From: Sargun Dhillon <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: "Mickaël Salaün" <email@example.com> Cc: LKML <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Alexei Starovoitov <email@example.com>, Andy Lutomirski <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Daniel Borkmann <email@example.com>, Daniel Mack <firstname.lastname@example.org>, David Drysdale <email@example.com>, "David S . Miller" <firstname.lastname@example.org>, "Eric W . Biederman" <email@example.com>, James Morris <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Jann Horn <email@example.com>, Kees Cook <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Paul Moore <email@example.com>, "Serge E . Hallyn" <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Tejun Heo <email@example.com>, Thomas Graf <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Will Drewry <email@example.com>, firstname.lastname@example.org, Linux API <email@example.com>, LSM <firstname.lastname@example.org>, netdev <email@example.com>, "open list:CONTROL GROUP (CGROUP)" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: [RFC v4 00/18] Landlock LSM: Unprivileged sandboxing Date: Mon, 14 Nov 2016 02:35:55 -0800 Message-ID: <CAMp4zn8u3kg-nhiZ5rSUCLGveAzHr6FoP1x=iJasF2W0S56WfA@mail.gmail.com> (raw) In-Reply-To: <5828776A.email@example.com> On Sun, Nov 13, 2016 at 6:23 AM, Mickaël Salaün <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: > Hi, > > After the BoF at LPC last week, we came to a multi-step roadmap to > upstream Landlock. > > A first patch series containing the basic properties needed for a > "minimum viable product", which means being able to test it, without > full features. The idea is to set in place the main components which > include the LSM part (some hooks with the manager logic) and the new > eBPF type. To have a minimum amount of code, the first userland entry > point will be the seccomp syscall. This doesn't imply non-upstream > patches and should be more simple. For the sake of simplicity and to > ease the review, this first series will only be dedicated to privileged > processes (i.e. with CAP_SYS_ADMIN). We may want to only allow one level > of rules at first, instead of dealing with more complex rule inheritance > (like seccomp-bpf can do). > > The second series will focus on the cgroup manager. It will follow the > same rules of inheritance as the Daniel Mack's patches does. > > The third series will try to bring a BPF map of handles for Landlock and > the dedicated BPF helpers. > > Finally, the fourth series will bring back the unprivileged mode (with > no_new_privs), at least for process hierarchies (via seccomp). This also > imply to handle multi-level of rules. > > Right now, an important point of attention is the userland ABI. We don't > want LSM hooks to be exposed "as is" to userland. This may have some > future implications if their semantic and/or enforcement point(s) > change. In the next series, I will propose a new abstraction over the > currently used LSM hooks. I'll also propose a new way to deal with > resource accountability. Finally, I plan to create a minimal (kernel) > developer documentation and a test suite. > > Regards, > Mickaël > > > On 26/10/2016 08:56, Mickaël Salaün wrote: >> Hi, >> >> This fourth RFC brings some improvements over the previous one . An important >> new point is the abstraction from the raw types of LSM hook arguments. It is >> now possible to call a Landlock function the same way for LSM hooks with >> different internal argument types. Some parts of the code are revamped with RCU >> to properly deal with concurrency. From a userland point of view, the only >> remaining link with seccomp-bpf is the ability to use the seccomp(2) syscall to >> load and enforce a Landlock rule. Seccomp filters cannot trigger Landlock rules >> anymore. For now, it is no more possible for an unprivileged user to enforce a >> Landlock rule on a cgroup through delegation. >> >> As suggested, I plan to write documentation for userland and kernel developers >> with some kind of guiding principles. A remaining question is how to enforce >> limitations for the rule creation? >> >> >> # Landlock LSM >> >> The goal of this new stackable Linux Security Module (LSM) called Landlock is >> to allow any process, including unprivileged ones, to create powerful security >> sandboxes comparable to the Seatbelt/XNU Sandbox or the OpenBSD Pledge. This >> kind of sandbox is expected to help mitigate the security impact of bugs or >> unexpected/malicious behaviors in userland applications. >> >> eBPF programs are used to create a security rule. They are very limited (i.e. >> can only call a whitelist of functions) and cannot do a denial of service (i.e. >> no loop). A new dedicated eBPF