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From: Arnd Bergmann <>
To: Ingo Molnar <>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <>,
	Linux Kernel Mailing List <>,
	linux-arch <>,
	Linus Torvalds <>,
	Greg Kroah-Hartman <>,
	Nathan Chancellor <>,
	Andrew Morton <>,
	Peter Zijlstra <>,
	Ard Biesheuvel <>,
	Josh Poimboeuf <>,
	Jonathan Corbet <>
Subject: Re: [ANNOUNCE] "Fast Kernel Headers" Tree -v2
Date: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 18:20:41 +0100	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <>

On Wed, Jan 19, 2022 at 1:31 PM Ingo Molnar <> wrote:
> * Arnd Bergmann <> wrote:
> > > I tried to avoid as many low level headers as possible from the main
> > > types headers - and the get_order() functionality also brings in bitops
> > > definitions, which I'm still hoping to be able to reduce from its
> > > current ~95% utilization in a distro kernel ...
> >
> > Agreed, I think reducing bitops.h and atomic.h usage is fairly important,
> > I think these are even bigger on arm64 than on x86.
> So what I'm using for 'header complexity metrics' is rather simple: passing
> -P -H to the preprocessor: stripping comments & not generating
> line-markers, and then counting linecount.
> Line-markers should *probably* remain, because the real build is generatinginclude/linux/mm_page_address.h
> them too - but I wanted to gain a crude & easily available metric to
> measure 'first-pass parsing complexity'. That's I think where most of the
> header bloat is concentrated: later passes don't really get any of the
> unused header definitions passed along. (But maybe this is an invalid
> assumption, because compiler warnings do get generated by later passes, and
> they are generated for mostly-unused header inlines too.)
> If we include comments & line-markers then the bloat goes up by another
> ~2x:
>  kepler:~/mingo.tip.git> ./st include/linux/sched.h
>   #include <linux/sched.h>                | LOC:  2,186 | headers:  118
>  kepler:~/mingo.tip.git> ./st include/linux/sched.h
>   #include <linux/sched.h>                | LOC:  4,092 | headers:    0

The metric I've been focusing on is bytes of the preprocessed header, which
is more sensitive to function definitions that get generated from macros,
and I multiply this by the number of inclusions (from scanning the
.file.o.cmd files). It probably helps to have a couple of metrics and look
at all of them occasionally to not miss something important.

In the meantime, I have made some progress on reducing the headers
for arm64, on top of your tree from Jan 8, but I have not looked at
later changes from your side, and I need to work on this a bit more
to ensure this doesn't break other architectures.

For an arm64 allmodconfig build, my additional improvements on top
of yours are significant but not as good as I had hoped for, this
can still improve I hope:

5.16-rc8-vanilla  32640 seconds user, 3286 seconds sys
5.16-rc8-mingo  22990 seconds user, 2304 seconds sys
5.16-rc8-arnd   19007 seconds user, 1853 seconds sys

As my tree builds any randconfig cleanly, I keep looking at
different configs and find that this has a big impact, some options
end up eliminating most of the benefits until I add further changes
to clean up certain files. This happened with kasan, kprobes,
and lse-atomics for instance. After eliminating all circular includes,
I was also able to revisit my old script to visualize the inclusions,
see[1] for the current arm64 defconfig output. This version uses
my arbitrary metric as font-size, and uses labels for the number
of inclusions.



  reply	other threads:[~2022-01-19 17:21 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 17+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2022-01-08 16:26 [ANNOUNCE] "Fast Kernel Headers" Tree -v2 Ingo Molnar
2022-01-10 22:03 ` Arnd Bergmann
2022-01-11 16:23   ` Arnd Bergmann
2022-01-11 17:08     ` David Laight
2022-01-13  8:27     ` Ingo Molnar
2022-01-13  9:20       ` Arnd Bergmann
2022-01-19 12:31         ` Ingo Molnar
2022-01-19 17:20           ` Arnd Bergmann [this message]
2022-01-22  9:18             ` Ingo Molnar
2022-01-13  8:57   ` Ingo Molnar
2022-01-13 10:16     ` Arnd Bergmann
2022-03-15 10:35 ` [TREE] "Fast Kernel Headers" Tree -v3 Ingo Molnar
2022-03-22  7:59   ` Kari Argillander
2022-03-22 15:37     ` Randy Dunlap
2022-03-22 16:22       ` Kari Argillander
2022-03-22 19:03         ` Kari Argillander
2023-11-04  9:07           ` Lucas Tanure

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