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* [RFC v2 0/2] lazy mm refcounting
@ 2020-12-04  5:26 Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting Andy Lutomirski
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Andy Lutomirski @ 2020-12-04  5:26 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nicholas Piggin
  Cc: Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, linux-arch, LKML, Linux-MM,
	linuxppc-dev, Mathieu Desnoyers, X86 ML, Will Deacon,
	Catalin Marinas, Rik van Riel, Dave Hansen, Nadav Amit,
	Jann Horn, Andy Lutomirski

This is part of a larger series here, but the beginning bit is irrelevant
to the current discussion:

https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/luto/linux.git/commit/?h=x86/mm&id=203d39d11562575fd8bd6a094d97a3a332d8b265

This is IMO a lot better than v1.  It's now almost entirely in generic
code.  (It looks like it's 100% generic, but that's a lie -- the
generic code currently that all possible lazy mm refs are in
mm_cpumask(), and that's not true on all arches.  So, if we take my
approach, we'll need to have a little arch hook to control this.)

Here's how I think it fits with various arches:

x86: On bare metal (i.e. paravirt flush unavailable), the loop won't do
much.  The existing TLB shootdown when user tables are freed will
empty mm_cpumask of everything but the calling CPU.  So x86 ends up
pretty close to as good as we can get short of reworking mm_cpumask() itself.

arm64: It needs the fixup above for correctness, but I think performance
should be pretty good.  Compared to current kernels, we lose an mmgrab()
and mmdrop() on each lazy transition, and we add a reasonably fast loop
over all cpus on process exit.  Someone (probably me) needs to make
sure we don't need some extra barriers.

power: Similar to x86.

s390x: Should be essentially the same as arm64.

Other arches: I don't know.  Further research is required.

What do you all think?

Andy Lutomirski (2):
  [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch
    code
  [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting

 arch/x86/mm/tlb.c    |  17 +++++-
 kernel/fork.c        |   4 ++
 kernel/sched/core.c  | 134 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
 kernel/sched/sched.h |  11 +++-
 4 files changed, 145 insertions(+), 21 deletions(-)

-- 
2.28.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code
  2020-12-04  5:26 [RFC v2 0/2] lazy mm refcounting Andy Lutomirski
@ 2020-12-04  5:26 ` Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-04  7:06   ` Nicholas Piggin
                     ` (2 more replies)
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting Andy Lutomirski
  1 sibling, 3 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Andy Lutomirski @ 2020-12-04  5:26 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nicholas Piggin
  Cc: Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, linux-arch, LKML, Linux-MM,
	linuxppc-dev, Mathieu Desnoyers, X86 ML, Will Deacon,
	Catalin Marinas, Rik van Riel, Dave Hansen, Nadav Amit,
	Jann Horn, Andy Lutomirski

The core scheduler isn't a great place for
membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode() -- the core scheduler doesn't
actually know whether we are lazy.  With the old code, if a CPU is
running a membarrier-registered task, goes idle, gets unlazied via a TLB
shootdown IPI, and switches back to the membarrier-registered task, it
will do an unnecessary core sync.

Conveniently, x86 is the only architecture that does anything in this
hook, so we can just move the code.

XXX: there are some comments in swich_mm_irqs_off() that seem to be
trying to document what barriers are expected, and it's not clear to me
that these barriers are actually present in all paths through the
code.  So I think this change makes the code more comprehensible and
has no effect on the code's correctness, but I'm not at all convinced
that the code is correct.

Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
---
 arch/x86/mm/tlb.c   | 17 ++++++++++++++++-
 kernel/sched/core.c | 14 +++++++-------
 2 files changed, 23 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
index 3338a1feccf9..23df035b80e8 100644
--- a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
+++ b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
 #include <linux/export.h>
 #include <linux/cpu.h>
 #include <linux/debugfs.h>
+#include <linux/sched/mm.h>
 
 #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
 #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
@@ -496,6 +497,8 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
 		 * from one thread in a process to another thread in the same
 		 * process. No TLB flush required.
 		 */
+
+		// XXX: why is this okay wrt membarrier?
 		if (!was_lazy)
 			return;
 
@@ -508,12 +511,24 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
 		smp_mb();
 		next_tlb_gen = atomic64_read(&next->context.tlb_gen);
 		if (this_cpu_read(cpu_tlbstate.ctxs[prev_asid].tlb_gen) ==
-				next_tlb_gen)
+		    next_tlb_gen) {
+			/*
+			 * We're reactivating an mm, and membarrier might
+			 * need to serialize.  Tell membarrier.
+			 */
+
+			// XXX: I can't understand the logic in
+			// membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode().  What's
+			// the mm check for?
+			membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(next);
 			return;
+		}
 
