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From: "Mickaël Salaün" <mic@digikod.net>
To: "Alejandro Colomar (man-pages)" <alx.manpages@gmail.com>
Cc: "Jann Horn" <jannh@google.com>,
	"Jonathan Corbet" <corbet@lwn.net>,
	"Kees Cook" <keescook@chromium.org>,
	"Randy Dunlap" <rdunlap@infradead.org>,
	"Vincent Dagonneau" <vincent.dagonneau@ssi.gouv.fr>,
	landlock@lists.linux.dev, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-man@vger.kernel.org, linux-security-module@vger.kernel.org,
	"Mickaël Salaün" <mic@linux.microsoft.com>,
	"Michael Kerrisk" <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2 1/4] landlock.7: Add a new page to introduce Landlock
Date: Fri, 30 Jul 2021 14:15:48 +0200	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <c5036c5c-37a1-57d2-e5dc-1f41a5ed0d31@digikod.net> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <3f1b943b-2477-2c4e-c835-d6616888176c@gmail.com>


On 29/07/2021 16:56, Alejandro Colomar (man-pages) wrote:
> Hi Mickaël,
> 
> On 7/12/21 5:57 PM, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
>> From: Mickaël Salaün <mic@linux.microsoft.com>
>>
>>  From the user point of view, Landlock is a set of system calls enabling
>> to build and enforce a set of access-control rules.  A ruleset can be
>> created with landlock_create_ruleset(2), populated with
>> landlock_add_rule(2) and enforced with landlock_restrict_self(2).  This
>> man page gives an overview of the whole mechanism.  Details of these
>> system calls are documented in their respective man pages.
>>
>> This is an adaptation of
>> https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/v5.13/userspace-api/landlock.html
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Mickaël Salaün <mic@linux.microsoft.com>
>> Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210712155745.831580-2-mic@digikod.net
> 
> Please see some comments below, mostly about formatting.
> The text looks good to me.

Thanks for the review.

> 
> Thanks,
> 
> Alex
> 
>> ---
>>
>> Changes since v1:
>> * Replace all ".I" with ".IR", except when used for titles.
> 
> Sorry, but I actually prefer the opposite: Use .I unless you really need
> .IR

When do we really need .IR? Isn't `.I "foo bar"` the same as `.IR foo
bar`? What do you use roman for?

Where can we find these preferences? The best I found was
https://www.man7.org/linux/man-pages/man7/groff_man.7.html but it
doesn't explain what to use. The current man pages seems to use both
interchangeably.

> 
> If there was a misunderstanding about this, I'm sorry.
> 
>> * Append punctuation to ".IR" and ".BR" when it makes sense (requested
>>    by Alejandro Colomar).
>> * Cut lines according to the semantic newline rules (requested by
>>    Alejandro Colomar).
>> * Remove roman style from ".TP" section titles (requested by Alejandro
>>    Colomar).
>> * Add comma after "i.e." and "e.g.".
>> * Move the example in a new EXAMPLES section.
>> * Improve title.
>> * Explain the LSM acronym at first use.
>> ---
>>   man7/landlock.7 | 356 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>   1 file changed, 356 insertions(+)
>>   create mode 100644 man7/landlock.7
>>
>> diff --git a/man7/landlock.7 b/man7/landlock.7
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 000000000000..c89f5b1cabb6
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/man7/landlock.7
>> @@ -0,0 +1,356 @@
>> +.\" Copyright © 2017-2020 Mickaël Salaün <mic@digikod.net>
>> +.\" Copyright © 2019-2020 ANSSI
>> +.\" Copyright © 2021 Microsoft Corporation
>> +.\"
>> +.\" %%%LICENSE_START(VERBATIM)
>> +.\" Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
>> +.\" manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
>> +.\" preserved on all copies.
>> +.\"
>> +.\" Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
>> this
>> +.\" manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
>> +.\" entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
>> +.\" permission notice identical to this one.
>> +.\"
>> +.\" Since the Linux kernel and libraries are constantly changing, this
>> +.\" manual page may be incorrect or out-of-date.  The author(s)
>> assume no
>> +.\" responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting
>> from
>> +.\" the use of the information contained herein.  The author(s) may not
>> +.\" have taken the same level of care in the production of this manual,
>> +.\" which is licensed free of charge, as they might when working
>> +.\" professionally.
>> +.\"
>> +.\" Formatted or processed versions of this manual, if unaccompanied by
>> +.\" the source, must acknowledge the copyright and authors of this work.
>> +.\" %%%LICENSE_END
>> +.\"
>> +.TH LANDLOCK 7 2021-06-27 Linux "Linux Programmer's Manual"
>> +.SH NAME
>> +Landlock \- unprivileged access-control
>> +.SH DESCRIPTION
>> +Landlock is an access-control system that enables any processes to //
>> securely /J/

