do you need to put `ret_from_fork` into the chain here? > > I'm not keen on adding synthetic entries to the trace; is there a > problem if we don't override x30 here? > When someone looks at different stack traces, it might be helpful to know that all kernel thread stack traces end in ret_from_fork(). That said, I have no problem with x30 reflecting the actual caller. Thanks, Madhavan
prev parent reply other threads:[~2021-03-29 16:46 UTC|newest] Thread overview: 4+ messages / expand[flat|nested] mbox.gz Atom feed top [not found] <b6144b5b1dc66bf775fe66374bba31af7e5f1d54> 2021-03-24 18:46 ` [RFC PATCH v1 0/1] " madvenka 2021-03-24 18:46 ` [RFC PATCH v1 1/1] " madvenka 2021-03-29 11:27 ` Mark Rutland 2021-03-29 16:46 ` Madhavan T. Venkataraman [this message]
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