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From: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>
To: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>,
	Elena Reshetova <elena.reshetova@intel.com>,
	"the arch/x86 maintainers" <x86@kernel.org>,
	Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>,
	Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>,
	Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>,
	Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>,
	Alexander Popov <alex.popov@linux.com>,
	Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>,
	Kernel Hardening <kernel-hardening@lists.openwall.com>,
	Linux ARM <linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org>,
	Linux-MM <linux-mm@kvack.org>,
	kernel list <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v4 3/5] stack: Optionally randomize kernel stack offset each syscall
Date: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 23:42:29 +0200	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <CAG48ez1b_wMkQGj+z=dWSVctikzzw72V3SPexEPm3Aw8LrXGWQ@mail.gmail.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <202006221426.CEEE0B8@keescook>

On Mon, Jun 22, 2020 at 11:30 PM Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> wrote:
> On Mon, Jun 22, 2020 at 10:07:37PM +0200, Jann Horn wrote:
> > On Mon, Jun 22, 2020 at 9:31 PM Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> wrote:
> > > This provides the ability for architectures to enable kernel stack base
> > > address offset randomization. This feature is controlled by the boot
> > > param "randomize_kstack_offset=on/off", with its default value set by
> > > CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_KSTACK_OFFSET_DEFAULT.
> > [...]
> > > +#define add_random_kstack_offset() do {                                        \
> > > +       if (static_branch_maybe(CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_KSTACK_OFFSET_DEFAULT, \
> > > +                               &randomize_kstack_offset)) {            \
> > > +               u32 offset = this_cpu_read(kstack_offset);              \
> > > +               u8 *ptr = __builtin_alloca(offset & 0x3FF);             \
> > > +               asm volatile("" : "=m"(*ptr));                          \
> > > +       }                                                               \
> > > +} while (0)
> >
> > clang generates better code here if the mask is stack-aligned -
> > otherwise it needs to round the stack pointer / the offset:
[...]
> > Maybe this should be something along the lines of
> > __builtin_alloca(offset & (0x3ff & ARCH_STACK_ALIGN_MASK)) (with
> > appropriate definitions of the stack alignment mask depending on the
> > architecture's choice of stack alignment for kernel code).
>
> Is that explicitly selected anywhere in the kernel? I thought the
> alignment was left up to the compiler (as in I've seen bugs fixed where
> the kernel had to deal with the alignment choices the compiler was
> making...)

No, at least on x86-64 and x86 Linux overrides the normal ABI. From
arch/x86/Makefile:

# For gcc stack alignment is specified with -mpreferred-stack-boundary,
# clang has the option -mstack-alignment for that purpose.
ifneq ($(call cc-option, -mpreferred-stack-boundary=4),)
      cc_stack_align4 := -mpreferred-stack-boundary=2
      cc_stack_align8 := -mpreferred-stack-boundary=3
else ifneq ($(call cc-option, -mstack-alignment=16),)
      cc_stack_align4 := -mstack-alignment=4
      cc_stack_align8 := -mstack-alignment=8
endif
[...]
ifeq ($(CONFIG_X86_32),y)
[...]
        # Align the stack to the register width instead of using the default
        # alignment of 16 bytes. This reduces stack usage and the number of
        # alignment instructions.
        KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,$(cc_stack_align4))
[...]
else
[...]
        # By default gcc and clang use a stack alignment of 16 bytes for x86.
        # However the standard kernel entry on x86-64 leaves the stack on an
        # 8-byte boundary. If the compiler isn't informed about the actual
        # alignment it will generate extra alignment instructions for the
        # default alignment which keep the stack *mis*aligned.
        # Furthermore an alignment to the register width reduces stack usage
        # and the number of alignment instructions.
        KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,$(cc_stack_align8))
[...]
endif

Normal x86-64 ABI has 16-byte stack alignment; Linux kernel x86-64 ABI
has 8-byte stack alignment.
Similarly, the normal Linux 32-bit x86 ABI is 16-byte aligned;
meanwhile Linux kernel x86 ABI has 4-byte stack alignment.

This is because userspace code wants the stack to be sufficiently
aligned for fancy SSE instructions and such; the kernel, on the other
hand, never uses those in normal code, and cares about stack usage and
such very much.

  reply	other threads:[~2020-06-22 21:43 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 19+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-06-22 19:31 [PATCH v4 0/5] " Kees Cook
2020-06-22 19:31 ` [PATCH v4 1/5] jump_label: Provide CONFIG-driven build state defaults Kees Cook
2020-06-22 19:31 ` [PATCH v4 2/5] init_on_alloc: Unpessimize default-on builds Kees Cook
2020-06-22 19:31 ` [PATCH v4 3/5] stack: Optionally randomize kernel stack offset each syscall Kees Cook
2020-06-22 19:40   ` Randy Dunlap
2020-06-22 21:26     ` Kees Cook
2020-06-22 20:07   ` Jann Horn
2020-06-22 21:30     ` Kees Cook
2020-06-22 21:42       ` Jann Horn [this message]
2020-06-22 22:04         ` Kees Cook
2020-06-22 22:56   ` Arvind Sankar
2020-06-22 23:07     ` Kees Cook
2020-06-23  0:05       ` Arvind Sankar
2020-06-23  0:56         ` Kees Cook
2020-06-23 13:42           ` David Laight
2020-06-23 12:38   ` Alexander Popov
2020-06-22 19:31 ` [PATCH v4 4/5] x86/entry: Enable random_kstack_offset support Kees Cook
2020-06-22 19:31 ` [PATCH v4 5/5] arm64: entry: " Kees Cook
2020-06-23  9:40   ` Mark Rutland

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