map allows to collect and compare Landlock >> handles with system resources (e.g. files or network connections). >> >> The approach taken is to add the minimum amount of code while still allowing >> the userland to create quite complex access rules. A dedicated security policy >> language as the one used by SELinux, AppArmor and other major LSMs involves a >> lot of code and is usually dedicated to a trusted user (i.e. root). >> >> >> # eBPF >> >> To get an expressive language while still being safe and small, Landlock is >> based on eBPF. Landlock should be usable by untrusted processes and must then >> expose a minimal attack surface. The eBPF bytecode is minimal while powerful, >> widely used and designed to be used by not so trusted application. Reusing this >> code allows to not reproduce the same mistakes and minimize new code while >> still taking a generic approach. Only a few additional features are added like >> a new kind of arraymap and some dedicated eBPF functions. >> >> An eBPF program has access to an eBPF context which contains the LSM hook >> arguments (as does seccomp-bpf with syscall arguments). They can be used >> directly or passed to helper functions according to their types. It is then >> possible to do complex access checks without race conditions nor inconsistent >> evaluation (i.e. incorrect mirroring of the OS code and state ). >> >> There is one eBPF program subtype per LSM hook. This allows to statically check >> which context access is performed by an eBPF program. This is needed to deny >> kernel address leak and ensure the right use of LSM hook arguments with eBPF >> functions. Moreover, this safe pointer handling removes the need for runtime >> check or abstract data, which improves performances. Any user can add multiple >> Landlock eBPF programs per LSM hook. They are stacked and evaluated one after >> the other (cf. seccomp-bpf). >> >> >> # LSM hooks >> >> Unlike syscalls, LSM hooks are security checkpoints and are not architecture >> dependent. They are designed to match a security need associated with a >> security policy (e.g. access to a file). Exposing parts of some LSM hooks >> instead of using the syscall API for sandboxing should help to avoid bugs and >> hacks as encountered by the first RFC. Instead of redoing the work of the LSM >> hooks through syscalls, we should use and expose them as does policies of >> access control LSM. >> >> Only a subset of the hooks are meaningful for an unprivileged sandbox mechanism >> (e.g. file system or network access control). Landlock uses an abstraction of >> raw LSM hooks, which allow to deal with possible future API changes of the LSM >> hook API. Moreover, thanks to the ePBF program typing (per LSM hook) used by >> Landlock, it should not be hard to make such evolutions backward compatible. >> >> >> # Use case scenario >> >> First, a process needs to create a new dedicated eBPF map containing handles. >> This handles are references to system resources (e.g. file or directory) and >> grouped in one or multiple maps to be efficiently managed and checked in >> batches. This kind of map can be passed to Landlock eBPF functions to compare, >> for example, with a file access request. The handles are only accessible from >> the eBPF programs created by the same thread. >> >> The loaded Landlock eBPF programs can be triggered by a seccomp filter >> returning RET_LANDLOCK. In addition, a cookie (16-bit value) can be passed from >> a seccomp filter to eBPF programs. This allow flexible security policies >> between seccomp and Landlock. >> >> Another way to enforce a Landlock security policy is to attach Landlock >> programs to a dedicated cgroup. All the processes in this cgroup will then be >> subject to this policy. For unprivileged processes, this can be done thanks to >> cgroup delegation. >> >> A triggered Landlock eBPF program can allow or deny an access, according to >> its subtype (i.e. LSM hook), thanks to errno return values. >> >> >> # Sandbox example with process hierarchy sandboxing (seccomp) >> >> $ ls /home >> user1 >> $ LANDLOCK_ALLOWED='/bin:/lib:/usr:/tmp:/proc/self/fd/0' \ >> ./samples/landlock/sandbox /bin/sh -i >> Launching a new sandboxed process. >> $ ls /home >> ls: cannot access '/home': No such file or directory >> >> >> # Sandbox example with conditional access control depending on a cgroup >> >> $ mkdir /sys/fs/cgroup/sandboxed >> $ ls /home >> user1 >> $ LANDLOCK_CGROUPS='/sys/fs/cgroup/sandboxed' \ >> LANDLOCK_ALLOWED='/bin:/lib:/usr:/tmp:/proc/self/fd/0' \ >> ./samples/landlock/sandbox >> Ready to sandbox with cgroups. >> $ ls /home >> user1 >> $ echo $$ > /sys/fs/cgroup/sandboxed/cgroup.procs >> $ ls /home >> ls: cannot access '/home': No such file or directory >> >> >> # Current limitations