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* [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering
@ 2018-04-29 10:44 Christian Brauner
  2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 1/2 v5] uevent: add alloc_uevent_skb() helper Christian Brauner
                   ` (2 more replies)
  0 siblings, 3 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Christian Brauner @ 2018-04-29 10:44 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: ebiederm, davem, netdev, linux-kernel
  Cc: avagin, ktkhai, serge, gregkh, Christian Brauner

Hey everyone,

This is the new approach to uevent filtering as discussed (see the
threads in [1], [2], and [3]). It only contains *non-functional
changes*.

This series deals with with fixing up uevent filtering logic:
- uevent filtering logic is simplified
- locking time on uevent_sock_list is minimized
- tagged and untagged kobjects are handled in separate codepaths
- permissions for userspace are fixed for network device uevents in
  network namespaces owned by non-initial user namespaces
  Udev is now able to see those events correctly which it wasn't before.
  For example, moving a physical device into a network namespace not
  owned by the initial user namespaces before gave:

  root@xen1:~# udevadm --debug monitor -k
  calling: monitor
  monitor will print the received events for:
  KERNEL - the kernel uevent

  sender uid=65534, message ignored
  sender uid=65534, message ignored
  sender uid=65534, message ignored
  sender uid=65534, message ignored
  sender uid=65534, message ignored

  and now after the discussion and solution in [3] correctly gives:

  root@xen1:~# udevadm --debug monitor -k
  calling: monitor
  monitor will print the received events for:
  KERNEL - the kernel uevent

  KERNEL[625.301042] add      /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/enp1s0f1 (net)
  KERNEL[625.301109] move     /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/enp1s0f1 (net)
  KERNEL[625.301138] move     /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/eth1 (net)
  KERNEL[655.333272] remove /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/eth1 (net)

Thanks!
Christian

[1]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/4/739
[2]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/26/767
[3]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/26/738

Christian Brauner (2):
  uevent: add alloc_uevent_skb() helper
  netns: restrict uevents

 lib/kobject_uevent.c | 178 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
 1 file changed, 126 insertions(+), 52 deletions(-)

-- 
2.17.0

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* [PATCH net-next 1/2 v5] uevent: add alloc_uevent_skb() helper
  2018-04-29 10:44 [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering Christian Brauner
@ 2018-04-29 10:44 ` Christian Brauner
  2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents Christian Brauner
  2018-04-30 15:55 ` [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering ebiederm
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Christian Brauner @ 2018-04-29 10:44 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: ebiederm, davem, netdev, linux-kernel
  Cc: avagin, ktkhai, serge, gregkh, Christian Brauner

This patch adds alloc_uevent_skb() in preparation for follow up patches.

Signed-off-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
---
v4->v5:
* patch unchanged
v3->v4:
* non-functional changes:
  initialize some variables again explicitly to make it obvious to
  readers that they are correctly set
v2->v3:
* new approach: patch added
v1->v2:
* different approach in different patchset
v0->v1:
* different approach in different patchset
---
 lib/kobject_uevent.c | 47 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
 1 file changed, 34 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)

diff --git a/lib/kobject_uevent.c b/lib/kobject_uevent.c
index 15ea216a67ce..649bf60a9440 100644
--- a/lib/kobject_uevent.c
+++ b/lib/kobject_uevent.c
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@
 #include <linux/socket.h>
 #include <linux/skbuff.h>
 #include <linux/netlink.h>
+#include <linux/uidgid.h>
 #include <linux/uuid.h>
 #include <linux/ctype.h>
 #include <net/sock.h>
@@ -296,6 +297,38 @@ static void cleanup_uevent_env(struct subprocess_info *info)
 }
 #endif
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_NET
+static struct sk_buff *alloc_uevent_skb(struct kobj_uevent_env *env,
+					const char *action_string,
+					const char *devpath)
+{
+	struct netlink_skb_parms *parms;
+	struct sk_buff *skb = NULL;
+	char *scratch;
+	size_t len;
+
+	/* allocate message with maximum possible size */
+	len = strlen(action_string) + strlen(devpath) + 2;
+	skb = alloc_skb(len + env->buflen, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!skb)
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* add header */
+	scratch = skb_put(skb, len);
+	sprintf(scratch, "%s@%s", action_string, devpath);
+
+	skb_put_data(skb, env->buf, env->buflen);
+
+	parms = &NETLINK_CB(skb);
+	parms->creds.uid = GLOBAL_ROOT_UID;
+	parms->creds.gid = GLOBAL_ROOT_GID;
+	parms->dst_group = 1;
+	parms->portid = 0;
+
+	return skb;
+}
+#endif
+
 static int kobject_uevent_net_broadcast(struct kobject *kobj,
 					struct kobj_uevent_env *env,
 					const char *action_string,
@@ -314,22 +347,10 @@ static int kobject_uevent_net_broadcast(struct kobject *kobj,
 			continue;
 
 		if (!skb) {
-			/* allocate message with the maximum possible size */
-			size_t len = strlen(action_string) + strlen(devpath) + 2;
-			char *scratch;
-
 			retval = -ENOMEM;
-			skb = alloc_skb(len + env->buflen, GFP_KERNEL);
+			skb = alloc_uevent_skb(env, action_string, devpath);
 			if (!skb)
 				continue;
-
-			/* add header */
-			scratch = skb_put(skb, len);
-			sprintf(scratch, "%s@%s", action_string, devpath);
-
-			skb_put_data(skb, env->buf, env->buflen);
-
-			NETLINK_CB(skb).dst_group = 1;
 		}
 