 		/*
 		 * TLB contents went out of date while we were in lazy
 		 * mode. Fall through to the TLB switching code below.
+		 * No need for an explicit membarrier invocation -- the CR3
+		 * write will serialize.
 		 */
 		new_asid = prev_asid;
 		need_flush = true;
diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
index 2d95dc3f4644..6c4b76147166 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -3619,22 +3619,22 @@ static struct rq *finish_task_switch(struct task_struct *prev)
 	kcov_finish_switch(current);
 
 	fire_sched_in_preempt_notifiers(current);
+
 	/*
 	 * When switching through a kernel thread, the loop in
 	 * membarrier_{private,global}_expedited() may have observed that
 	 * kernel thread and not issued an IPI. It is therefore possible to
 	 * schedule between user->kernel->user threads without passing though
 	 * switch_mm(). Membarrier requires a barrier after storing to
-	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, so provide them here:
+	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, and mmdrop() provides
+	 * this barrier.
 	 *
-	 * - a full memory barrier for {PRIVATE,GLOBAL}_EXPEDITED, implicitly
-	 *   provided by mmdrop(),
-	 * - a sync_core for SYNC_CORE.
+	 * XXX: I don't think mmdrop() actually does this.  There's no
+	 * smp_mb__before/after_atomic() in there.
 	 */
-	if (mm) {
-		membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(mm);
+	if (mm)
 		mmdrop(mm);
-	}
+
 	if (unlikely(prev_state == TASK_DEAD)) {
 		if (prev->sched_class->task_dead)
 			prev->sched_class->task_dead(prev);
-- 
2.28.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting
  2020-12-04  5:26 [RFC v2 0/2] lazy mm refcounting Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code Andy Lutomirski
@ 2020-12-04  5:26 ` Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-04  7:54   ` Nicholas Piggin
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Andy Lutomirski @ 2020-12-04  5:26 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nicholas Piggin
  Cc: Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, linux-arch, LKML, Linux-MM,
	linuxppc-dev, Mathieu Desnoyers, X86 ML, Will Deacon,
	Catalin Marinas, Rik van Riel, Dave Hansen, Nadav Amit,
	Jann Horn, Andy Lutomirski

This is a mockup.  It's designed to illustrate the algorithm and how the
code might be structured.  There are several things blatantly wrong with
it:

The coding stype is not up to kernel standards.  I have prototypes in the
wrong places and other hacks.

There's a problem with mm_cpumask() not being reliable.

Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
---
 kernel/fork.c        |   4 ++
 kernel/sched/core.c  | 128 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
 kernel/sched/sched.h |  11 +++-
 3 files changed, 126 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index da8d360fb032..0887a33cf84f 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -1066,6 +1066,8 @@ struct mm_struct *mm_alloc(void)
 	return mm_init(mm, current, current_user_ns());
 }
 
+extern void mm_fixup_lazy_refs(struct mm_struct *mm);
+
 static inline void __mmput(struct mm_struct *mm)
 {
 	VM_BUG_ON(atomic_read(&mm->mm_users));
@@ -1084,6 +1086,8 @@ static inline void __mmput(struct mm_struct *mm)
 	}
 	if (mm->binfmt)
 		module_put(mm->binfmt->module);
+
+	mm_fixup_lazy_refs(mm);
 	mmdrop(mm);
 }
 
diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
index 6c4b76147166..69dfdfe0e5b4 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -3555,6 +3555,75 @@ prepare_task_switch(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev,
 	prepare_arch_switch(next);
 }
 