and possible improvements >> >> For now, eBPF programs can only return an errno code. It may be interesting to >> be able to do other actions like seccomp-bpf does (e.g. kill process). Such >> features can easily be implemented but the main advantage of the current >> approach is to be able to only execute eBPF programs until one returns an errno >> code instead of executing all programs like seccomp-bpf does. >> >> It is quite easy to add new eBPF functions to extend Landlock. The main concern >> should be about the possibility to leak information from current process to >> another one (e.g. through maps) to not reproduce the same security sensitive >> behavior as ptrace. >> >> This design does not seem too intrusive but is flexible enough to allow a >> powerful sandbox mechanism accessible by any process on Linux. The use of >> seccomp and Landlock is more suitable with the help of a userland library (e.g. >> libseccomp) that could help to specify a high-level language to express a >> security policy instead of raw eBPF programs. Moreover, thanks to LLVM, it is >> possible to express an eBPF program with a subset of C. >> >> >> # FAQ >> >> ## Why does seccomp-bpf is not enough? >> >> A seccomp filter can access to raw syscall arguments which means that it is not >> possible to filter according to pointed such as a file path. As the first >> version of this patch series demonstrated, filtering at the syscall level is >> complicated (e.g. need to take care of race conditions). This is mainly because >> the access control checkpoints of the kernel are not at this high-level but >> more underneath, at LSM hooks level. The LSM hooks are designed to handle this >> kind of checks. This series use this approach to leverage the ability of >> unprivileged users to limit themselves. >> >> Cf. "What it isn't?" in Documentation/prctl/seccomp_filter.txt >> >> >> ## Why using the seccomp(2) syscall? >> >> Landlock use the same semantic as seccomp to apply access rule restrictions. It >> add a new layer of security for the current process which is inherited by its >> childs. It makes sense to use an unique access-restricting syscall (that should >> be allowed by seccomp-bpf rules) which can only drop privileges. Moreover, a >> Landlock eBPF program could come from outside a process (e.g. passed through a >> UNIX socket). It is then useful to differentiate the creation/load of Landlock >> eBPF programs via bpf(2), from rule enforcing via seccomp(2). >> >> >> ## Why using cgroups? >> >> cgroups are designed to handle groups of processes. One use case is to manage >> containers. Sandboxing based on process hierarchy (seccomp) is design to handle >> immutable security policies, which is a good security property but does not >> match all use cases. A user can attach Landlock rules to a cgroup. Doing so, >> all the processes in that cgroup will be subject to the security policy. >> However, if the user is allowed to manage this cgroup, it could dynamically >> move this group of processes to a cgroup with another security policy (or >> none). Landlock rules can be applied either on a process hierarchy (e.g. >> application with built-in sandboxing) or a group of processes (e.g. container >> sandboxing). Both approaches can be combined for the same process. >> >> >> ## Does Landlock can limit network access or other resources? >> >> Limiting network access is obviously in the scope of Landlock but it is not yet >> implemented. The main goal now is to get feedback about the whole concept, the >> API and the file access control part. More access control types could be >> implemented in the future. >> >> Sargun Dhillon sent a RFC (Checmate)  to deal with network manipulation. >> This could be implemented on top of the Landlock framework. >> >> >> ## Why a new LSM? Are SELinux, AppArmor, Smack or Tomoyo not good enough? >> >> The current access control LSMs are fine for their purpose which is to give the >> *root* the ability to enforce a security policy for the *system*. What is >> missing is a way to enforce a security policy for any applications by its >> developer and *unprivileged user* as seccomp can do for raw syscall filtering. >> Moreover, Landlock handles stacked hook programs from different users. It must >> then ensure there is no possible malicious interactions between these programs. >> >> Differences with other (access control) LSMs: >> * not only dedicated to administrators (i.e. no_new_priv); >> * limited kernel attack surface (e.g. policy parsing); >> * helpers to compare complex objects (path/FD), no access to internal kernel >> data (do not leak addresses); >> * constrained policy rules/programs (no DoS: deterministic execution time); >> * do not leak more information than the loader process can