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From: Gabriel Krisman Bertazi <krisman@collabora.com>
To: "André Almeida" <andrealmeid@collabora.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>,
	Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Darren Hart <dvhart@infradead.org>,
	linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>,
	Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>,
	kernel@collabora.com, pgriffais@valvesoftware.com,
	z.figura12@gmail.com, joel@joelfernandes.org,
	malteskarupke@fastmail.fm, linux-api@vger.kernel.org,
	fweimer@redhat.com, libc-alpha@sourceware.org,
	linux-kselftest@vger.kernel.org, shuah@kernel.org,
	acme@kernel.org, corbet@lwn.net, Peter Oskolkov <posk@posk.io>,
	Andrey Semashev <andrey.semashev@gmail.com>,
	Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>,
	Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>,
	Adhemerval Zanella <adhemerval.zanella@linaro.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v5 04/11] docs: locking: futex2: Add documentation
Date: Wed, 14 Jul 2021 17:25:07 -0400	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <87v95cmvv0.fsf@collabora.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20210709001328.329716-5-andrealmeid@collabora.com> (=?utf-8?Q?=22Andr=C3=A9?= Almeida"'s message of "Thu, 8 Jul 2021 21:13:21 -0300")

André Almeida <andrealmeid@collabora.com> writes:

> Add a new documentation file specifying both userspace API and internal
> implementation details of futex2 syscalls.

I think the API parts should be in Documentation/admin-guide.

Most of the implementation details of futex are better documented
elsewhere so, while I don't oppose this patch, I'm not sure how useful
it is.  the interface documentation is indeed more useful but the fact
it is mixed with internal details make it unnecessarily harder for a
non-kernel developer.

As a user interface documentation, it is missing information on how to
actually use the interface, in particular for the new functionality
added in the series, futexv.

