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* [PATCH v-1] x86_64: new and improved memset() + question
@ 2019-01-17 22:23 Alexey Dobriyan
  2019-02-11 12:47 ` Ingo Molnar
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 3+ messages in thread
From: Alexey Dobriyan @ 2019-01-17 22:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: tglx, mingo, bp, hpa; +Cc: x86, linux-kernel, torvalds

Current memset() implementation does silly things:
* multiplication to get wide constant:
	waste of cycles if filler is known at compile time,

* REP STOSQ followed by REP STOSB:
	this code is used when REP STOSB is slow but still it is used
	for small length (< 8) when setup overhead is relatively big,

* suboptimal calling convention:
	REP STOSB/STOSQ favours (rdi, rcx)

* memset_orig():
	it is hard to even look at it :^)

New implementation is based on the following observations:
* c == 0 is the most common form,
	filler can be done with "xor eax, eax" and pushed into memset()
	saving 2 bytes per call and multiplication

* len divisible by 8 is the most common form:
	all it takes is one pointer or unsigned long inside structure,
	dispatch at compile time to code without those ugly "lets fill
	at most 7 bytes" tails,

* multiplication to get wider filler value can be done at compile time
  for "c != 0" with 1 insn/10 bytes at most saving multiplication.

* those leaner forms of memset can be done withing 3/4 registers (RDI,
  RCX, RAX, [RSI]) saving the rest from clobbering.

Note: "memset0" name is chosen because "bzero" is officially deprecated.
Note: memset(,0,) form is interleaved into memset(,c,) form to save
space.

QUESTION: is it possible to tell gcc "this function is semantically
equivalent to memset(3) so make high level optimizations but call it
when it is necessary"? I suspect the answer is "no" :-\

TODO:
	CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE is enabled by distros
	benchmarks
	testing
	more comments
	check with memset_io() so that no surprises pop up

Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
---

	lightly boot tested by you get the idea where it is going...

 arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile |    1 
 arch/x86/include/asm/string_64.h  |  101 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 arch/x86/lib/Makefile             |    1 
 arch/x86/lib/memset0_64.S         |   86 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 189 insertions(+)

--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-fno-stack-protector)
 KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, address-of-packed-member)
 KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, gnu)
 KBUILD_CFLAGS += -Wno-pointer-sign
+KBUILD_CFLAGS += -D_ARCH_X86_BOOT
 
 KBUILD_AFLAGS  := $(KBUILD_CFLAGS) -D__ASSEMBLY__
 GCOV_PROFILE := n
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/string_64.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/string_64.h
@@ -30,7 +30,108 @@ extern void *__memcpy(void *to, const void *from, size_t len);
 #endif /* !CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE */
 
