From: "André Almeida" <email@example.com> To: Thomas Gleixner <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Ingo Molnar <email@example.com>, Peter Zijlstra <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Darren Hart <email@example.com>, firstname.lastname@example.org, Steven Rostedt <email@example.com>, Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <firstname.lastname@example.org> Cc: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, "Peter Oskolkov" <firstname.lastname@example.org>, "André Almeida" <email@example.com> Subject: [PATCH v3 00/13] Add futex2 syscalls Date: Tue, 27 Apr 2021 20:12:35 -0300 [thread overview] Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> (raw) Hi, This patch series introduces the futex2 syscalls. * What happened to the current futex()? For some years now, developers have been trying to add new features to futex, but maintainers have been reluctant to accept then, given the multiplexed interface full of legacy features and tricky to do big changes. Some problems that people tried to address with patchsets are: NUMA-awareness, smaller sized futexes, wait on multiple futexes. NUMA, for instance, just doesn't fit the current API in a reasonable way. Considering that, it's not possible to merge new features into the current futex. ** The NUMA problem At the current implementation, all futex kernel side infrastructure is stored on a single node. Given that, all futex() calls issued by processors that aren't located on that node will have a memory access penalty when doing it. ** The 32bit sized futex problem Embedded systems or anything with memory constrains would benefit of using smaller sizes for the futex userspace integer. Also, a mutex implementation can be done using just three values, so 8 bits is enough for various scenarios. ** The wait on multiple problem The use case lies in the Wine implementation of the Windows NT interface WaitMultipleObjects. This Windows API function allows a thread to sleep waiting on the first of a set of event sources (mutexes, timers, signal, console input, etc) to signal. Considering this is a primitive synchronization operation for Windows applications, being able to quickly signal events on the producer side, and quickly go to sleep on the consumer side is essential for good performance of those running over Wine.  https://email@example.com/  https://firstname.lastname@example.org/  https://email@example.com/ * The solution As proposed by Peter Zijlstra and Florian Weimer, a new interface is required to solve this, which must be designed with those features in mind. futex2() is that interface. As opposed to the current multiplexed interface, the new one should have one syscall per operation. This will allow the maintainability of the API if it gets extended, and will help users with type checking of arguments. In particular, the new interface is extended to support the ability to wait on any of a list of futexes at a time, which could be seen as a vectored extension of the FUTEX_WAIT semantics.  https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200303120050.GC2596@hirez.programming.kicks-ass.net/ * The interface The new interface can be seen in details in the following patches, but this is a high level summary of what the interface can do: - Supports wake/wait semantics, as in futex() - Supports requeue operations, similarly as FUTEX_CMP_REQUEUE, but with individual flags for each address - Supports waiting for a vector of futexes, using a new syscall named futex_waitv() - Supports variable sized futexes (8bits, 16bits, 32bits and 64bits) - Supports NUMA-awareness operations, where the user can specify on which memory node would like to operate * Implementation The internal implementation follows a similar design to the original futex. Given that we want to replicate the same external behavior of current futex, this should be somewhat expected. For some functions, like the init and the code to get a shared key, I literally copied code and comments from kernel/futex.c. I decided to do so instead of exposing the original function as a public function since in that way we can freely modify our implementation if required, without any impact on old futex. Also, the comments precisely describes the details and corner cases of the implementation. Each patch contains a brief description of implementation, but patch 6 "docs: locking: futex2: Add documentation" adds a more complete document about it. * The patchset This patchset can be also found at my git tree: https://gitlab.collabora.com/tonyk/linux/-/tree/futex2-dev - Patch 1: Implements wait/wake, and the basics foundations of futex2 - Patches 2-4: Implement the remaining features (shared, waitv, requeue). - Patch 5: Adds the x86_x32 ABI handling. I kept it in a separated patch since I'm not sure if x86_x32 is still a thing, or if it should return -ENOSYS. - Patch 6: Add a documentation file which details the interface and the internal implementation. - Patches 7-13: Selftests for all operations along with perf support for futex2. - Patch 14: While working on porting glibc for futex2, I found out that there's a futex_wake() call at the user thread exit path, if that thread was created with clone(..., CLONE_CHILD_SETTID, ...). In order to make pthreads work with futex2, it was required to add this patch. Note that this is more a proof-of-concept of what we will need to do in future, rather than part of the interface and shouldn't be merged as it is. * Testing: This patchset provides selftests for each operation and their flags. Along with that, the following work was done: ** Stability To stress the interface in "real world scenarios": - glibc: nptl's low level locking was modified to use futex2 API (except for robust and PI things). All relevant nptl/ tests passed. - Wine: Proton/Wine was modified in order to use futex2() for the emulation of Windows NT sync mechanisms based on futex, called "fsync". Triple-A games with huge CPU's loads and tons of parallel jobs worked as expected when compared with the previous FUTEX_WAIT_MULTIPLE implementation at futex(). Some games issue 42k futex2() calls per second. - Full GNU/Linux distro: I installed the modified glibc in my host machine, so all pthread's programs would use futex2(). After tweaking systemd to allow futex2() calls at seccomp, everything worked as expected (web browsers do some syscall sandboxing and need some configuration as well). - perf: The perf benchmarks tests can also be used to stress the interface, and they can be found in this patchset. ** Performance - For comparing futex() and futex2() performance, I used the artificial benchmarks implemented at perf (wake, wake-parallel, hash and requeue). The setup was 200 runs for each test and using 8, 80, 800, 8000 for the number of threads, Note that for this test, I'm not using patch 14 ("kernel: Enable waitpid() for futex2") , for reasons explained at "The patchset" section. - For the first three ones, I measured an average of 4% gain in performance. This is not a big step, but it shows that the new interface is at least comparable in performance with the current one. - For requeue, I measured an average of 21% decrease in performance compared to the original futex implementation. This is expected given the new design with individual flags. The performance trade-offs are explained at patch 4 ("futex2: Implement requeue operation").  