 		retval = netlink_broadcast_filtered(uevent_sock, skb_get(skb),
-- 
2.17.0

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents
  2018-04-29 10:44 [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering Christian Brauner
  2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 1/2 v5] uevent: add alloc_uevent_skb() helper Christian Brauner
@ 2018-04-29 10:44 ` Christian Brauner
  2019-06-14 22:49   ` Dmitry Torokhov
  2018-04-30 15:55 ` [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering ebiederm
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Christian Brauner @ 2018-04-29 10:44 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: ebiederm, davem, netdev, linux-kernel
  Cc: avagin, ktkhai, serge, gregkh, Christian Brauner

commit 07e98962fa77 ("kobject: Send hotplug events in all network namespaces")

enabled sending hotplug events into all network namespaces back in 2010.
Over time the set of uevents that get sent into all network namespaces has
shrunk. We have now reached the point where hotplug events for all devices
that carry a namespace tag are filtered according to that namespace.
Specifically, they are filtered whenever the namespace tag of the kobject
does not match the namespace tag of the netlink socket.
Currently, only network devices carry namespace tags (i.e. network
namespace tags). Hence, uevents for network devices only show up in the
network namespace such devices are created in or moved to.

However, any uevent for a kobject that does not have a namespace tag
associated with it will not be filtered and we will broadcast it into all
network namespaces. This behavior stopped making sense when user namespaces
were introduced.

This patch simplifies and fixes couple of things:
- Split codepath for sending uevents by kobject namespace tags:
  1. Untagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_untagged():
     Untagged kobjects will be broadcast into all uevent sockets recorded
     in uevent_sock_list, i.e. into all network namespacs owned by the
     intial user namespace.
  2. Tagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_tagged():
     Tagged kobjects will only be broadcast into the network namespace they
     were tagged with.
  Handling of tagged kobjects in 2. does not cause any semantic changes.
  This is just splitting out the filtering logic that was handled by
  kobj_bcast_filter() before.
  Handling of untagged kobjects in 1. will cause a semantic change. The
  reasons why this is needed and ok have been discussed in [1]. Here is a
  short summary:
  - Userspace ignores uevents from network namespaces that are not owned by
    the intial user namespace:
    Uevents are filtered by userspace in a user namespace because the
    received uid != 0. Instead the uid associated with the event will be
    65534 == "nobody" because the global root uid is not mapped.
    This means we can safely and without introducing regressions modify the
    kernel to not send uevents into all network namespaces whose owning
    user namespace is not the initial user namespace because we know that
    userspace will ignore the message because of the uid anyway.
    I have a) verified that is is true for every udev implementation out
    there b) that this behavior has been present in all udev
    implementations from the very beginning.
  - Thundering herd:
    Broadcasting uevents into all network namespaces introduces significant
    overhead.
    All processes that listen to uevents running in non-initial user
    namespaces will end up responding to uevents that will be meaningless
    to them. Mainly, because non-initial user namespaces cannot easily
    manage devices unless they have a privileged host-process helping them
    out. This means that there will be a thundering herd of activity when
    there shouldn't be any.
  - Removing needless overhead/Increasing performance:
    Currently, the uevent socket for each network namespace is added to the
    global variable uevent_sock_list. The list itself needs to be protected
    by a mutex. So everytime a uevent is generated the mutex is taken on
    the list. The mutex is held *from the creation of the uevent (memory
    allocation, string creation etc. until all uevent sockets have been
    handled*. This is aggravated by the fact that for each uevent socket
    that has listeners the mc_list must be walked as well which means we're
    talking O(n^2) here. Given that a standard Linux workload usually has
    quite a lot of network namespaces and - in the face of containers - a
    lot of user namespaces this quickly becomes a performance problem (see
    "Thundering herd" above). By just recording uevent sockets of network
    namespaces that are owned by the initial user namespace we
    significantly increase performance in this codepath.
  - Injecting uevents:
    There's a valid argument that containers might be interested in
    receiving device events especially if they are delegated to them by a
    privileged userspace process. One prime example are SR-IOV enabled
    devices that are explicitly designed to be handed of to other users
    such as VMs or containers.
    This use-case can now be correctly handled since
    commit 692ec06d7c92 ("netns: send uevent messages"). This commit
    introduced the ability to send uevents from userspace. As such we can
    let a sufficiently privileged (CAP_SYS_ADMIN in the owning user
    namespace of the network namespace of the netlink socket) userspace
    process make a decision what uevents should be sent. This removes the
    need to blindly broadcast uevents into all user namespaces and provides
    a performant and safe solution to this problem.
  - Filtering logic:
    This patch filters by *owning user namespace of the network namespace a
    given task resides in* and not by user namespace of the task per se.
    This means if the user namespace of a given task is unshared but the
    network namespace is kept and is owned by the initial user namespace a
    listener that is opening the uevent socket in that network namespace
    can still listen to uevents.
- Fix permission for tagged kobjects:
  Network devices that are created or moved into a network namespace that
  is owned by a non-initial user namespace currently are send with
  INVALID_{G,U}ID in their credentials. This means that all current udev
  implementations in userspace will ignore the uevent they receive for
  them. This has lead to weird bugs whereby new devices showing up in such
  network namespaces were not recognized and did not get IPs assigned etc.
  This patch adjusts the permission to the appropriate {g,u}id in the
  respective user namespace. This way udevd is able to correctly handle
  such devices.
- Simplify filtering logic:
  do_one_broadcast() already ensures that only listeners in mc_list receive
  uevents that have the same network namespace as the uevent socket itself.
  So the filtering logic in kobj_bcast_filter is not needed (see [3]). This
  patch therefore removes kobj_bcast_filter() and replaces
  netlink_broadcast_filtered() with the simpler netlink_broadcast()
  everywhere.