+static void drop_extra_mm_refs(struct rq *rq)
+{
+	unsigned long old_mm;
+
+	if (likely(!atomic_long_read(&rq->mm_to_mmdrop)))
+		return;
+
+	/*
+	 * Slow path.  This only happens when we recently stopped using
+	 * an mm that is exiting.
+	 */
+	old_mm = atomic_long_xchg_relaxed(&rq->mm_to_mmdrop, 0);
+	if (old_mm)
+		mmdrop((struct mm_struct *)old_mm);
+}
+
+/*
+ * This ensures that all lazy_mm refs to mm are converted to mm_count
+ * refcounts.  Our caller holds an mm_count reference, so we don't need
+ * to worry about mm being freed out from under us.
+ */
+void mm_fixup_lazy_refs(struct mm_struct *mm)
+{
+	int cpu;
+
+	/*
+	 * mm_users is zero, so no new lazy refs will be taken.
+	 */
+	WARN_ON_ONCE(atomic_read(&mm->mm_users) != 0);
+
+	/*
+	 * XXX: this is wrong on arm64 and possibly on other architectures.
+	 * Maybe we need a config option for this?  Or a
+	 * for_each_possible_lazy_cpu(cpu, mm) helper?
+	 */
+	for_each_cpu(cpu, mm_cpumask(mm)) {
+		struct rq *rq = cpu_rq(cpu);
+		unsigned long old;
+
+		if (READ_ONCE(rq->lazy_mm) != mm)
+			continue;
+
+		// XXX: we could optimize this by doing a big addition to
+		// mm_count up front instead of incrementing it separately
+		// for each CPU.
+		mmgrab(mm);
+
+		// XXX: could this be relaxed instead?
+		old = atomic_long_xchg(&rq->mm_to_mmdrop, (unsigned long)mm);
+
+		// At this point, mm can be mmdrop()ed at any time, probably
+		// by the target cpu.
+
+		if (!old)
+			continue;  // All done!
+
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(old == (unsigned long)mm);
+
+		// Uh oh!  We just stole an mm reference from the target CPU.
+		// Fortunately, we just observed the target's lazy_mm pointing
+		// to something other than old, and we observed this after
+		// bringing mm_users down to 0.  This means that the remote
+		// cpu is definitely done with old.  So we can drop it on the
+		// remote CPU's behalf.
+
+		mmdrop((struct mm_struct *)old);
+	}
+}
+
 /**
  * finish_task_switch - clean up after a task-switch
  * @prev: the thread we just switched away from.
@@ -3578,7 +3647,6 @@ static struct rq *finish_task_switch(struct task_struct *prev)
 	__releases(rq->lock)
 {
 	struct rq *rq = this_rq();
-	struct mm_struct *mm = rq->prev_mm;
 	long prev_state;
 
 	/*
@@ -3597,8 +3665,6 @@ static struct rq *finish_task_switch(struct task_struct *prev)
 		      current->comm, current->pid, preempt_count()))
 		preempt_count_set(FORK_PREEMPT_COUNT);
 
-	rq->prev_mm = NULL;
-
 	/*
 	 * A task struct has one reference for the use as "current".
 	 * If a task dies, then it sets TASK_DEAD in tsk->state and calls
@@ -3629,11 +3695,28 @@ static struct rq *finish_task_switch(struct task_struct *prev)
 	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, and mmdrop() provides
 	 * this barrier.
 	 *
-	 * XXX: I don't think mmdrop() actually does this.  There's no
-	 * smp_mb__before/after_atomic() in there.
+	 * XXX: I don't think mmdrop() actually did this.  There's no
+	 * smp_mb__before/after_atomic() in there.  But mmdrop()
+	 * certainly doesn't do this now, since we don't call mmdrop().
 	 */
-	if (mm)
-		mmdrop(mm);
+	if (current->mm && rq->lazy_mm) {
+		/*
+		 * We are unlazying.  Any remote CPU that observes our
+		 * store to lazy_mm is permitted to free the mm if mm_users
+		 * and mm_count are both zero.
+		 */
+		WRITE_ONCE(rq->lazy_mm, NULL);
+	}
+
+	// Do this unconditionally.  There's a race in which a remote CPU
+	// sees rq->lazy_mm != NULL and gives us an extra mm ref while we
+	// are executing this code and we don't notice.  Instead of letting
+	// that ref sit around until the next time we unlazy, do it on every
+	// context switch.
+	//
+	// XXX: maybe we should do this at the beginning of a context switch
+	// instead?
+	drop_extra_mm_refs(rq);
 
 	if (unlikely(prev_state == TASK_DEAD)) {
 		if (prev->sched_class->task_dead)
@@ -3737,20 +3820,31 @@ context_switch(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev,
 	arch_start_context_switch(prev);
 