Why adding a line break here? This line is 75 columns as stated by the
documentation: https://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man7/man-pages.7.html
I guess it helps for semantic newlines, right? If so, what are the rules?

> 
> I'll add some line breaks [//] and line joins [/J/] through the email.
> 
>> +restrict themselves and their future children.
>> +Because Landlock is a stackable Linux Security Module (LSM),
>> +it makes possible to create safe security sandboxes as new security
>> layers
> 
> suggested wfix: "it makes it possible" or "it is possible"?

Ok

> 
>> +in addition to the existing system-wide access-controls.
>> +This kind of sandbox is expected to help mitigate // the security
>> impact of /J/ > +bugs, // and unexpected or malicious behaviors in
>> applications.
> 
> See line-break fixes above.

Ok

> 
>> +.PP
>> +A Landlock security policy is a set of access rights
>> +(e.g., open a file in read-only, make a directory, etc.)
>> +tied to a file hierarchy.
>> +Such policy can be configured and enforced by processes for themselves
>> +using three system calls:
>> +.IP \(bu 2
>> +.BR landlock_create_ruleset (2)
>> +creates a new ruleset;
>> +.IP \(bu
>> +.BR landlock_add_rule (2)
>> +adds a new rule to a ruleset;
>> +.IP \(bu
>> +.BR landlock_restrict_self (2)
>> +enforces a ruleset on the calling thread.
>> +.PP
>> +To be able to use these system calls,
>> +the running kernel must support Landlock and // it must be enabled at
>> boot /J/
>> +time.
> 
> See line-break fixes above

Ok

> 
>> +.\"
>> +.SS Landlock rules
>> +A Landlock rule describes an action on an object.
>> +An object is currently a file hierarchy,
>> +and the related filesystem actions are defined with access rights (see
>> +.BR landlock_add_rule (2)).
>> +A set of rules is aggregated in a ruleset, // which can /J/
>> +then restrict the thread enforcing it, // and its future children.
> 
> See line-break fixes above.

Ok

> 
>> +.\"
>> +.SS Filesystem actions
>> +These flags enable to restrict a sandboxed process to a // set of
>> actions on /J/
>> +files and directories. > +Files or directories opened before the
>> sandboxing // are not subject 
> to these /J/
>> +restrictions.
> 
> See line-break fixes above.

Ok

> 
>> +See
>> +.BR landlock_add_rule (2)
>> +and
>> +.BR landlock_create_ruleset (2)
>> +for more context.
>> +.PP
>> +A file can only receive these access rights:
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_EXECUTE
>> +Execute a file.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_WRITE_FILE
>> +Open a file with write access.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_READ_FILE
>> +Open a file with read access.
>> +.PP
>> +A directory can receive access rights related to files or directories.
>> +The following access right is applied to the directory itself,
>> +and the directories beneath it:
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_READ_DIR
>> +Open a directory or list its content.
>> +.PP
>> +However,
>> +the following access rights only apply to the content of a directory,
>> +not the directory itself:
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_REMOVE_DIR
>> +Remove an empty directory or rename one.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_REMOVE_FILE
>> +Unlink (or rename) a file.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_CHAR
>> +Create (or rename or link) a character device.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_DIR
>> +Create (or rename) a directory.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_REG
>> +Create (or rename or link) a regular file.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_SOCK
>> +Create (or rename or link) a UNIX domain socket.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_FIFO
>> +Create (or rename or link) a named pipe.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_BLOCK
>> +Create (or rename or link) a block device.
>> +.TP
>> +.B LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_SYM
>> +Create (or rename or link) a symbolic link.
>> +.\"
>> +.SS Layers of file path access rights
>> +Each time a thread enforces a ruleset on itself, // it updates its
>> Landlock /J/
> 
> See line-break fixes above