[1]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/4/739
[2]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/26/767
[3]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/26/738
Signed-off-by: Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com>
---
v4->v5:
* non-functional changes
v3->v4:
* patch unchanged
v2->v3:
* new approach: patch added
v1->v2:
* old approach: different patchset
v0->v1:
* old approach: different patchset
---
 lib/kobject_uevent.c | 137 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
 1 file changed, 95 insertions(+), 42 deletions(-)

diff --git a/lib/kobject_uevent.c b/lib/kobject_uevent.c
index 649bf60a9440..63d0816ab23b 100644
--- a/lib/kobject_uevent.c
+++ b/lib/kobject_uevent.c
@@ -232,30 +232,6 @@ int kobject_synth_uevent(struct kobject *kobj, const char *buf, size_t count)
 	return r;
 }
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_NET
-static int kobj_bcast_filter(struct sock *dsk, struct sk_buff *skb, void *data)
-{
-	struct kobject *kobj = data, *ksobj;
-	const struct kobj_ns_type_operations *ops;
-
-	ops = kobj_ns_ops(kobj);
-	if (!ops && kobj->kset) {
-		ksobj = &kobj->kset->kobj;
-		if (ksobj->parent != NULL)
-			ops = kobj_ns_ops(ksobj->parent);
-	}
-
-	if (ops && ops->netlink_ns && kobj->ktype->namespace) {
-		const void *sock_ns, *ns;
-		ns = kobj->ktype->namespace(kobj);
-		sock_ns = ops->netlink_ns(dsk);
-		return sock_ns != ns;
-	}
-
-	return 0;
-}
-#endif
-
 #ifdef CONFIG_UEVENT_HELPER
 static int kobj_usermode_filter(struct kobject *kobj)
 {
@@ -327,17 +303,14 @@ static struct sk_buff *alloc_uevent_skb(struct kobj_uevent_env *env,
 
 	return skb;
 }
-#endif
 
-static int kobject_uevent_net_broadcast(struct kobject *kobj,
-					struct kobj_uevent_env *env,
-					const char *action_string,
-					const char *devpath)
+static int uevent_net_broadcast_untagged(struct kobj_uevent_env *env,
+					 const char *action_string,
+					 const char *devpath)
 {
-	int retval = 0;
-#if defined(CONFIG_NET)
 	struct sk_buff *skb = NULL;
 	struct uevent_sock *ue_sk;
+	int retval = 0;
 
 	/* send netlink message */
 	list_for_each_entry(ue_sk, &uevent_sock_list, list) {
@@ -353,19 +326,93 @@ static int kobject_uevent_net_broadcast(struct kobject *kobj,
 				continue;
 		}
 
-		retval = netlink_broadcast_filtered(uevent_sock, skb_get(skb),
-						    0, 1, GFP_KERNEL,
-						    kobj_bcast_filter,
-						    kobj);
+		retval = netlink_broadcast(uevent_sock, skb_get(skb), 0, 1,
+					   GFP_KERNEL);
 		/* ENOBUFS should be handled in userspace */
 		if (retval == -ENOBUFS || retval == -ESRCH)
 			retval = 0;
 	}
 	consume_skb(skb);
-#endif
+
 	return retval;
 }
 
+static int uevent_net_broadcast_tagged(struct sock *usk,
+				       struct kobj_uevent_env *env,
+				       const char *action_string,
+				       const char *devpath)
+{
+	struct user_namespace *owning_user_ns = sock_net(usk)->user_ns;
+	struct sk_buff *skb = NULL;
+	int ret = 0;
+
+	skb = alloc_uevent_skb(env, action_string, devpath);
+	if (!skb)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	/* fix credentials */
+	if (owning_user_ns != &init_user_ns) {
+		struct netlink_skb_parms *parms = &NETLINK_CB(skb);
+		kuid_t root_uid;
+		kgid_t root_gid;
+
+		/* fix uid */
+		root_uid = make_kuid(owning_user_ns, 0);
+		if (uid_valid(root_uid))
+			parms->creds.uid = root_uid;
+
+		/* fix gid */
+		root_gid = make_kgid(owning_user_ns, 0);
+		if (gid_valid(root_gid))
+			parms->creds.gid = root_gid;
+	}
+
+	ret = netlink_broadcast(usk, skb, 0, 1, GFP_KERNEL);
+	/* ENOBUFS should be handled in userspace */
+	if (ret == -ENOBUFS || ret == -ESRCH)
+		ret = 0;
+
+	return ret;
+}
+#endif
+
+static int kobject_uevent_net_broadcast(struct kobject *kobj,
+					struct kobj_uevent_env *env,
+					const char *action_string,
+					const char *devpath)
+{
+	int ret = 0;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_NET
+	const struct kobj_ns_type_operations *ops;
+	const struct net *net = NULL;
+
+	ops = kobj_ns_ops(kobj);
+	if (!ops && kobj->kset) {
+		struct kobject *ksobj = &kobj->kset->kobj;
+		if (ksobj->parent != NULL)
+			ops = kobj_ns_ops(ksobj->parent);
+	}
+
+	/* kobjects currently only carry network namespace tags and they
+	 * are the only tag relevant here since we want to decide which
+	 * network namespaces to broadcast the uevent into.
+	 */
+	if (ops && ops->netlink_ns && kobj->ktype->namespace)
+		if (ops->type == KOBJ_NS_TYPE_NET)
+			net = kobj->ktype->namespace(kobj);
+
+	if (!net)
+		ret = uevent_net_broadcast_untagged(env, action_string,
+						    devpath);
+	else
+		ret = uevent_net_broadcast_tagged(net->uevent_sock->sk, env,
+						  action_string, devpath);
+#endif
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
 static void zap_modalias_env(struct kobj_uevent_env *env)
 {
 	static const char modalias_prefix[] = "MODALIAS=";
@@ -724,9 +771,13 @@ static int uevent_net_init(struct net *net)
 
 	net->uevent_sock = ue_sk;
 