https://gitlab.collabora.com/tonyk/glibc/-/tree/futex2  https://gitlab.collabora.com/tonyk/wine/-/tree/proton_5.13  https://gitlab.collabora.com/tonyk/systemd * FAQ ** "Where's the code for NUMA and FUTEX_8/16/64?" The current code is already complex enough to take some time for review, so I believe it's better to split that work out to a future iteration of this patchset. Besides that, this RFC is the core part of the infrastructure, and the following features will not pose big design changes to it, the work will be more about wiring up the flags and modifying some functions. ** "Where's the PI/robust stuff?" As said by Peter Zijlstra at , all those new features are related to the "simple" futex interface, that doesn't use PI or robust. Do we want to have this complexity at futex2() and if so, should it be part of this patchset or can it be future work? Thanks, André * Changelog Changes from v2: - API now supports 64bit futexes, in addition to 8, 16 and 32. - This API change will break the glibc and Proton ports for now. - Refactored futex2_wait and futex2_waitv selftests v2: https://firstname.lastname@example.org/ Changes from v1: - Unified futex_set_timer_and_wait and __futex_wait code - Dropped _carefull from linked list function calls - Fixed typos on docs patch - uAPI flags are now added as features are introduced, instead of all flags in patch 1 - Removed struct futex_single_waiter in favor of an anon struct v1: https://email@example.com/ André Almeida (13): futex2: Implement wait and wake functions futex2: Add support for shared futexes futex2: Implement vectorized wait futex2: Implement requeue operation futex2: Add compatibility entry point for x86_x32 ABI docs: locking: futex2: Add documentation selftests: futex2: Add wake/wait test selftests: futex2: Add timeout test selftests: futex2: Add wouldblock test selftests: futex2: Add waitv test selftests: futex2: Add requeue test perf bench: Add futex2 benchmark tests kernel: Enable waitpid() for futex2 Documentation/locking/futex2.rst | 198 +++ Documentation/locking/index.rst | 1 + MAINTAINERS | 2 +- arch/arm/tools/syscall.tbl | 4 + arch/arm64/include/asm/unistd.h | 2 +- arch/arm64/include/asm/unistd32.h | 8 + arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_32.tbl | 4 + arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl | 4 + fs/inode.c | 1 + include/linux/compat.h | 26 + include/linux/fs.h | 1 + include/linux/syscalls.h | 17 + include/uapi/asm-generic/unistd.h | 14 +- include/uapi/linux/futex.h | 31 + init/Kconfig | 7 + kernel/Makefile | 1 + kernel/fork.c | 2 + kernel/futex2.c | 1252 +++++++++++++++++ kernel/sys_ni.c | 9 + tools/arch/x86/include/asm/unistd_64.h | 12 + tools/include/uapi/asm-generic/unistd.h | 11 +- .../arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl | 4 + tools/perf/bench/bench.h | 4 + tools/perf/bench/futex-hash.c | 24 +- tools/perf/bench/futex-requeue.c | 57 +- tools/perf/bench/futex-wake-parallel.c | 41 +- tools/perf/bench/futex-wake.c | 37 +- tools/perf/bench/futex.h | 47 + tools/perf/builtin-bench.c | 18 +- .../selftests/futex/functional/.gitignore | 3 + .../selftests/futex/functional/Makefile | 6 +- .../futex/functional/futex2_requeue.c | 164 +++ .../selftests/futex/functional/futex2_wait.c | 195 +++ .../selftests/futex/functional/futex2_waitv.c | 154 ++ .../futex/functional/futex_wait_timeout.c | 58 +- .../futex/functional/futex_wait_wouldblock.c | 33 +- .../testing/selftests/futex/functional/run.sh | 6 + .../selftests/futex/include/futex2test.h | 112 ++ 38 files changed, 2518 insertions(+), 52 deletions(-) create mode 100644 Documentation/locking/futex2.rst create mode 100644 kernel/futex2.c create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/futex/functional/futex2_requeue.c create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/futex/functional/futex2_wait.c create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/futex/functional/futex2_waitv.c create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/futex/include/futex2test.h -- 2.31.1
next reply other threads:[~2021-04-27 23:15 UTC|newest] Thread overview: 17+ messages / expand[flat|nested] mbox.gz Atom feed top 2021-04-27 23:12 André Almeida [this message] 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 01/13] futex2: Implement wait and wake functions André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 02/13] futex2: Add support for shared futexes André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 03/13] futex2: Implement vectorized wait André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 04/13] futex2: Implement requeue operation André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 05/13] futex2: Add compatibility entry point for x86_x32 ABI André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 06/13] docs: locking: futex2: Add documentation André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 07/13] selftests: futex2: Add wake/wait test André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 08/13] selftests: futex2: Add timeout test André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 09/13] selftests: futex2: Add wouldblock test André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 10/13] selftests: futex2: Add waitv test André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 11/13] selftests: futex2: Add requeue test André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 12/13] perf bench: Add futex2 benchmark tests André Almeida 2021-04-27 23:12 ` [PATCH v3 13/13] kernel: Enable waitpid() for futex2 André Almeida 2021-05-05 12:31 ` [PATCH v3 00/13] Add futex2 syscalls Peter Zijlstra 2021-05-05 14:23 ` Thomas Gleixner 2021-05-06 14:48 ` André Almeida
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