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From: <alexlzhu@fb.com>
To: <linux-mm@kvack.org>
Cc: <willy@infradead.org>, <hannes@cmpxchg.org>,
	<akpm@linux-foundation.org>, <riel@surriel.com>,
	<kernel-team@fb.com>, <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	Alexander Zhu <alexlzhu@fb.com>
Subject: [RFC 2/3] mm: changes to split_huge_page() to free zero filled tail pages
Date: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 14:30:53 -0700	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <490fcdd204ae129a2e43614a569a1cf4bdde9196.1661461643.git.alexlzhu@fb.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <cover.1661461643.git.alexlzhu@fb.com>

From: Alexander Zhu <alexlzhu@fb.com>

Currently, when /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled=always is set
there are a large number of transparent hugepages that are almost entirely
zero filled.  This is mentioned in a number of previous patchsets
including:
https://lore.kernel.org/all/20210731063938.1391602-1-yuzhao@google.com/
https://lore.kernel.org/all/
1635422215-99394-1-git-send-email-ningzhang@linux.alibaba.com/

Currently, split_huge_page() does not have a way to identify zero filled
pages within the THP. Thus these zero pages get remapped and continue to
create memory waste. In this patch, we identify and free tail pages that
are zero filled in split_huge_page(). In this way, we avoid mapping these
pages back into page table entries and can free up unused memory within
THPs. This is based off the previously mentioned patchset by Yu Zhao.
However, we chose to free zero tail pages whenever they are encountered
instead of only on reclaim or migration. We also add a self test to verify
the RssAnon value to make sure zero pages are not remapped.

Signed-off-by: Alexander Zhu <alexlzhu@fb.com>
---
 include/linux/rmap.h                          |  2 +-
 include/linux/vm_event_item.h                 |  2 +
 mm/huge_memory.c                              | 43 +++++++++++--
 mm/migrate.c                                  | 60 ++++++++++++++++---
 mm/migrate_device.c                           |  4 +-
 mm/vmstat.c                                   |  2 +
 .../selftests/vm/split_huge_page_test.c       | 58 +++++++++++++++++-
 tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.c          | 23 +++++++
 tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.h          |  1 +
 9 files changed, 180 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/rmap.h b/include/linux/rmap.h
index bf80adca980b..f45481ab60ba 100644
--- a/include/linux/rmap.h
+++ b/include/linux/rmap.h
@@ -369,7 +369,7 @@ int folio_mkclean(struct folio *);
 int pfn_mkclean_range(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long nr_pages, pgoff_t pgoff,
 		      struct vm_area_struct *vma);
 
-void remove_migration_ptes(struct folio *src, struct folio *dst, bool locked);
+void remove_migration_ptes(struct folio *src, struct folio *dst, bool locked, bool unmap_clean);
 
 int page_mapped_in_vma(struct page *page, struct vm_area_struct *vma);
 
diff --git a/include/linux/vm_event_item.h b/include/linux/vm_event_item.h
index 404024486fa5..1d81e60ee12e 100644
--- a/include/linux/vm_event_item.h
+++ b/include/linux/vm_event_item.h
@@ -104,6 +104,8 @@ enum vm_event_item { PGPGIN, PGPGOUT, PSWPIN, PSWPOUT,
 #ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE_PUD
 		THP_SPLIT_PUD,
 #endif
+		THP_SPLIT_FREE,
+		THP_SPLIT_UNMAP,
 		THP_ZERO_PAGE_ALLOC,
 		THP_ZERO_PAGE_ALLOC_FAILED,
 		THP_SWPOUT,
diff --git a/mm/huge_memory.c b/mm/huge_memory.c
index 8be1e320e70c..0f774a7c0727 100644
--- a/mm/huge_memory.c
+++ b/mm/huge_memory.c
@@ -2414,7 +2414,7 @@ static void unmap_page(struct page *page)
 		try_to_unmap(folio, ttu_flags | TTU_IGNORE_MLOCK);
 }
 
-static void remap_page(struct folio *folio, unsigned long nr)
+static void remap_page(struct folio *folio, unsigned long nr, bool unmap_clean)
 {
 	int i = 0;
 
@@ -2422,7 +2422,7 @@ static void remap_page(struct folio *folio, unsigned long nr)
 	if (!folio_test_anon(folio))
 		return;
 	for (;;) {
-		remove_migration_ptes(folio, folio, true);
+		remove_migration_ptes(folio, folio, true, unmap_clean);
 		i += folio_nr_pages(folio);
 		if (i >= nr)
 			break;
@@ -2536,6 +2536,8 @@ static void __split_huge_page(struct page *page, struct list_head *list,
 	struct address_space *swap_cache = NULL;
 	unsigned long offset = 0;
 	unsigned int nr = thp_nr_pages(head);
+	LIST_HEAD(pages_to_free);
+	int nr_pages_to_free = 0;
 	int i;
 