 #define __HAVE_ARCH_MEMSET
+#if defined(_ARCH_X86_BOOT) || defined(CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE)
 void *memset(void *s, int c, size_t n);
+#else
+#include <asm/alternative.h>
+#include <asm/cpufeatures.h>
+
+/* Internal, do not use. */
+static __always_inline void memset0(void *s, size_t n)
+{
+	/* Internal, do not use. */
+	void _memset0_mov(void);
+	void _memset0_rep_stosq(void);
+	void memset0_mov(void);
+	void memset0_rep_stosq(void);
+	void memset0_rep_stosb(void);
+
+	if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 0) {
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 1) {
+		*(uint8_t *)s = 0;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 2) {
+		*(uint16_t *)s = 0;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 4) {
+		*(uint32_t *)s = 0;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 8) {
+		*(uint64_t *)s = 0;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && (n & 7) == 0) {
+		alternative_call_2(
+			_memset0_mov,
+			_memset0_rep_stosq, X86_FEATURE_REP_GOOD,
+			memset0_rep_stosb, X86_FEATURE_ERMS,
+			ASM_OUTPUT2("=D" (s), "=c" (n)),
+			"0" (s), "1" (n)
+			: "rax", "cc", "memory"
+		);
+	} else {
+		alternative_call_2(
+			memset0_mov,
+			memset0_rep_stosq, X86_FEATURE_REP_GOOD,
+			memset0_rep_stosb, X86_FEATURE_ERMS,
+			ASM_OUTPUT2("=D" (s), "=c" (n)),
+			"0" (s), "1" (n)
+			: "rax", "rsi", "cc", "memory"
+		);
+	}
+}
+
+/* Internal, do not use. */
+static __always_inline void memsetx(void *s, int c, size_t n)
+{
+	/* Internal, do not use. */
+	void _memsetx_mov(void);
+	void _memsetx_rep_stosq(void);
+	void memsetx_mov(void);
+	void memsetx_rep_stosq(void);
+	void memsetx_rep_stosb(void);
+
+	const uint64_t ccc = (uint8_t)c * 0x0101010101010101ULL;
+
+	if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 0) {
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 1) {
+		*(uint8_t *)s = ccc;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 2) {
+		*(uint16_t *)s = ccc;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 4) {
+		*(uint32_t *)s = ccc;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && n == 8) {
+		*(uint64_t *)s = ccc;
+	} else if (__builtin_constant_p(n) && (n & 7) == 0) {
+		alternative_call_2(
+			_memsetx_mov,
+			_memsetx_rep_stosq, X86_FEATURE_REP_GOOD,
+			memsetx_rep_stosb, X86_FEATURE_ERMS,
+			ASM_OUTPUT2("=D" (s), "=c" (n)),
+			"0" (s), "1" (n), "a" (ccc)
+			: "cc", "memory"
+		);
+	} else {
+		alternative_call_2(
+			memsetx_mov,
+			memsetx_rep_stosq, X86_FEATURE_REP_GOOD,
+			memsetx_rep_stosb, X86_FEATURE_ERMS,
+			ASM_OUTPUT2("=D" (s), "=c" (n)),
+			"0" (s), "1" (n), "a" (ccc)
+			: "rsi", "cc", "memory"
+		);
+	}
+}
+
+static __always_inline void *memset(void *s, int c, size_t n)
+{
+	if (__builtin_constant_p(c)) {
+		if (c == 0) {
+			memset0(s, n);
+		} else {
+			memsetx(s, c, n);
+		}
+		return s;
+	} else {
+		return __builtin_memset(s, c, n);
+	}
+}
+#endif
 void *__memset(void *s, int c, size_t n);
 
 #define __HAVE_ARCH_MEMSET16
--- a/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@ else
         lib-y += csum-partial_64.o csum-copy_64.o csum-wrappers_64.o
         lib-y += clear_page_64.o copy_page_64.o
         lib-y += memmove_64.o memset_64.o
+	lib-y += memset0_64.o
         lib-y += copy_user_64.o
 	lib-y += cmpxchg16b_emu.o
 endif
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/memset0_64.S
@@ -0,0 +1,86 @@
+#include <linux/linkage.h>
+#include <asm/export.h>
+
+.intel_syntax noprefix
+
+ENTRY(memset0_rep_stosb)
+	xor	eax, eax
+.globl memsetx_rep_stosb
+memsetx_rep_stosb:
+	rep stosb
+	ret
+ENDPROC(memset0_rep_stosb)
+ENDPROC(memsetx_rep_stosb)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(memset0_rep_stosb)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(memsetx_rep_stosb)
+
+ENTRY(_memset0_rep_stosq)
+	xor	eax, eax
+.globl _memsetx_rep_stosq
+_memsetx_rep_stosq:
+	shr	rcx, 3
+	rep stosq
+	ret
+ENDPROC(_memset0_rep_stosq)
+ENDPROC(_memsetx_rep_stosq)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(_memset0_rep_stosq)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(_memsetx_rep_stosq)
+
+ENTRY(memset0_rep_stosq)
+	xor	eax, eax
+.globl memsetx_rep_stosq
+memsetx_rep_stosq:
+	lea	rsi, [rdi + rcx]
+	shr	rcx, 3
+	rep stosq
+	cmp	rdi, rsi
+	je	1f
+2:
+	mov	[rdi], al
+	add	rdi, 1
+	cmp	rdi, rsi
+	jne	2b
+1:
+	ret
+ENDPROC(memset0_rep_stosq)
+ENDPROC(memsetx_rep_stosq)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(memset0_rep_stosq)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(memsetx_rep_stosq)
+
+ENTRY(_memset0_mov)
+	xor	eax, eax
+.globl _memsetx_mov
+_memsetx_mov:
+	add	rcx, rdi
+	cmp	rdi, rcx
+	je	1f
+2:
+	mov	[rdi], rax
+	add	rdi, 8
+	cmp	rdi, rcx
+	jne	2b
+1:
+	ret
+ENDPROC(_memset0_mov)
+ENDPROC(_memsetx_mov)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(_memset0_mov)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(_memsetx_mov)
+
+ENTRY(memset0_mov)
+	xor	eax, eax
+.globl memsetx_mov
+memsetx_mov:
+	lea	rsi, [rdi + rcx]
+	cmp	rdi, rsi
+	je	1f
+2:
+	mov	[rdi], al
+	add	rdi, 1
+	cmp	rdi, rsi
+	jne	2b
+1:
+	ret
+ENDPROC(memset0_mov)
+ENDPROC(memsetx_mov)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(memset0_mov)
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(memsetx_mov)