Ok

> 
>> +domain with a new layer of policy.
>> +Indeed, this complementary policy is composed with the potentially other
>> +rulesets already restricting this thread.
>> +A sandboxed thread can then safely add more constraints to itself with a
>> +new enforced ruleset.
>> +.PP
>> +One policy layer grants access to a file path // if at least one of
>> its rules /J/
>> +encountered on the path grants the access.
>> +A sandboxed thread can only access a file path // if all its enforced
>> policy /J/
>> +layers grant the access // as well as all the other system access
>> controls
>> +(e.g., filesystem DAC, other LSM policies, etc.).
> 
> See line-break fixes above.

Ok

> 
>> +.\"
>> +.SS Bind mounts and OverlayFS
>> +Landlock enables restricting access to file hierarchies,
>> +which means that these access rights can be propagated with bind mounts
>> +(cf.
>> +.BR mount_namespaces (7))
>> +but not with OverlayFS.
>> +.PP
>> +A bind mount mirrors a source file hierarchy to a destination.
>> +The destination hierarchy is then composed of the exact same files,
>> +on which Landlock rules can be tied, // either via the source or the /J/
>> +destination path.
>> +These rules restrict access when they are encountered on a path,
>> +which means that they can restrict access to // multiple file
>> hierarchies at /J/
>> +the same time,
>> +whether these hierarchies are the result of bind mounts or not.
> 
> 
> See line-break fixes above.

Ok

> 
>> +.PP
>> +An OverlayFS mount point consists of upper and lower layers.
>> +These layers are combined in a merge directory, result of the mount
>> point.
>> +This merge hierarchy may include files from the upper and lower layers,
>> +but modifications performed on the merge hierarchy // only reflects
>> on the /J/
> 
> s/reflects/reflect/

Ok

> 
>> +upper layer.
>> +From a Landlock policy point of view,
>> +each OverlayFS layers and merge hierarchies are standalone and contains
>> +their own set of files and directories,
>> +which is different from bind mounts.
> 
> 
> Incorrect mix of singular and plural, I think.

Is it OK with s/contains/contain/?

> 
>> +A policy restricting an OverlayFS layer will not restrict the resulted
>> +merged hierarchy, and vice versa.
>> +Landlock users should then only think about file hierarchies they
>> want to
>> +allow access to, regardless of the underlying filesystem.
>> +.\"
>> +.SS Inheritance
>> +Every new thread resulting from a
>> +.BR clone (2)
>> +inherits Landlock domain restrictions from its parent.
>> +This is similar to the
>> +.BR seccomp (2)
>> +inheritance or any other LSM dealing with task's
> 
> Not sure:
> 
> s/task/a task/
> or
> s/task's/tasks'/

I'll take "tasks'".

> 
>> +.BR credentials (7).
>> +For instance, one process's thread may apply Landlock rules to itself,
> 
> s/process's/process'/

As pointed out by Branden, this is correct.

> 
>> +but they will not be automatically applied to other sibling threads
>> +(unlike POSIX thread credential changes, cf.
>> +.BR nptl (7)).
>> +.PP
>> +When a thread sandboxes itself, // we have the guarantee that the
>> related /J/
>> +security policy // will stay enforced on all this thread's descendants.
>> +This allows creating standalone and modular security policies // per /J/
>> +application,
>> +which will automatically be composed between themselves // according
>> to their /J/
>> +runtime parent policies.
>> +.\"
>> +.SS Ptrace restrictions
>> +A sandboxed process has less privileges than a non-sandboxed process and
>> +must then be subject to additional restrictions // when manipulating
>> another /J/
>> +process.
>> +To be allowed to use
>> +.BR ptrace (2)
>> +and related syscalls on a target process,
>> +a sandboxed process should have a subset of the target process rules,
>> +which means the tracee must be in a sub-domain of the tracer.
>> +.SH VERSIONS
>> +Landlock was added in Linux 5.13.
>> +.SH NOTES
>> +Landlock is enabled by CONFIG_SECURITY_LANDLOCK.
> 
> .BR CONFIG_SECURITY_LANDLOCK .