 	/* complete memcg works before add pages to LRU */
@@ -2598,7 +2600,7 @@ static void __split_huge_page(struct page *page, struct list_head *list,
 	}
 	local_irq_enable();
 
-	remap_page(folio, nr);
+	remap_page(folio, nr, true);
 
 	if (PageSwapCache(head)) {
 		swp_entry_t entry = { .val = page_private(head) };
@@ -2612,6 +2614,32 @@ static void __split_huge_page(struct page *page, struct list_head *list,
 			continue;
 		unlock_page(subpage);
 
+		/*
+		 * If a tail page has only two references left, one inherited
+		 * from the isolation of its head and the other from
+		 * lru_add_page_tail() which we are about to drop, it means this
+		 * tail page was concurrently zapped. Then we can safely free it
+		 * and save page reclaim or migration the trouble of trying it.
+		 */
+		if (list && page_ref_freeze(subpage, 2)) {
+			VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageLRU(subpage), subpage);
+			VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageCompound(subpage), subpage);
+			VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_mapped(subpage), subpage);
+
+			ClearPageActive(subpage);
+			ClearPageUnevictable(subpage);
+			list_move(&subpage->lru, &pages_to_free);
+			nr_pages_to_free++;
+			continue;
+		}
+		/*
+		 * If a tail page has only one reference left, it will be freed
+		 * by the call to free_page_and_swap_cache below. Since zero
+		 * subpages are no longer remapped, there will only be one
+		 * reference left in cases outside of reclaim or migration.
+		 */
+		if (page_ref_count(subpage) == 1)
+			nr_pages_to_free++;
 		/*
 		 * Subpages may be freed if there wasn't any mapping
 		 * like if add_to_swap() is running on a lru page that
@@ -2621,6 +2649,13 @@ static void __split_huge_page(struct page *page, struct list_head *list,
 		 */
 		free_page_and_swap_cache(subpage);
 	}
+
+	if (!nr_pages_to_free)
+		return;
+
+	mem_cgroup_uncharge_list(&pages_to_free);
+	free_unref_page_list(&pages_to_free);
+	count_vm_events(THP_SPLIT_FREE, nr_pages_to_free);
 }
 
 /* Racy check whether the huge page can be split */
@@ -2783,7 +2818,7 @@ int split_huge_page_to_list(struct page *page, struct list_head *list)
 		if (mapping)
 			xas_unlock(&xas);
 		local_irq_enable();
-		remap_page(folio, folio_nr_pages(folio));
+		remap_page(folio, folio_nr_pages(folio), false);
 		ret = -EBUSY;
 	}
 
diff --git a/mm/migrate.c b/mm/migrate.c
index 6a1597c92261..c87e81e60a1b 100644
--- a/mm/migrate.c
+++ b/mm/migrate.c
@@ -167,13 +167,50 @@ void putback_movable_pages(struct list_head *l)
 	}
 }
 
+static bool try_to_unmap_clean(struct page_vma_mapped_walk *pvmw, struct page *page)
+{
+	void *addr;
+	bool dirty;
+
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageCompound(page), page);
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageAnon(page), page);
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(pte_present(*pvmw->pte), page);
+
+	if (PageMlocked(page) || (pvmw->vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED))
+		return false;
+
+	/*
+	 * The pmd entry mapping the old thp was flushed and the pte mapping
+	 * this subpage has been non present. Therefore, this subpage is
+	 * inaccessible. We don't need to remap it if it contains only zeros.
+	 */
+	addr = kmap_local_page(page);
+	dirty = memchr_inv(addr, 0, PAGE_SIZE);
+	kunmap_local(addr);
+
+	if (dirty)
+		return false;
+
+	pte_clear_not_present_full(pvmw->vma->vm_mm, pvmw->address, pvmw->pte, false);
+	dec_mm_counter(pvmw->vma->vm_mm, mm_counter(page));
+	count_vm_event(THP_SPLIT_UNMAP);
+	return true;
+}
+
+struct rmap_walk_arg {
+	struct folio *folio;
+	bool unmap_clean;
+};
+
 /*
  * Restore a potential migration pte to a working pte entry
  */
 static bool remove_migration_pte(struct folio *folio,
-		struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, void *old)
+		struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, void *arg)
 {
-	DEFINE_FOLIO_VMA_WALK(pvmw, old, vma, addr, PVMW_SYNC | PVMW_MIGRATION);
+	struct rmap_walk_arg *rmap_walk_arg = arg;
+	DEFINE_FOLIO_VMA_WALK(pvmw, rmap_walk_arg->folio, vma, addr, PVMW_SYNC | PVMW_MIGRATION);
 