-	mutex_lock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
-	list_add_tail(&ue_sk->list, &uevent_sock_list);
-	mutex_unlock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
+	/* Restrict uevents to initial user namespace. */
+	if (sock_net(ue_sk->sk)->user_ns == &init_user_ns) {
+		mutex_lock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
+		list_add_tail(&ue_sk->list, &uevent_sock_list);
+		mutex_unlock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
+	}
+
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -734,9 +785,11 @@ static void uevent_net_exit(struct net *net)
 {
 	struct uevent_sock *ue_sk = net->uevent_sock;
 
-	mutex_lock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
-	list_del(&ue_sk->list);
-	mutex_unlock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
+	if (sock_net(ue_sk->sk)->user_ns == &init_user_ns) {
+		mutex_lock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
+		list_del(&ue_sk->list);
+		mutex_unlock(&uevent_sock_mutex);
+	}
 
 	netlink_kernel_release(ue_sk->sk);
 	kfree(ue_sk);
-- 
2.17.0

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering
  2018-04-29 10:44 [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering Christian Brauner
  2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 1/2 v5] uevent: add alloc_uevent_skb() helper Christian Brauner
  2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents Christian Brauner
@ 2018-04-30 15:55 ` ebiederm
  2018-05-01 14:23   ` David Miller
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: ebiederm @ 2018-04-30 15:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Christian Brauner
  Cc: davem, netdev, linux-kernel, avagin, ktkhai, serge, gregkh

Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com> writes:

> Hey everyone,
>
> This is the new approach to uevent filtering as discussed (see the
> threads in [1], [2], and [3]). It only contains *non-functional
> changes*.
>
> This series deals with with fixing up uevent filtering logic:
> - uevent filtering logic is simplified
> - locking time on uevent_sock_list is minimized
> - tagged and untagged kobjects are handled in separate codepaths
> - permissions for userspace are fixed for network device uevents in
>   network namespaces owned by non-initial user namespaces
>   Udev is now able to see those events correctly which it wasn't before.
>   For example, moving a physical device into a network namespace not
>   owned by the initial user namespaces before gave:
>
>   root@xen1:~# udevadm --debug monitor -k
>   calling: monitor
>   monitor will print the received events for:
>   KERNEL - the kernel uevent
>
>   sender uid=65534, message ignored
>   sender uid=65534, message ignored
>   sender uid=65534, message ignored
>   sender uid=65534, message ignored
>   sender uid=65534, message ignored
>
>   and now after the discussion and solution in [3] correctly gives:
>
>   root@xen1:~# udevadm --debug monitor -k
>   calling: monitor
>   monitor will print the received events for:
>   KERNEL - the kernel uevent
>
>   KERNEL[625.301042] add      /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/enp1s0f1 (net)
>   KERNEL[625.301109] move     /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/enp1s0f1 (net)
>   KERNEL[625.301138] move     /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/eth1 (net)
>   KERNEL[655.333272] remove /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.0/0000:01:00.1/net/eth1 (net)
>
> Thanks!
> Christian
>
> [1]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/4/739
> [2]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/26/767
> [3]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/26/738

Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

>
> Christian Brauner (2):
>   uevent: add alloc_uevent_skb() helper
>   netns: restrict uevents
>
>  lib/kobject_uevent.c | 178 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
>  1 file changed, 126 insertions(+), 52 deletions(-)

Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering
  2018-04-30 15:55 ` [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering ebiederm
@ 2018-05-01 14:23   ` David Miller
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: David Miller @ 2018-05-01 14:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: ebiederm
  Cc: christian.brauner, netdev, linux-kernel, avagin, ktkhai, serge, gregkh

From: ebiederm@xmission.com (Eric W. Biederman)
Date: Mon, 30 Apr 2018 10:55:55 -0500

> Christian Brauner <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com> writes:
> 
>> Hey everyone,
>>
>> This is the new approach to uevent filtering as discussed (see the
>> threads in [1], [2], and [3]). It only contains *non-functional
>> changes*.
 ...
> Acked-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>

Series applied, thanks everyone.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents
  2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents Christian Brauner
@ 2019-06-14 22:49   ` Dmitry Torokhov
  2019-06-16 11:50     ` ebiederm
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Dmitry Torokhov @ 2019-06-14 22:49 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Christian Brauner
  Cc: Eric W. Biederman, David S. Miller, netdev, lkml, avagin, ktkhai,
	Serge E. Hallyn, Greg Kroah-Hartman