legitimately have >> access to (minimize metadata inference): must compare from an already allowed >> file (through a handle). >> >> >> ## Why not use a policy language like used by SElinux or AppArmor? >> >> This kind of LSMs are dedicated to administrators. They already manage the >> system and are not a threat to the system security. However, seccomp, and >> Landlock too, should be available to anyone, which potentially include >> untrusted users and processes. To reduce the attack surface, Landlock should >> expose the minimum amount of code, hence minimal complexity. Moreover, another >> threat is to make accessible to a malicious code a new way to gain more >> information. For example, Landlock features should not allow a program to get >> the file owner if the directory containing this file is not readable. This data >> could then be exfiltrated thanks to the access result. Thus, we should limit >> the expressiveness of the available checks. The current approach is to do the >> checks in such a way that only a comparison with an already accessed resource >> (e.g. file descriptor) is possible. This allow to have a reference to compare >> with, without exposing much information. >> >> >> ## As a developer, why do I need this feature? >> >> Landlock's goal is to help userland to limit its attack surface. >> Security-conscious developers would like to protect users from a security bug >> in their applications and the third-party dependencies they are using. Such a >> bug can compromise all the user data and help an attacker to perform a >> privilege escalation. Using an *unprivileged sandbox* feature such as Landlock >> empowers the developer with the ability to properly compartmentalize its >> software and limit the impact of vulnerabilities. >> >> >> ## As a user, why do I need a this feature? >> >> Any user can already use seccomp-bpf to whitelist a set of syscalls to >> reduce the kernel attack surface for a predefined set of processes. However an >> unprivileged user can't create a security policy like the root user can thanks to >> SELinux and other access control LSMs. Landlock allows any unprivileged user to >> protect their data from being accessed by any process they run but only an >> identified subset. User tools can be created to help create such a high-level >> access control policy. This policy may not be powerful enough to express the >> same policies as the current access control LSMs, because of the threat an >> unprivileged user can be to the system, but it should be enough for most >> use-cases (e.g. blacklist or whitelist a set of file hierarchies). >> >> >> # Changes since RFC v3 >> >> * use abstract LSM hook arguments with custom types (e.g. *_LANDLOCK_ARG_FS for >> struct file, struct inode and struct path) >> * add more LSM hooks to support full file system access control >> * improve the sandbox example >> * fix races and RCU issues: >> * eBPF program execution and eBPF helpers >> * revamp the arraymap of handles to cleanly deal with update/delete >> * eBPF program subtype for Landlock: >> * remove the "origin" field >> * add an "option" field >> * rebase onto Daniel Mack's patches v7  >> * remove merged commit 1955351da41c ("bpf: Set register type according to >> is_valid_access()") >> * fix spelling mistakes >> * cleanup some type and variable names >> * split patches >> * for now, remove cgroup delegation handling for unprivileged user >> * remove extra access check for cgroup_get_from_fd() >> * remove unused example code dealing with skb >> * remove seccomp-bpf link: >> * no more seccomp cookie >> * for now, it is no more possible to check the current syscall properties >> >> >> # Changes since RFC v2 >> >> * revamp cgroup handling: >> * use Daniel Mack's patches "Add eBPF hooks for cgroups" v5 >> * remove bpf_landlock_cmp_cgroup_beneath() >> * make BPF_PROG_ATTACH usable with delegated cgroups >> * add a new CGRP_NO_NEW_PRIVS flag for safe cgroups >> * handle Landlock sandboxing for cgroups hierarchy >> * allow unprivileged processes to attach Landlock eBPF program to cgroups >> * add subtype to eBPF programs: >> * replace Landlock hook identification by custom eBPF program types with a >> dedicated subtype field >> * manage fine-grained privileged Landlock programs >> * register Landlock programs for dedicated trigger origins (e.g. syscall, >> return from seccomp filter and/or interruption) >> * performance and memory optimizations: use an array to access Landlock hooks >> directly but do not duplicated it for each thread (seccomp-based) >> * allow running Landlock programs without seccomp filter >> * fix seccomp-related issues >> * remove extra errno bounding check for Landlock programs >> * add some examples for optional eBPF functions or context access (network >> related) according to security checks to allow more features for privileged >> programs (e.g. Checmate) >> >> >> # Changes since RFC v1 >> >> * focus on the LSM hooks, not the syscalls: >> * much more simple implementation >> * does not need audit cache tricks to avoid race conditions >> * more simple to use and more generic because using the LSM hook abstraction >> directly >> * more efficient because only checking in LSM hooks >> * architecture agnostic >> * switch from cBPF to eBPF: >> * new eBPF program types dedicated to Landlock >> * custom functions used by the eBPF program >> * gain some new features (e.g. 10 registers, can load values of different >> size, LLVM translator) but only a few functions allowed and a dedicated map >> type >> * new context: LSM hook ID, cookie and LSM hook arguments >> * need to set the sysctl kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disable to 0 (default value) >> to be able to load hook filters as unprivileged users >> * smaller and simpler: >> * no more checker groups but dedicated arraymap of handles >> * simpler userland structs thanks to eBPF functions >> * distinctive name: Landlock >> >> >> This series can be applied on top of Daniel Mack's patches for BPF_PROG_ATTACH >> v7  on Linux v4.9-rc2. This can be tested with CONFIG_SECURITY_LANDLOCK, >> CONFIG_SECCOMP_FILTER and CONFIG_CGROUP_BPF. I would really appreciate >> constructive comments on the usability, architecture, code and userland API of >> Landlock LSM. >> >>  https://email@example.com >>  https://crypto.stanford.edu/cs155/papers/traps.pdf >>  https://firstname.lastname@example.org >>  https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20160829114542.GA20836@ircssh.c.rugged-nimbus-611.internal >> >> Regards, >> >> Mickaël Salaün (18): >> landlock: Add Kconfig >> bpf: Move u64_to_ptr() to BPF headers and inline it >> bpf,landlock: Add a new arraymap type to deal with (Landlock) handles >> bpf,landlock: Add eBPF program subtype and is_valid_subtype() verifier >> bpf,landlock: Define an eBPF program type for Landlock >> fs: Constify path_is_under()'s arguments >> landlock: Add LSM hooks >> landlock: Handle file comparisons >> landlock: Add manager functions >> seccomp: Split put_seccomp_filter() with put_seccomp() >> seccomp,landlock: Handle Landlock hooks per process hierarchy >> bpf: Cosmetic change for bpf_prog_attach() >> bpf/cgroup: Replace struct bpf_prog with struct bpf_object >> bpf/cgroup: Make cgroup_bpf_update() return an error code >> bpf/cgroup: Move capability check >> bpf/cgroup,landlock: Handle Landlock hooks per cgroup >> landlock: Add update and debug access flags >> samples/landlock: Add sandbox example >> >> fs/namespace.c | 2 +- >> include/linux/bpf-cgroup.h | 19 +- >> include/linux/bpf.h | 44 +++- >> include/linux/cgroup-defs.h | 2 + >> include/linux/filter.h | 1 + >> include/linux/fs.h | 2 +- >> include/linux/landlock.h | 95 +++++++++ >> include/linux/lsm_hooks.h | 5 + >> include/linux/seccomp.h | 12 +- >> include/uapi/linux/bpf.h | 105 ++++++++++ >> include/uapi/linux/seccomp.h | 1 + >> kernel/bpf/arraymap.c | 270 +++++++++++++++++++++++++ >> kernel/bpf/cgroup.c | 139 ++++++++++--- >> kernel/bpf/syscall.c | 71 ++++--- >> kernel/bpf/verifier.c | 35 +++- >> kernel/cgroup.c | 6 +- >> kernel/fork.c | 15 +- >> kernel/seccomp.c | 26 ++- >> kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c | 12 +- >> net/core/filter.c | 26 ++- >> samples/Makefile | 2 +- >> samples/bpf/bpf_helpers.h | 5 + >> samples/landlock/.gitignore | 1 + >> samples/landlock/Makefile | 16 ++ >> samples/landlock/sandbox.c | 405 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ >> security/Kconfig | 1 + >> security/Makefile | 2 + >> security/landlock/Kconfig | 23 +++ >> security/landlock/Makefile | 3 + >> security/landlock/checker_fs.c | 152 ++++++++++++++ >> security/landlock/checker_fs.h | 20 ++ >> security/landlock/common.h | 58 ++++++ >> security/landlock/lsm.c | 449 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ >> security/landlock/manager.c | 379 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ >> security/security.c | 1 + >> 35 files changed, 2309 insertions(+), 96 deletions(-) >> create mode 100644 include/linux/landlock.h >> create mode 100644 samples/landlock/.gitignore >> create mode 100644 samples/landlock/Makefile >> create mode 100644 samples/landlock/sandbox.c >> create mode 100644 security/landlock/Kconfig >> create mode 100644 security/landlock/Makefile >> create mode 100644 security/landlock/checker_fs.c >> create mode 100644 security/landlock/checker_fs.h >> create mode 100644 security/landlock/common.h >> create mode 100644 security/landlock/lsm.c >> create mode 100644 security/landlock/manager.c >> > Was there a plan around getting Daniel's patches in as well? Also, rather than making these handles landlock-specific, can they be implemented in such a way where we can keep track of (some) of these in other types of programs?