 	while (page_vma_mapped_walk(&pvmw)) {
 		rmap_t rmap_flags = RMAP_NONE;
@@ -196,6 +233,8 @@ static bool remove_migration_pte(struct folio *folio,
 			continue;
 		}
 #endif
+		if (rmap_walk_arg->unmap_clean && try_to_unmap_clean(&pvmw, new))
+			continue;
 
 		folio_get(folio);
 		pte = pte_mkold(mk_pte(new, READ_ONCE(vma->vm_page_prot)));
@@ -267,13 +306,20 @@ static bool remove_migration_pte(struct folio *folio,
  * Get rid of all migration entries and replace them by
  * references to the indicated page.
  */
-void remove_migration_ptes(struct folio *src, struct folio *dst, bool locked)
+void remove_migration_ptes(struct folio *src, struct folio *dst, bool locked, bool unmap_clean)
 {
+	struct rmap_walk_arg rmap_walk_arg = {
+		.folio = src,
+		.unmap_clean = unmap_clean,
+	};
+
 	struct rmap_walk_control rwc = {
 		.rmap_one = remove_migration_pte,
-		.arg = src,
+		.arg = &rmap_walk_arg,
 	};
 
+	VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(unmap_clean && src != dst, src);
+
 	if (locked)
 		rmap_walk_locked(dst, &rwc);
 	else
@@ -849,7 +895,7 @@ static int writeout(struct address_space *mapping, struct folio *folio)
 	 * At this point we know that the migration attempt cannot
 	 * be successful.
 	 */
-	remove_migration_ptes(folio, folio, false);
+	remove_migration_ptes(folio, folio, false, false);
 
 	rc = mapping->a_ops->writepage(&folio->page, &wbc);
 
@@ -1108,7 +1154,7 @@ static int __unmap_and_move(struct page *page, struct page *newpage,
 
 	if (page_was_mapped)
 		remove_migration_ptes(folio,
-			rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS ? dst : folio, false);
+			rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS ? dst : folio, false, false);
 
 out_unlock_both:
 	unlock_page(newpage);
@@ -1318,7 +1364,7 @@ static int unmap_and_move_huge_page(new_page_t get_new_page,
 
 	if (page_was_mapped)
 		remove_migration_ptes(src,
-			rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS ? dst : src, false);
+			rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS ? dst : src, false, false);
 
 unlock_put_anon:
 	unlock_page(new_hpage);
diff --git a/mm/migrate_device.c b/mm/migrate_device.c
index 27fb37d65476..cf5a54715a58 100644
--- a/mm/migrate_device.c
+++ b/mm/migrate_device.c
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ static void migrate_vma_unmap(struct migrate_vma *migrate)
 			continue;
 
 		folio = page_folio(page);
-		remove_migration_ptes(folio, folio, false);
+		remove_migration_ptes(folio, folio, false, false);
 
 		migrate->src[i] = 0;
 		folio_unlock(folio);
@@ -783,7 +783,7 @@ void migrate_vma_finalize(struct migrate_vma *migrate)
 
 		src = page_folio(page);
 		dst = page_folio(newpage);
-		remove_migration_ptes(src, dst, false);
+		remove_migration_ptes(src, dst, false, false);
 		folio_unlock(src);
 
 		if (is_zone_device_page(page))
diff --git a/mm/vmstat.c b/mm/vmstat.c
index 373d2730fcf2..c8fae2fb1cdf 100644
--- a/mm/vmstat.c
+++ b/mm/vmstat.c
@@ -1363,6 +1363,8 @@ const char * const vmstat_text[] = {
 #ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE_PUD
 	"thp_split_pud",
 #endif
+	"thp_split_free",
+	"thp_split_unmap",
 	"thp_zero_page_alloc",
 	"thp_zero_page_alloc_failed",
 	"thp_swpout",
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/vm/split_huge_page_test.c b/tools/testing/selftests/vm/split_huge_page_test.c
index 6aa2b8253aed..f47a6ba80773 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/vm/split_huge_page_test.c
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/vm/split_huge_page_test.c
@@ -88,6 +88,62 @@ static void write_debugfs(const char *fmt, ...)
 	}
 }
 