Hi Christian,

On Sun, Apr 29, 2018 at 3:45 AM Christian Brauner
<christian.brauner@ubuntu.com> wrote:
>
> commit 07e98962fa77 ("kobject: Send hotplug events in all network namespaces")
>abhishekbh@google.com
> enabled sending hotplug events into all network namespaces back in 2010.
> Over time the set of uevents that get sent into all network namespaces has
> shrunk. We have now reached the point where hotplug events for all devices
> that carry a namespace tag are filtered according to that namespace.
> Specifically, they are filtered whenever the namespace tag of the kobject
> does not match the namespace tag of the netlink socket.
> Currently, only network devices carry namespace tags (i.e. network
> namespace tags). Hence, uevents for network devices only show up in the
> network namespace such devices are created in or moved to.
>
> However, any uevent for a kobject that does not have a namespace tag
> associated with it will not be filtered and we will broadcast it into all
> network namespaces. This behavior stopped making sense when user namespaces
> were introduced.
>
> This patch simplifies and fixes couple of things:
> - Split codepath for sending uevents by kobject namespace tags:
>   1. Untagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_untagged():
>      Untagged kobjects will be broadcast into all uevent sockets recorded
>      in uevent_sock_list, i.e. into all network namespacs owned by the
>      intial user namespace.
>   2. Tagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_tagged():
>      Tagged kobjects will only be broadcast into the network namespace they
>      were tagged with.
>   Handling of tagged kobjects in 2. does not cause any semantic changes.
>   This is just splitting out the filtering logic that was handled by
>   kobj_bcast_filter() before.
>   Handling of untagged kobjects in 1. will cause a semantic change. The
>   reasons why this is needed and ok have been discussed in [1]. Here is a
>   short summary:
>   - Userspace ignores uevents from network namespaces that are not owned by
>     the intial user namespace:
>     Uevents are filtered by userspace in a user namespace because the
>     received uid != 0. Instead the uid associated with the event will be
>     65534 == "nobody" because the global root uid is not mapped.
>     This means we can safely and without introducing regressions modify the
>     kernel to not send uevents into all network namespaces whose owning
>     user namespace is not the initial user namespace because we know that
>     userspace will ignore the message because of the uid anyway.
>     I have a) verified that is is true for every udev implementation out
>     there b) that this behavior has been present in all udev
>     implementations from the very beginning.

Unfortunately udev is not the only consumer of uevents, for example on
Android there is healthd that also consumes uevents, and this
particular change broke Android running in a container on Chrome OS.
Can this be reverted? Or, if we want to keep this, how can containers
that use separate user namespace still listen to uevents?

Thanks.

-- 
Dmitry

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents
  2019-06-14 22:49   ` Dmitry Torokhov
@ 2019-06-16 11:50     ` ebiederm
  2019-06-16 16:50       ` Christian Brauner
  2019-06-16 16:50       ` Dmitry Torokhov
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: ebiederm @ 2019-06-16 11:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Dmitry Torokhov
  Cc: Christian Brauner, David S. Miller, netdev, lkml, avagin, ktkhai,
	Serge E. Hallyn, Greg Kroah-Hartman

Dmitry Torokhov <dmitry.torokhov@gmail.com> writes:

> Hi Christian,
>
> On Sun, Apr 29, 2018 at 3:45 AM Christian Brauner
> <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com> wrote:
>>
>> commit 07e98962fa77 ("kobject: Send hotplug events in all network namespaces")
>>abhishekbh@google.com
>> enabled sending hotplug events into all network namespaces back in 2010.
>> Over time the set of uevents that get sent into all network namespaces has
>> shrunk. We have now reached the point where hotplug events for all devices
>> that carry a namespace tag are filtered according to that namespace.
>> Specifically, they are filtered whenever the namespace tag of the kobject
>> does not match the namespace tag of the netlink socket.
>> Currently, only network devices carry namespace tags (i.e. network
>> namespace tags). Hence, uevents for network devices only show up in the
>> network namespace such devices are created in or moved to.
>>
>> However, any uevent for a kobject that does not have a namespace tag
>> associated with it will not be filtered and we will broadcast it into all
>> network namespaces. This behavior stopped making sense when user namespaces
>> were introduced.
>>
>> This patch simplifies and fixes couple of things:
>> - Split codepath for sending uevents by kobject namespace tags:
>>   1. Untagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_untagged():
>>      Untagged kobjects will be broadcast into all uevent sockets recorded
>>      in uevent_sock_list, i.e. into all network namespacs owned by the
>>      intial user namespace.
>>   2. Tagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_tagged():
>>      Tagged kobjects will only be broadcast into the network namespace they
>>      were tagged with.
>>   Handling of tagged kobjects in 2. does not cause any semantic changes.
>>   This is just splitting out the filtering logic that was handled by
>>   kobj_bcast_filter() before.
>>   Handling of untagged kobjects in 1. will cause a semantic change. The
>>   reasons why this is needed and ok have been discussed in [1]. Here is a
>>   short summary:
>>   - Userspace ignores uevents from network namespaces that are not owned by
>>     the intial user namespace:
>>     Uevents are filtered by userspace in a user namespace because the
>>     received uid != 0. Instead the uid associated with the event will be
>>     65534 == "nobody" because the global root uid is not mapped.
>>     This means we can safely and without introducing regressions modify the
>>     kernel to not send uevents into all network namespaces whose owning
>>     user namespace is not the initial user namespace because we know that
>>     userspace will ignore the message because of the uid anyway.
>>     I have a) verified that is is true for every udev implementation out
>>     there b) that this behavior has been present in all udev
>>     implementations from the very beginning.
>
> Unfortunately udev is not the only consumer of uevents, for example on
> Android there is healthd that also consumes uevents, and this
> particular change broke Android running in a container on Chrome OS.
> Can this be reverted? Or, if we want to keep this, how can containers
> that use separate user namespace still listen to uevents?