Ok

> 
>> +The
>> +.IR lsm=lsm1,...,lsmN
> 
> s/.IR/.I/

Ok

> 
>> +command line parameter controls the sequence of the initialization of
>> +Linux Security Modules.
>> +It must contain the string
>> +.IR landlock
> 
> s/.IR/.I

Ok

> 
>> +to enable Landlock.
>> +If the command line parameter is not specified,
>> +the initialization falls back to the value of the deprecated
>> +.IR security=
> 
> s/.IR/.I/

Ok

> 
>> +command line parameter and further to the value of CONFIG_LSM.
>> +We can check that Landlock is enabled by looking for
>> +.IR "landlock: Up and running."
> 
> s/.IR/.I/

Ok

> 
>> +in kernel logs.
>> +.PP
>> +It is currently not possible to restrict some file-related actions
>> +accessible through these syscall families:
> 
> When using syscall to refer to system call (not the function syscall(2)),
> we use the extended form "system call".

Ok

> 
>> +.BR chdir (2),
>> +.BR truncate (2),
>> +.BR stat (2),
>> +.BR flock (2),
>> +.BR chmod (2),
>> +.BR chown (2),
>> +.BR setxattr (2),
>> +.BR utime (2),
>> +.BR ioctl (2),
>> +.BR fcntl (2),
>> +.BR access (2).
>> +Future Landlock evolutions will enable to restrict them.
>> +.SH EXAMPLES
> I'd prefer a complete example with a main function, if you can come up
> with such one.  If not, this will be ok.

I think it is clearer to not to use a full main to explain these basic
steps. A full working example is linked though.

> 
> 
>> +We first need to create the ruleset that will contain our rules.
>> +For this example,
>> +the ruleset will contain rules that only allow read actions,
>> +but write actions will be denied.
>> +The ruleset then needs to handle both of these kind of actions.
>> +See below for the description of filesystem actions.
>> +.PP
>> +.in +4n
>> +.EX
>> +int ruleset_fd;
>> +struct landlock_ruleset_attr ruleset_attr = {
>> +    .handled_access_fs =
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_EXECUTE |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_WRITE_FILE |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_READ_FILE |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_READ_DIR |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_REMOVE_DIR |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_REMOVE_FILE |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_CHAR |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_DIR |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_REG |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_SOCK |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_FIFO |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_BLOCK |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_MAKE_SYM,
>> +};
>> +
>> +ruleset_fd = landlock_create_ruleset(&ruleset_attr,
>> sizeof(ruleset_attr), 0);
>> +if (ruleset_fd < 0) {
>> +    perror("Failed to create a ruleset");
>> +    return 1;
>> +}
>> +.EE
>> +.in
>> +.PP
>> +We can now add a new rule to this ruleset thanks to the returned file
>> +descriptor referring to this ruleset.
>> +The rule will only allow reading the file hierarchy
>> +.IR /usr .

Why ".IR" is correct here?