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v-1] x86_64: new and improved memset() + question
  2019-01-17 22:23 [PATCH v-1] x86_64: new and improved memset() + question Alexey Dobriyan
@ 2019-02-11 12:47 ` Ingo Molnar
  2019-02-11 17:10   ` Alexey Dobriyan
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 3+ messages in thread
From: Ingo Molnar @ 2019-02-11 12:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Alexey Dobriyan; +Cc: tglx, mingo, bp, hpa, x86, linux-kernel, torvalds


* Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com> wrote:

> Current memset() implementation does silly things:
> * multiplication to get wide constant:
> 	waste of cycles if filler is known at compile time,
> 
> * REP STOSQ followed by REP STOSB:
> 	this code is used when REP STOSB is slow but still it is used
> 	for small length (< 8) when setup overhead is relatively big,
> 
> * suboptimal calling convention:
> 	REP STOSB/STOSQ favours (rdi, rcx)
> 
> * memset_orig():
> 	it is hard to even look at it :^)
> 
> New implementation is based on the following observations:
> * c == 0 is the most common form,
> 	filler can be done with "xor eax, eax" and pushed into memset()
> 	saving 2 bytes per call and multiplication
> 
> * len divisible by 8 is the most common form:
> 	all it takes is one pointer or unsigned long inside structure,
> 	dispatch at compile time to code without those ugly "lets fill
> 	at most 7 bytes" tails,
> 
> * multiplication to get wider filler value can be done at compile time
>   for "c != 0" with 1 insn/10 bytes at most saving multiplication.
> 
> * those leaner forms of memset can be done withing 3/4 registers (RDI,
>   RCX, RAX, [RSI]) saving the rest from clobbering.

Ok, sorry about the belated reply - all that sounds like very nice 
improvements!

> Note: "memset0" name is chosen because "bzero" is officially deprecated.
> Note: memset(,0,) form is interleaved into memset(,c,) form to save
> space.
> 
> QUESTION: is it possible to tell gcc "this function is semantically
> equivalent to memset(3) so make high level optimizations but call it
> when it is necessary"? I suspect the answer is "no" :-\

No idea ...

> TODO:
> 	CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE is enabled by distros
> 	benchmarks
> 	testing
> 	more comments
> 	check with memset_io() so that no surprises pop up

I'd only like to make happy noises here to make sure you continue with 
this work - it does look promising. :-)
 
Thanks,

	Ingo

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v-1] x86_64: new and improved memset() + question
  2019-02-11 12:47 ` Ingo Molnar
@ 2019-02-11 17:10   ` Alexey Dobriyan
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Alexey Dobriyan @ 2019-02-11 17:10 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ingo Molnar; +Cc: tglx, mingo, bp, hpa, x86, linux-kernel, torvalds

On Mon, Feb 11, 2019 at 01:47:16PM +0100, Ingo Molnar wrote:
> * Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com> wrote:

> > QUESTION: is it possible to tell gcc "this function is semantically
> > equivalent to memset(3) so make high level optimizations but call it
> > when it is necessary"? I suspect the answer is "no" :-\
> 
> No idea ...
> 
> > TODO:
> > 	CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE is enabled by distros
> > 	benchmarks
> > 	testing
> > 	more comments
> > 	check with memset_io() so that no surprises pop up
> 
> I'd only like to make happy noises here to make sure you continue with 
> this work - it does look promising. :-)

Thanks, Ingo.

This is really the core of the problem: once memset() becomes something
other than

	static inline void *memset(void *p, int c, size_t len)
	{
		return __builtin_memset(p, c, len);
	}

GCC starts pretending that it doesn't know what memset() is and all those
advertised space savings go to hell.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

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Thread overview: 3+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2019-01-17 22:23 [PATCH v-1] x86_64: new and improved memset() + question Alexey Dobriyan
2019-02-11 12:47 ` Ingo Molnar
2019-02-11 17:10   ` Alexey Dobriyan

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