> Signed-off-by: André Almeida <andrealmeid@collabora.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/locking/futex2.rst | 185 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  Documentation/locking/index.rst  |   1 +
>  2 files changed, 186 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/locking/futex2.rst
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/locking/futex2.rst b/Documentation/locking/futex2.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..2bf40f2abd00
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/locking/futex2.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +======
> +futex2
> +======
> +
> +:Author: André Almeida <andrealmeid@collabora.com>
> +
> +futex, or fast user mutex, is a set of syscalls to allow userspace to create
> +performant synchronization mechanisms, such as mutexes, semaphores and
> +conditional variables in userspace. C standard libraries, like glibc, uses it
> +as a means to implement more high level interfaces like pthreads.
> +
> +The interface
> +=============
> +
> +uAPI functions
> +--------------
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: kernel/futex2.c
> +   :identifiers: sys_futex_wait sys_futex_wake sys_futex_waitv sys_futex_requeue
> +
> +uAPI structures
> +---------------
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: include/uapi/linux/futex.h
> +
> +The ``flag`` argument
> +---------------------
> +
> +The flag is used to specify the size of the futex word
> +(FUTEX_[8, 16, 32, 64]). It's mandatory to define one, since there's no
> +default size.
> +
> +By default, the timeout uses a monotonic clock, but can be used as a realtime
> +one by using the FUTEX_REALTIME_CLOCK flag.
> +
> +By default, futexes are of the private type, that means that this user address
> +will be accessed by threads that share the same memory region. This allows for
> +some internal optimizations, so they are faster. However, if the address needs
> +to be shared with different processes (like using ``mmap()`` or ``shm()``), they
> +need to be defined as shared and the flag FUTEX_SHARED_FLAG is used to set that.
> +
> +By default, the operation has no NUMA-awareness, meaning that the user can't
> +choose the memory node where the kernel side futex data will be stored. The
> +user can choose the node where it wants to operate by setting the
> +FUTEX_NUMA_FLAG and using the following structure (where X can be 8, 16, 32 or
> +64)::
> +
> + struct futexX_numa {
> +         __uX value;
> +         __sX hint;
> + };
> +
> +This structure should be passed at the ``void *uaddr`` of futex functions. The
> +address of the structure will be used to be waited on/waken on, and the
> +``value`` will be compared to ``val`` as usual. The ``hint`` member is used to
> +define which node the futex will use. When waiting, the futex will be
> +registered on a kernel-side table stored on that node; when waking, the futex
> +will be searched for on that given table. That means that there's no redundancy
> +between tables, and the wrong ``hint`` value will lead to undesired behavior.
> +Userspace is responsible for dealing with node migrations issues that may
> +occur. ``hint`` can range from [0, MAX_NUMA_NODES), for specifying a node, or
> +-1, to use the same node the current process is using.
> +
> +When not using FUTEX_NUMA_FLAG on a NUMA system, the futex will be stored on a
> +global table on allocated on the first node.
> +
> +The ``timo`` argument
> +---------------------
> +
> +As per the Y2038 work done in the kernel, new interfaces shouldn't add timeout
> +options known to be buggy. Given that, ``timo`` should be a 64-bit timeout at
> +all platforms, using an absolute timeout value.
> +
> +Implementation
> +==============
> +
> +Kernel side implementation is made on top of current futex codebase.
> +
> +Waiting
> +-------
> +
> +We have a hash table, where waiters register themselves before sleeping. Then
> +the wake function checks this table looking for waiters at uaddr. The hash
> +bucket to be used is determined by a struct futex_key, that stores information
> +to uniquely identify an address from a given process. Given the huge address
> +space, there'll be hash collisions, so we store information to be later used on
> +collision treatment.
> +
> +First, for every futex we want to wait on, we check if (``*uaddr == val``).
> +This check is done holding the bucket lock, so we are correctly serialized with
> +any futex_wake() calls. If any waiter fails the check above we return. For
> +futex_waitv() calls, we dequeue all futexes queue until this point. The check
> +(``*uaddr == val``) can fail for two reasons:
> +
> +- The values are different, and we return -EAGAIN. However, if while
> +  dequeueing we found that some futexes were awakened, we prioritize this
> +  and return success.
> +
> +- When trying to access the user address, we do so with page faults
> +  disabled because we are holding a bucket's spin lock (and can't sleep
> +  while holding a spin lock). If there's an error, it might be a page
> +  fault, or an invalid address. We release the lock, dequeue everyone if it's a
> +  futex_waitv() call (because it's illegal to sleep while there are futexes
> +  enqueued, we could lose wakeups) and try again with page fault enabled. If we
> +  succeed, this means that the address is valid, but we need to do all the work
> +  again. For serialization reasons, we need to have the spin lock when getting
> +  the user value. Additionally, for shared futexes, we also need to recalculate
> +  the hash, since the underlying mapping mechanisms could have changed when
> +  dealing with page fault.  If, even with page fault enabled, we can't access
> +  the address, it means it's an invalid user address, and we return -EFAULT.
> +
> +If the check is OK, they are enqueued on a linked list in our bucket, and
> +proceed to the next one. If all waiters succeed, we put the thread to sleep
> +until a futex_wake() call, timeout expires or we get a signal. After waking up,
> +we dequeue everyone, and check if some futex was awakened.
> +
> +All enqueuing/dequeuing operations requires to hold the bucket lock, to avoid
> +racing while modifying the list.
> +
> +Waking
> +------
> +
> +We get the bucket that's storing the waiters at uaddr, and wake the required
> +number of waiters, checking for hash collision.
> +
> +There's an optimization that makes futex_wake() not take the bucket lock if
> +there's no one to be woken on that bucket. It checks an atomic counter that each
> +bucket has, if it says 0, then the syscall exits. In order for this to work, the
> +waiter thread increases it before taking the lock, so the wake thread will
> +correctly see that there's someone waiting and will continue the path to take
> +the bucket lock. To get the correct serialization, the waiter issues a memory
> +barrier after increasing the bucket counter and the waker issues a memory
> +barrier before checking it.
> +
> +Requeuing
> +---------
> +
> +The requeue path first checks for each struct futex_requeue and their flags.
> +Then, it will compare the expected value with the one at rq1::uaddr.
> +Following the same serialization explained at Waking_, we increase the atomic
> +counter for the bucket of rq2::uaddr before taking the lock. We need to have
> +both buckets locks at same time so we don't race with other futex operation. To
> +ensure the locks are taken in the same order for all threads (and thus avoiding
> +deadlocks), every requeue operation takes the "smaller" bucket first, when
> +comparing both addresses.
> +
> +If the compare with user value succeeds, we proceed by waking ``nr_wake``
> +futexes, and then requeuing ``nr_requeue`` from bucket of uaddr1 to the uaddr2.
> +This consists in a simple list deletion/addition and replacing the old futex key
> +with the new one.
> +
> +Futex keys
> +----------
> +
> +There are two types of futexes: private and shared ones. The private are futexes
> +meant to be used by threads that share the same memory space, are easier to be
> +uniquely identified and thus can have some performance optimization. The
> +elements for identifying one are: the start address of the page where the
> +address is, the address offset within the page and the current->mm pointer.
> +
> +Now, for uniquely identifying a shared futex:
> +
> +- If the page containing the user address is an anonymous page, we can
> +  just use the same data used for private futexes (the start address of
> +  the page, the address offset within the page and the current->mm
> +  pointer); that will be enough for uniquely identifying such futex. We
> +  also set one bit at the key to differentiate if a private futex is
> +  used on the same address (mixing shared and private calls does not
> +  work).
> +
> +- If the page is file-backed, current->mm maybe isn't the same one for
> +  every user of this futex, so we need to use other data: the
> +  page->index, a UUID for the struct inode and the offset within the
> +  page.
> +
> +Note that members of futex_key don't have any particular meaning after they
> +are part of the struct - they are just bytes to identify a futex.
> +
> +Source code documentation
> +=========================
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: kernel/futex2.c
> +   :no-identifiers: sys_futex_wait sys_futex_wake sys_futex_waitv sys_futex_requeue
> diff --git a/Documentation/locking/index.rst b/Documentation/locking/index.rst
> index 7003bd5aeff4..9bf03c7fa1ec 100644
> --- a/Documentation/locking/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/locking/index.rst
> @@ -24,6 +24,7 @@ locking
>      percpu-rw-semaphore
>      robust-futexes
>      robust-futex-ABI
> +    futex2
>  
>  .. only::  subproject and html

-- 
Gabriel Krisman Bertazi

  reply	other threads:[~2021-07-14 21:25 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 16+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-07-09  0:13 [PATCH v5 00/11] Add futex2 syscalls André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 01/11] futex2: Implement wait and wake functions André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 02/11] futex2: Implement vectorized wait André Almeida
2021-07-14 21:19   ` Gabriel Krisman Bertazi
2021-08-17  8:50   ` Arnd Bergmann
2021-08-18 16:20     ` André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 03/11] futex2: Implement requeue operation André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 04/11] docs: locking: futex2: Add documentation André Almeida
2021-07-14 21:25   ` Gabriel Krisman Bertazi [this message]
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 05/11] selftests: futex2: Add wake/wait test André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 06/11] selftests: futex2: Add timeout test André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 07/11] selftests: futex2: Add wouldblock test André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 08/11] selftests: futex2: Add waitv test André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 09/11] selftests: futex2: Add requeue test André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 10/11] perf bench: Add futex2 benchmark tests André Almeida
2021-07-09  0:13 ` [PATCH v5 11/11] kernel: Enable waitpid() for futex2 André Almeida

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