The code has been in the main tree for over a year so at a minimum
reverting this has the real chance of causing a regression for
folks like lxc.

I don't think Android running in a container on Chrome OS was even
available when this change was merged.  So I don't think this falls
under the ordinary no regression rules.

I may be wrong but I think this is a case of developing new code on an
old kernel and developing a dependence on a bug that had already been
fixed in newer kernels.  I know Christian did his best to reach out to
everyone when this change came through, so only getting a bug report
over a year after the code was merged is concerning.

That said uevents should be completely useless in a user namespace
except as letting you know something happened.  Is that what healthd
is using them for?


One solution would be to tweak the container userspace on ChromeOS to
listen to the uevents outside the container and to relay them into the
Android container.

Eric

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents
  2019-06-16 11:50     ` ebiederm
@ 2019-06-16 16:50       ` Christian Brauner
  2019-06-16 17:14         ` Dmitry Torokhov
  2019-06-16 16:50       ` Dmitry Torokhov
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Christian Brauner @ 2019-06-16 16:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric W. Biederman, Dmitry Torokhov
  Cc: David S. Miller, netdev, lkml, avagin, ktkhai, Serge E. Hallyn,
	Greg Kroah-Hartman

On Sun, Jun 16, 2019 at 06:50:20AM -0500, Eric W. Biederman wrote:
> Dmitry Torokhov <dmitry.torokhov@gmail.com> writes:
> 
> > Hi Christian,
> >
> > On Sun, Apr 29, 2018 at 3:45 AM Christian Brauner
> > <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com> wrote:
> >>
> >> commit 07e98962fa77 ("kobject: Send hotplug events in all network namespaces")
> >>abhishekbh@google.com
> >> enabled sending hotplug events into all network namespaces back in 2010.
> >> Over time the set of uevents that get sent into all network namespaces has
> >> shrunk. We have now reached the point where hotplug events for all devices
> >> that carry a namespace tag are filtered according to that namespace.
> >> Specifically, they are filtered whenever the namespace tag of the kobject
> >> does not match the namespace tag of the netlink socket.
> >> Currently, only network devices carry namespace tags (i.e. network
> >> namespace tags). Hence, uevents for network devices only show up in the
> >> network namespace such devices are created in or moved to.
> >>
> >> However, any uevent for a kobject that does not have a namespace tag
> >> associated with it will not be filtered and we will broadcast it into all
> >> network namespaces. This behavior stopped making sense when user namespaces
> >> were introduced.
> >>
> >> This patch simplifies and fixes couple of things:
> >> - Split codepath for sending uevents by kobject namespace tags:
> >>   1. Untagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_untagged():
> >>      Untagged kobjects will be broadcast into all uevent sockets recorded
> >>      in uevent_sock_list, i.e. into all network namespacs owned by the
> >>      intial user namespace.
> >>   2. Tagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_tagged():
> >>      Tagged kobjects will only be broadcast into the network namespace they
> >>      were tagged with.
> >>   Handling of tagged kobjects in 2. does not cause any semantic changes.
> >>   This is just splitting out the filtering logic that was handled by
> >>   kobj_bcast_filter() before.
> >>   Handling of untagged kobjects in 1. will cause a semantic change. The
> >>   reasons why this is needed and ok have been discussed in [1]. Here is a
> >>   short summary:
> >>   - Userspace ignores uevents from network namespaces that are not owned by
> >>     the intial user namespace:
> >>     Uevents are filtered by userspace in a user namespace because the
> >>     received uid != 0. Instead the uid associated with the event will be
> >>     65534 == "nobody" because the global root uid is not mapped.
> >>     This means we can safely and without introducing regressions modify the
> >>     kernel to not send uevents into all network namespaces whose owning
> >>     user namespace is not the initial user namespace because we know that
> >>     userspace will ignore the message because of the uid anyway.
> >>     I have a) verified that is is true for every udev implementation out
> >>     there b) that this behavior has been present in all udev
> >>     implementations from the very beginning.
> >
> > Unfortunately udev is not the only consumer of uevents, for example on
> > Android there is healthd that also consumes uevents, and this
> > particular change broke Android running in a container on Chrome OS.
> > Can this be reverted? Or, if we want to keep this, how can containers
> > that use separate user namespace still listen to uevents?
> 
> The code has been in the main tree for over a year so at a minimum
> reverting this has the real chance of causing a regression for
> folks like lxc.
> 
> I don't think Android running in a container on Chrome OS was even
> available when this change was merged.  So I don't think this falls
> under the ordinary no regression rules.
> 
> I may be wrong but I think this is a case of developing new code on an
> old kernel and developing a dependence on a bug that had already been
> fixed in newer kernels.  I know Christian did his best to reach out to
> everyone when this change came through, so only getting a bug report
> over a year after the code was merged is concerning.
> 
> That said uevents should be completely useless in a user namespace
> except as letting you know something happened.  Is that what healthd
> is using them for?
> 
> 
> One solution would be to tweak the container userspace on ChromeOS to
> listen to the uevents outside the container and to relay them into the
> Android container.

Thanks for jumping in Eric! Welcome back. :)

Hey Dmitry,

Crostini on ChromeOS is making heavy use of this patchset and of LXD. So
reverting this almost 1.5 years after the fact will regress all of
Google's ChromeOS Crostini users, and all LXD/LXC users.

LXD and Crostini by using LXD (through Concierge/Tremplin etc. [2]) are
using this whole series e.g. when hotplugging usb devices into the
container.