 	/*
-	 * kernel -> kernel   lazy + transfer active
-	 *   user -> kernel   lazy + mmgrab() active
+	 * TODO: write a new comment!
 	 *
-	 * kernel ->   user   switch + mmdrop() active
-	 *   user ->   user   switch
+	 * NB: none of this is kept in sync with the arch code.
+	 * In particular, active_mm can point to an mm that is no longer
+	 * in use by the arch mm code, and this condition can persist
+	 * across multiple context switches.  This isn't a problem
+	 * per se, but it does mean that using active_mm for anything
+	 * other than keeping an mm from being freed is a bit dubious.
 	 */
 	if (!next->mm) {                                // to kernel
 		enter_lazy_tlb(prev->active_mm, next);
 
 		next->active_mm = prev->active_mm;
-		if (prev->mm)                           // from user
-			mmgrab(prev->active_mm);
-		else
+		if (prev->mm) {                         // from user
+			WARN_ON_ONCE(rq->lazy_mm);
+			WRITE_ONCE(rq->lazy_mm, next->active_mm);
+			/*
+			 * barrier here?  this needs to be visible to any
+			 * remote CPU that starts executing __mmput().  That
+			 * can't happen until either we call mmput() or until
+			 * prev migrates elsewhere.
+			 */
+		} else {
 			prev->active_mm = NULL;
+		}
 	} else {                                        // to user
 		membarrier_switch_mm(rq, prev->active_mm, next->mm);
 		/*
@@ -3760,12 +3854,14 @@ context_switch(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev,
 		 * The below provides this either through switch_mm(), or in
 		 * case 'prev->active_mm == next->mm' through
 		 * finish_task_switch()'s mmdrop().
+		 *
+		 * XXX: mmdrop() didn't do this before, and the new
+		 * code doesn't even call mmdrop().
 		 */
 		switch_mm_irqs_off(prev->active_mm, next->mm, next);
 
 		if (!prev->mm) {                        // from kernel
-			/* will mmdrop() in finish_task_switch(). */
-			rq->prev_mm = prev->active_mm;
+			/* will release lazy_mm in finish_task_switch(). */
 			prev->active_mm = NULL;
 		}
 	}
diff --git a/kernel/sched/sched.h b/kernel/sched/sched.h
index 28709f6b0975..e0caee5f158e 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/sched.h
+++ b/kernel/sched/sched.h
@@ -950,7 +950,16 @@ struct rq {
 	struct task_struct	*idle;
 	struct task_struct	*stop;
 	unsigned long		next_balance;
-	struct mm_struct	*prev_mm;
+
+	/*
+	 * Hazard pointer for an mm that we might be using lazily.
+	 */
+	struct mm_struct	*lazy_mm;
+
+	/*
+	 * An mm that needs mmdrop()ing.
+	 */
+	atomic_long_t		mm_to_mmdrop;
 
 	unsigned int		clock_update_flags;
 	u64			clock;
-- 
2.28.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code Andy Lutomirski
@ 2020-12-04  7:06   ` Nicholas Piggin
  2020-12-04  8:17   ` Nadav Amit
  2020-12-04 20:24   ` Mathieu Desnoyers
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Nicholas Piggin @ 2020-12-04  7:06 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andy Lutomirski
  Cc: Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, Catalin Marinas, Dave Hansen,
	Jann Horn, linux-arch, LKML, Linux-MM, linuxppc-dev,
	Mathieu Desnoyers, Nadav Amit, Rik van Riel, Will Deacon, X86 ML

Excerpts from Andy Lutomirski's message of December 4, 2020 3:26 pm:
> The core scheduler isn't a great place for
> membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode() -- the core scheduler doesn't
> actually know whether we are lazy.  With the old code, if a CPU is
> running a membarrier-registered task, goes idle, gets unlazied via a TLB
> shootdown IPI, and switches back to the membarrier-registered task, it
> will do an unnecessary core sync.
> 
> Conveniently, x86 is the only architecture that does anything in this
> hook, so we can just move the code.

This should go on top of my series that adds the exit_lazy_mm call
and switches x86 over, at least.