+void split_pmd_zero_pages(void)
+{
+	char *one_page;
+	size_t len = 4 * pmd_pagesize;
+	uint64_t thp_size, rss_anon_before, rss_anon_after;
+	size_t i;
+
+	one_page = memalign(pmd_pagesize, len);
+
+	if (!one_page) {
+		printf("Fail to allocate memory\n");
+		exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+	}
+
+	madvise(one_page, len, MADV_HUGEPAGE);
+	for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
+		one_page[i] = (char)0;
+
+	thp_size = check_huge(one_page);
+	if (!thp_size) {
+		printf("No THP is allocated\n");
+		exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+	}
+
+	rss_anon_before = rss_anon();
+	if (!rss_anon_before) {
+		printf("No RssAnon is allocated before split\n");
+		exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+	}
+	/* split all THPs */
+	write_debugfs(PID_FMT, getpid(), (uint64_t)one_page,
+		      (uint64_t)one_page + len);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
+		if (one_page[i] != (char)0) {
+			printf("%ld byte corrupted\n", i);
+			exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+		}
+
+	thp_size = check_huge(one_page);
+	if (thp_size) {
+		printf("Still %ld kB AnonHugePages not split\n", thp_size);
+		exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+	}
+
+	rss_anon_after = rss_anon();
+	if (rss_anon_after >= rss_anon_before) {
+		printf("Incorrect RssAnon value. Before: %ld After: %ld\n",
+		       rss_anon_before, rss_anon_after);
+		exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+	}
+
+	printf("Split zero filled huge pages successful\n");
+	free(one_page);
+}
+
 void split_pmd_thp(void)
 {
 	char *one_page;
@@ -123,7 +179,6 @@ void split_pmd_thp(void)
 			exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
 		}
 
-
 	thp_size = check_huge(one_page);
 	if (thp_size) {
 		printf("Still %ld kB AnonHugePages not split\n", thp_size);
@@ -305,6 +360,7 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
 	pageshift = ffs(pagesize) - 1;
 	pmd_pagesize = read_pmd_pagesize();
 
+	split_pmd_zero_pages();
 	split_pmd_thp();
 	split_pte_mapped_thp();
 	split_file_backed_thp();
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.c b/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.c
index b58ab11a7a30..c6a785a67fc9 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.c
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 
 #define PMD_SIZE_FILE_PATH "/sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/hpage_pmd_size"
 #define SMAP_FILE_PATH "/proc/self/smaps"
+#define STATUS_FILE_PATH "/proc/self/status"
 #define MAX_LINE_LENGTH 500
 
 uint64_t pagemap_get_entry(int fd, char *start)
@@ -72,6 +73,28 @@ uint64_t read_pmd_pagesize(void)
 	return strtoul(buf, NULL, 10);
 }
 
+uint64_t rss_anon(void)
+{
+	uint64_t rss_anon = 0;
+	int ret;
+	FILE *fp;
+	char buffer[MAX_LINE_LENGTH];
+
+	fp = fopen(STATUS_FILE_PATH, "r");
+	if (!fp)
+		ksft_exit_fail_msg("%s: Failed to open file %s\n", __func__, STATUS_FILE_PATH);
+
+	if (!check_for_pattern(fp, "RssAnon:", buffer))
+		goto err_out;
+
+	if (sscanf(buffer, "RssAnon:%10ld kB", &rss_anon) != 1)
+		ksft_exit_fail_msg("Reading status error\n");
+
+err_out:
+	fclose(fp);
+	return rss_anon;
+}
+
 uint64_t check_huge(void *addr)
 {
 	uint64_t thp = 0;
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.h b/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.h
index 2e512bd57ae1..00b92ccef20d 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.h
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/vm/vm_util.h
@@ -6,4 +6,5 @@ uint64_t pagemap_get_entry(int fd, char *start);
 bool pagemap_is_softdirty(int fd, char *start);
 void clear_softdirty(void);
 uint64_t read_pmd_pagesize(void);
+uint64_t rss_anon(void);
 uint64_t check_huge(void *addr);
-- 
2.30.2


  parent reply	other threads:[~2022-08-25 21:31 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 15+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2022-08-25 21:30 [RFC 0/3] THP Shrinker alexlzhu
2022-08-25 21:30 ` [RFC 1/3] mm: add thp_utilization metrics to debugfs alexlzhu
2022-08-27  0:11   ` Zi Yan
2022-08-29 20:19     ` Alex Zhu (Kernel)
2022-08-25 21:30 ` alexlzhu [this message]
2022-08-26 10:18   ` [RFC 2/3] mm: changes to split_huge_page() to free zero filled tail pages David Hildenbrand
2022-08-26 18:34     ` Alex Zhu (Kernel)
2022-08-26 21:18     ` Rik van Riel
2022-08-29 10:02       ` David Hildenbrand
2022-08-29 13:17         ` Rik van Riel
2022-08-30 12:33           ` David Hildenbrand
2022-08-30 21:54             ` Alex Zhu (Kernel)
2022-08-25 21:30 ` [RFC 3/3] mm: THP low utilization shrinker alexlzhu
2022-08-27  0:25   ` Zi Yan
2022-08-29 20:49     ` Alex Zhu (Kernel)

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