When a usb hotplug happens, LXD will receive the relevant uevent and
will forward it to the container. Any process listening on a uevent
socket inside the container will now be able to see it.

Now, to talk briefly about solutions:
From what I gather from talking to the ChromeOS guys and from your
ChromeOS bugtracker and recent patchsets to ARC you are moving your
Android workloads into Crostini? So like Eric said this seems like a new
feature you're implementing.

If you need to be able to listen to uevents inside of a user namespace
and plan on using Crostini going forward then you can have Crostini
forward battery uevents to the container. The logic for doing this can
be found in the LXD codebase (cf. [3]). It's pretty simple. If you want
to go this route I'm happy to guide you. :)
Note, both options are a version of what Eric suggested in his last
paragraph!

What astonishes me is that healthd couldn't have possibly received
battery uevents for a long time even if Android already was run in user
namespaces prior to the new feature you're working on and the healthd I
see in master is not even using uevents anymore (cf. [8]) but rather is
using sysfs it seems. :)
Before that healthd was using (cf. [7])

uevent_kernel_multicast_recv()
|
-> uevent_kernel_multicast_uid_recv

the latter containing the check

if (cred->uid != 0) {
    /* ignoring netlink message from non-root user */
    goto out;
}

Before my patchset here the uevents sent out came with cred->uid == INVALID_UID
and so healthd never received those events until very recently.
And I can tell you exactly when it started receiving those events as I
reported the removal of this check as a bug against Android before
this patchset was ever merged and before a version of Android without
this check was released (cf. [6]). :)
While we're at it, removing this check is strange. Why would you have
any core tool of yours listen to uevents that do not come from the root
user? Especially when it comes from INVALID_UID. That's what I tried to
tell you in [6].

This patchset also fixes a real information leak. Netlink is a socket
and having those sockets respect network namespaces like all others
makes sense. Especially to allow containers to do their own thing and
to avoid information leakage.

Fyi, when I wrote this patch I informed the ChromeOS guys about it
multiple times as early as March/April 2018. At least two times the PM
in person (last time we talked about this was during FOSDEM because
ChromeOS was already reling on this). I also mentioned this feature on
the official ChromeOS bugtracker here [1] in April 2018 since ChromeOS
could use it.
So that this comes up as a problem almost 1.5 years later is a bit
surprising. :)
Additionally, I gave a presentation about this feature at LPC 2018 with
Google folks from Android around as well (cf. [4]). :)

Thanks!
Christian

[1]: https://bugs.chromium.org/p/chromium/issues/detail?id=831850#c2
[2]: https://bugs.chromium.org/p/chromium/issues/detail?id=956288
[3]: https://github.com/lxc/lxd 
[4]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yI_1cuhoDgA&t=327s
[5]: https://android.googlesource.com/platform/system/core.git/+/android-4.2.2_r1/libcutils/uevent.c#77
[6]: https://issuetracker.google.com/issues/77764945
[7]: https://android.googlesource.com/platform/system/core/+/android-4.4_r1/healthd/healthd.cpp#135
[8]: https://android.googlesource.com/platform/system/core/+/master/healthd/BatteryMonitor.cpp

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents
  2019-06-16 11:50     ` ebiederm
  2019-06-16 16:50       ` Christian Brauner
@ 2019-06-16 16:50       ` Dmitry Torokhov
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Dmitry Torokhov @ 2019-06-16 16:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Eric W. Biederman
  Cc: Christian Brauner, David S. Miller, netdev, lkml, avagin, ktkhai,
	Serge E. Hallyn, Greg Kroah-Hartman

Hi Eric,

On Sun, Jun 16, 2019 at 4:50 AM Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com> wrote:
>
> Dmitry Torokhov <dmitry.torokhov@gmail.com> writes:
>
> > Hi Christian,
> >
> > On Sun, Apr 29, 2018 at 3:45 AM Christian Brauner
> > <christian.brauner@ubuntu.com> wrote:
> >>
> >> commit 07e98962fa77 ("kobject: Send hotplug events in all network namespaces")
> >>abhishekbh@google.com
> >> enabled sending hotplug events into all network namespaces back in 2010.
> >> Over time the set of uevents that get sent into all network namespaces has
> >> shrunk. We have now reached the point where hotplug events for all devices
> >> that carry a namespace tag are filtered according to that namespace.
> >> Specifically, they are filtered whenever the namespace tag of the kobject
> >> does not match the namespace tag of the netlink socket.
> >> Currently, only network devices carry namespace tags (i.e. network
> >> namespace tags). Hence, uevents for network devices only show up in the
> >> network namespace such devices are created in or moved to.
> >>
> >> However, any uevent for a kobject that does not have a namespace tag
> >> associated with it will not be filtered and we will broadcast it into all
> >> network namespaces. This behavior stopped making sense when user namespaces
> >> were introduced.
> >>
> >> This patch simplifies and fixes couple of things:
> >> - Split codepath for sending uevents by kobject namespace tags:
> >>   1. Untagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_untagged():
> >>      Untagged kobjects will be broadcast into all uevent sockets recorded
> >>      in uevent_sock_list, i.e. into all network namespacs owned by the
> >>      intial user namespace.
> >>   2. Tagged kobjects - uevent_net_broadcast_tagged():
> >>      Tagged kobjects will only be broadcast into the network namespace they
> >>      were tagged with.
> >>   Handling of tagged kobjects in 2. does not cause any semantic changes.
> >>   This is just splitting out the filtering logic that was handled by
> >>   kobj_bcast_filter() before.
> >>   Handling of untagged kobjects in 1. will cause a semantic change. The
> >>   reasons why this is needed and ok have been discussed in [1]. Here is a
> >>   short summary:
> >>   - Userspace ignores uevents from network namespaces that are not owned by
> >>     the intial user namespace:
> >>     Uevents are filtered by userspace in a user namespace because the
> >>     received uid != 0. Instead the uid associated with the event will be
> >>     65534 == "nobody" because the global root uid is not mapped.
> >>     This means we can safely and without introducing regressions modify the
> >>     kernel to not send uevents into all network namespaces whose owning
> >>     user namespace is not the initial user namespace because we know that
> >>     userspace will ignore the message because of the uid anyway.
> >>     I have a) verified that is is true for every udev implementation out
> >>     there b) that this behavior has been present in all udev
> >>     implementations from the very beginning.
> >
> > Unfortunately udev is not the only consumer of uevents, for example on
> > Android there is healthd that also consumes uevents, and this
> > particular change broke Android running in a container on Chrome OS.
> > Can this be reverted? Or, if we want to keep this, how can containers
> > that use separate user namespace still listen to uevents?
>
> The code has been in the main tree for over a year so at a minimum
> reverting this has the real chance of causing a regression for
> folks like lxc.
>
> I don't think Android running in a container on Chrome OS was even
> available when this change was merged.  So I don't think this falls
> under the ordinary no regression rules.
>
> I may be wrong but I think this is a case of developing new code on an
> old kernel and developing a dependence on a bug that had already been
> fixed in newer kernels.