> XXX: there are some comments in swich_mm_irqs_off() that seem to be
> trying to document what barriers are expected, and it's not clear to me
> that these barriers are actually present in all paths through the
> code.  So I think this change makes the code more comprehensible and
> has no effect on the code's correctness, but I'm not at all convinced
> that the code is correct.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
> ---
>  arch/x86/mm/tlb.c   | 17 ++++++++++++++++-
>  kernel/sched/core.c | 14 +++++++-------
>  2 files changed, 23 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> index 3338a1feccf9..23df035b80e8 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> @@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
>  #include <linux/export.h>
>  #include <linux/cpu.h>
>  #include <linux/debugfs.h>
> +#include <linux/sched/mm.h>
>  
>  #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
>  #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
> @@ -496,6 +497,8 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
>  		 * from one thread in a process to another thread in the same
>  		 * process. No TLB flush required.
>  		 */
> +
> +		// XXX: why is this okay wrt membarrier?
>  		if (!was_lazy)
>  			return;
>  
> @@ -508,12 +511,24 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
>  		smp_mb();
>  		next_tlb_gen = atomic64_read(&next->context.tlb_gen);
>  		if (this_cpu_read(cpu_tlbstate.ctxs[prev_asid].tlb_gen) ==
> -				next_tlb_gen)
> +		    next_tlb_gen) {
> +			/*
> +			 * We're reactivating an mm, and membarrier might
> +			 * need to serialize.  Tell membarrier.
> +			 */
> +
> +			// XXX: I can't understand the logic in
> +			// membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode().  What's
> +			// the mm check for?

Writing CR3 is serializing, apparently. Another x86ism that gets 
commented and moved into arch/x86 with my patch.


> +			membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(next);
>  			return;
> +		}
>  
>  		/*
>  		 * TLB contents went out of date while we were in lazy
>  		 * mode. Fall through to the TLB switching code below.
> +		 * No need for an explicit membarrier invocation -- the CR3
> +		 * write will serialize.
>  		 */
>  		new_asid = prev_asid;
>  		need_flush = true;
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
> index 2d95dc3f4644..6c4b76147166 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/core.c
> +++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
> @@ -3619,22 +3619,22 @@ static struct rq *finish_task_switch(struct task_struct *prev)
>  	kcov_finish_switch(current);
>  
>  	fire_sched_in_preempt_notifiers(current);
> +
>  	/*
>  	 * When switching through a kernel thread, the loop in
>  	 * membarrier_{private,global}_expedited() may have observed that
>  	 * kernel thread and not issued an IPI. It is therefore possible to
>  	 * schedule between user->kernel->user threads without passing though
>  	 * switch_mm(). Membarrier requires a barrier after storing to
> -	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, so provide them here:
> +	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, and mmdrop() provides
> +	 * this barrier.
>  	 *
> -	 * - a full memory barrier for {PRIVATE,GLOBAL}_EXPEDITED, implicitly
> -	 *   provided by mmdrop(),
> -	 * - a sync_core for SYNC_CORE.
> +	 * XXX: I don't think mmdrop() actually does this.  There's no
> +	 * smp_mb__before/after_atomic() in there.

mmdrop definitely does provide a full barrier.

>  	 */
> -	if (mm) {
> -		membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(mm);
> +	if (mm)
>  		mmdrop(mm);
> -	}
> +
>  	if (unlikely(prev_state == TASK_DEAD)) {
>  		if (prev->sched_class->task_dead)
>  			prev->sched_class->task_dead(prev);
> -- 
> 2.28.0
> 
> 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting Andy Lutomirski
@ 2020-12-04  7:54   ` Nicholas Piggin
  2020-12-04 14:37     ` Andy Lutomirski
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Nicholas Piggin @ 2020-12-04  7:54 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andy Lutomirski
  Cc: Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, Catalin Marinas, Dave Hansen,
	Jann Horn, linux-arch, LKML, Linux-MM, linuxppc-dev,
	Mathieu Desnoyers, Nadav Amit, Rik van Riel, Will Deacon, X86 ML

Excerpts from Andy Lutomirski's message of December 4, 2020 3:26 pm:
> This is a mockup.  It's designed to illustrate the algorithm and how the
> code might be structured.  There are several things blatantly wrong with
> it:
> 
> The coding stype is not up to kernel standards.  I have prototypes in the
> wrong places and other hacks.
> 
> There's a problem with mm_cpumask() not being reliable.

Interesting, this might be a way to reduce those IPIs with fairly 
minimal fast path cost. Would be interesting to see how much performance 
advantage it has over my dumb simple shoot-lazies.

For powerpc I don't think we'd be inclined to go that way, so don't feel 
the need to add this complexity for us alone -- we'd be more inclined to 
move the exit lazy to the final TLB shootdown path, which we're slowly 
getting more infrastructure in place to do.

(The powerpc hash MMU code which we're slowly moving away from might 
never get that capability because it's complex there and hard to do with
that virtualisation model so current big systems (and radix MMU until we
finish the TLB flushing stuff) want something here, but for those the
shoot-lazies could quite likely be sufficient)

But if core code was moved over to something like this for the benefit of
others archs we'd probably just as happily do that.