>> +Without another rule, write actions would then be denied by the ruleset.
>> +To add
>> +.IR /usr
>> +to the ruleset, we open it with the
>> +.IR O_PATH
>> +flag and fill the
>> +.IR "struct landlock_path_beneath_attr"
>> +with this file descriptor.
>> +.PP
>> +.in +4n
>> +.EX
>> +int err;
>> +struct landlock_path_beneath_attr path_beneath = {
>> +    .allowed_access =
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_EXECUTE |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_READ_FILE |
>> +        LANDLOCK_ACCESS_FS_READ_DIR,
>> +};
>> +
>> +path_beneath.parent_fd = open("/usr", O_PATH | O_CLOEXEC);
>> +if (path_beneath.parent_fd < 0) {
>> +    perror("Failed to open file");
>> +    close(ruleset_fd);
>> +    return 1;
>> +}
>> +err = landlock_add_rule(ruleset_fd, LANDLOCK_RULE_PATH_BENEATH,
>> +                        &path_beneath, 0);
>> +close(path_beneath.parent_fd);
>> +if (err) {
>> +    perror("Failed to update ruleset");
>> +    close(ruleset_fd);
>> +    return 1;
>> +}
>> +.EE
>> +.in
>> +.PP
>> +We now have a ruleset with one rule allowing read access to
>> +.IR /usr
>> +while denying all other handled accesses for the filesystem.
>> +The next step is to restrict the current thread from gaining more
>> +privileges
>> +(e.g., thanks to a set-user-ID binary).
>> +.PP
>> +.in +4n
>> +.EX
>> +if (prctl(PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS, 1, 0, 0, 0)) {
>> +    perror("Failed to restrict privileges");
>> +    close(ruleset_fd);
>> +    return 1;
>> +}
>> +.EE
>> +.in
>> +.PP
>> +The current thread is now ready to sandbox itself with the ruleset.
>> +.PP
>> +.in +4n
>> +.EX
>> +if (landlock_restrict_self(ruleset_fd, 0)) {
>> +    perror("Failed to enforce ruleset");
>> +    close(ruleset_fd);
>> +    return 1;
>> +}
>> +close(ruleset_fd);
>> +.EE
>> +.in
>> +.PP
>> +If the
>> +.BR landlock_restrict_self (2)
>> +system call succeeds, the current thread is now restricted and this
>> policy
>> +will be enforced on all its subsequently created children as well.
>> +Once a thread is landlocked, there is no way to remove its security
>> policy;
>> +only adding more restrictions is allowed.
>> +These threads are now in a new Landlock domain, // merge of their
>> parent one /J/
>> +(if any) with the new ruleset.
>> +.PP
>> +Full working code can be found in
>> +.UR
>> https://git.kernel.org\:/pub\:/scm\:/linux\:/kernel\:/git\:/stable\:/linux.git\:/tree\:/samples\:/landlock\:/sandboxer.c
>>
>> +.UE
>> +.SH SEE ALSO
>> +.BR landlock_create_ruleset (2),
>> +.BR landlock_add_rule (2),
>> +.BR landlock_restrict_self (2)
>> +.PP
>> +.UR https://landlock.io\:/
>> +.UE
>>
> 
> 

  parent reply	other threads:[~2021-07-30 12:14 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 17+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-07-12 15:57 [PATCH v2 0/4] Add Landlock man pages Mickaël Salaün
2021-07-12 15:57 ` [PATCH v2 1/4] landlock.7: Add a new page to introduce Landlock Mickaël Salaün
2021-07-29 14:56   ` Alejandro Colomar (man-pages)
2021-07-29 22:01     ` G. Branden Robinson
2021-07-29 22:34       ` Alejandro Colomar (man-pages)
2021-07-30 12:15     ` Mickaël Salaün [this message]
2021-07-30 12:41       ` Alejandro Colomar (man-pages)
2021-07-30 12:59         ` Alejandro Colomar (man-pages)
2021-07-30 14:32           ` Mickaël Salaün
2021-07-31  0:15           ` G. Branden Robinson
2021-07-31 11:02             ` Alejandro Colomar (man-pages)
2021-07-30 23:39       ` G. Branden Robinson
2021-07-31 10:51         ` Alejandro Colomar (man-pages)
2021-07-31 13:48           ` G. Branden Robinson
2021-07-12 15:57 ` [PATCH v2 2/4] landlock_create_ruleset.2: Document new syscall Mickaël Salaün
2021-07-12 15:57 ` [PATCH v2 3/4] landlock_add_rule.2: " Mickaël Salaün
2021-07-12 15:57 ` [PATCH v2 4/4] landlock_restrict_self.2: " Mickaël Salaün

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