No, this is not quite the case. We have been shipping Android on
Chrome OS since 2016, the concept of running Android in a container
definitely predates these series of patches.

> I know Christian did his best to reach out to
> everyone when this change came through, so only getting a bug report
> over a year after the code was merged is concerning.

This only proves that it is hard to change userspace-visible behavior
as one can't really know who might be using the interfaces and for
what reason. Again, udev is not the only consumer of uevents; as fat
as I know Android does not use udev and there are other users of
uevents as well. For example, libusb can be compiled to listen to
uevents directly.

>
> That said uevents should be completely useless in a user namespace
> except as letting you know something happened.  Is that what healthd
> is using them for?

Yes, that is one of the use cases. Appearance of AC power supply can
be used to adjust system behavior, for example.

Thanks.

-- 
Dmitry

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents
  2019-06-16 16:50       ` Christian Brauner
@ 2019-06-16 17:14         ` Dmitry Torokhov
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Dmitry Torokhov @ 2019-06-16 17:14 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Christian Brauner
  Cc: Eric W. Biederman, David S. Miller, netdev, lkml, avagin, ktkhai,
	Serge E. Hallyn, Greg Kroah-Hartman

Hi Christian,

On Sun, Jun 16, 2019 at 9:50 AM Christian Brauner
<christian.brauner@canonical.com> wrote:
>
> Hey Dmitry,
>
> Crostini on ChromeOS is making heavy use of this patchset and of LXD. So
> reverting this almost 1.5 years after the fact will regress all of
> Google's ChromeOS Crostini users, and all LXD/LXC users.
>
> LXD and Crostini by using LXD (through Concierge/Tremplin etc. [2]) are
> using this whole series e.g. when hotplugging usb devices into the
> container.
>
> When a usb hotplug happens, LXD will receive the relevant uevent and
> will forward it to the container. Any process listening on a uevent
> socket inside the container will now be able to see it.
>
> Now, to talk briefly about solutions:
> From what I gather from talking to the ChromeOS guys and from your
> ChromeOS bugtracker and recent patchsets to ARC you are moving your
> Android workloads into Crostini? So like Eric said this seems like a new
> feature you're implementing.

No, I am talking about ARC, not Crostini here.

>
> If you need to be able to listen to uevents inside of a user namespace
> and plan on using Crostini going forward then you can have Crostini
> forward battery uevents to the container. The logic for doing this can
> be found in the LXD codebase (cf. [3]). It's pretty simple. If you want
> to go this route I'm happy to guide you. :)
> Note, both options are a version of what Eric suggested in his last
> paragraph!
>
> What astonishes me is that healthd couldn't have possibly received
> battery uevents for a long time even if Android already was run in user
> namespaces prior to the new feature you're working on and the healthd I
> see in master is not even using uevents anymore (cf. [8]) but rather is
> using sysfs it seems. :)
> Before that healthd was using (cf. [7])
>
> uevent_kernel_multicast_recv()
> |
> -> uevent_kernel_multicast_uid_recv
>
> the latter containing the check
>
> if (cred->uid != 0) {
>     /* ignoring netlink message from non-root user */
>     goto out;
> }
>
> Before my patchset here the uevents sent out came with cred->uid == INVALID_UID
> and so healthd never received those events until very recently.

I see. OK, let me try digging into this to figure out what exactly changed.

Thanks.

-- 
Dmitry

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 10+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2018-04-29 10:44 [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering Christian Brauner
2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 1/2 v5] uevent: add alloc_uevent_skb() helper Christian Brauner
2018-04-29 10:44 ` [PATCH net-next 2/2 v5] netns: restrict uevents Christian Brauner
2019-06-14 22:49   ` Dmitry Torokhov
2019-06-16 11:50     ` ebiederm
2019-06-16 16:50       ` Christian Brauner
2019-06-16 17:14         ` Dmitry Torokhov
2019-06-16 16:50       ` Dmitry Torokhov
2018-04-30 15:55 ` [PATCH net-next 0/2 v5] netns: uevent filtering ebiederm
2018-05-01 14:23   ` David Miller

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