next prev parent reply index Thread overview: 31+ messages / expand[flat|nested] mbox.gz Atom feed top 2016-10-26 6:56 Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 01/18] landlock: Add Kconfig Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 02/18] bpf: Move u64_to_ptr() to BPF headers and inline it Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 7:19 ` Arnd Bergmann 2016-10-26 13:52 ` [kernel-hardening] " David Sterba 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 03/18] bpf,landlock: Add a new arraymap type to deal with (Landlock) handles Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 19:01 ` [kernel-hardening] " Jann Horn 2016-10-26 20:03 ` Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 20:16 ` Jann Horn 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 04/18] bpf,landlock: Add eBPF program subtype and is_valid_subtype() verifier Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 05/18] bpf,landlock: Define an eBPF program type for Landlock Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 06/18] fs: Constify path_is_under()'s arguments Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 07/18] landlock: Add LSM hooks Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 08/18] landlock: Handle file comparisons Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 09/18] landlock: Add manager functions Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 10/18] seccomp: Split put_seccomp_filter() with put_seccomp() Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 11/18] seccomp,landlock: Handle Landlock hooks per process hierarchy Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 12/18] bpf: Cosmetic change for bpf_prog_attach() Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 13/18] bpf/cgroup: Replace struct bpf_prog with struct bpf_object Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 14/18] bpf/cgroup: Make cgroup_bpf_update() return an error code Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 15/18] bpf/cgroup: Move capability check Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 16/18] bpf/cgroup,landlock: Handle Landlock hooks per cgroup Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 17/18] landlock: Add update and debug access flags Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 6:56 ` [RFC v4 18/18] samples/landlock: Add sandbox example Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 14:52 ` [RFC v4 00/18] Landlock LSM: Unprivileged sandboxing Jann Horn 2016-10-26 16:56 ` Mickaël Salaün 2016-10-26 17:24 ` Mickaël Salaün 2016-11-13 14:23 ` Mickaël Salaün 2016-11-14 10:35 ` Sargun Dhillon [this message] 2016-11-14 20:51 ` Mickaël Salaün 2016-11-13 17:38 Alexei Starovoitov
Reply instructions: You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email using any one of the following methods: * Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client, and reply-to-all from there: mbox Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style * Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to switches of git-send-email(1): git send-email \ --in-reply-to='CAMp4zn8u3kg-nhiZ5rSUCLGveAzHr6FoP1x=iJasF2W0S56WfA@mail.gmail.com' \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ /path/to/YOUR_REPLY https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html * If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header via mailto: links, try the mailto: link
LKML Archive on lore.kernel.org Archives are clonable: git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/0 lkml/git/0.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/1 lkml/git/1.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/2 lkml/git/2.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/3 lkml/git/3.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/4 lkml/git/4.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/5 lkml/git/5.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/6 lkml/git/6.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/7 lkml/git/7.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/8 lkml/git/8.git git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/9 lkml/git/9.git # If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may # initialize and index your mirror using the following commands: public-inbox-init -V2 lkml lkml/ https://lore.kernel.org/lkml \ firstname.lastname@example.org public-inbox-index lkml Example config snippet for mirrors Newsgroup available over NNTP: nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.linux-kernel AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git