There's a few nits but I don't think I can see a fundamental problem 
yet.

Thanks,
Nick

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-04  7:06   ` Nicholas Piggin
@ 2020-12-04  8:17   ` Nadav Amit
  2020-12-04 20:39     ` Mathieu Desnoyers
  2020-12-04 20:24   ` Mathieu Desnoyers
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Nadav Amit @ 2020-12-04  8:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andy Lutomirski
  Cc: Nicholas Piggin, Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, linux-arch,
	LKML, Linux-MM, linuxppc-dev, Mathieu Desnoyers, X86 ML,
	Will Deacon, Catalin Marinas, Rik van Riel, Dave Hansen,
	Jann Horn

I am not very familiar with membarrier, but here are my 2 cents while trying
to answer your questions.

> On Dec 3, 2020, at 9:26 PM, Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org> wrote:
> @@ -496,6 +497,8 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
> 		 * from one thread in a process to another thread in the same
> 		 * process. No TLB flush required.
> 		 */
> +
> +		// XXX: why is this okay wrt membarrier?
> 		if (!was_lazy)
> 			return;

I am confused.

On one hand, it seems that membarrier_private_expedited() would issue an IPI
to that core, as it would find that this core’s cpu_rq(cpu)->curr->mm is the
same as the one that the membarrier applies to. But… (see below)


> @@ -508,12 +511,24 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
> 		smp_mb();
> 		next_tlb_gen = atomic64_read(&next->context.tlb_gen);
> 		if (this_cpu_read(cpu_tlbstate.ctxs[prev_asid].tlb_gen) ==
> -				next_tlb_gen)
> +		    next_tlb_gen) {
> +			/*
> +			 * We're reactivating an mm, and membarrier might
> +			 * need to serialize.  Tell membarrier.
> +			 */
> +
> +			// XXX: I can't understand the logic in
> +			// membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode().  What's
> +			// the mm check for?
> +			membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(next);

On the other hand the reason for this mm check that you mention contradicts
my previous understanding as the git log says:

commit 2840cf02fae627860156737e83326df354ee4ec6
Author: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com>
Date:   Thu Sep 19 13:37:01 2019 -0400

    sched/membarrier: Call sync_core only before usermode for same mm
    
    When the prev and next task's mm change, switch_mm() provides the core
    serializing guarantees before returning to usermode. The only case
    where an explicit core serialization is needed is when the scheduler
    keeps the same mm for prev and next.

> 	/*
> 	 * When switching through a kernel thread, the loop in
> 	 * membarrier_{private,global}_expedited() may have observed that
> 	 * kernel thread and not issued an IPI. It is therefore possible to
> 	 * schedule between user->kernel->user threads without passing though
> 	 * switch_mm(). Membarrier requires a barrier after storing to
> -	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, so provide them here:
> +	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, and mmdrop() provides
> +	 * this barrier.
> 	 *
> -	 * - a full memory barrier for {PRIVATE,GLOBAL}_EXPEDITED, implicitly
> -	 *   provided by mmdrop(),
> -	 * - a sync_core for SYNC_CORE.
> +	 * XXX: I don't think mmdrop() actually does this.  There's no
> +	 * smp_mb__before/after_atomic() in there.

I presume that since x86 is the only one that needs
membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(), nobody noticed the missing
smp_mb__before/after_atomic(). These are anyhow a compiler barrier in x86,
and such a barrier would take place before the return to userspace.


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting
  2020-12-04  7:54   ` Nicholas Piggin
@ 2020-12-04 14:37     ` Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-05  4:49       ` Nicholas Piggin
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread
From: Andy Lutomirski @ 2020-12-04 14:37 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nicholas Piggin
  Cc: Andy Lutomirski, Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, Catalin Marinas,
	Dave Hansen, Jann Horn, linux-arch, LKML, Linux-MM, linuxppc-dev,
	Mathieu Desnoyers, Nadav Amit, Rik van Riel, Will Deacon, X86 ML



> On Dec 3, 2020, at 11:54 PM, Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com> wrote:
> 
> Excerpts from Andy Lutomirski's message of December 4, 2020 3:26 pm:
>> This is a mockup.  It's designed to illustrate the algorithm and how the
>> code might be structured.  There are several things blatantly wrong with
>> it:
>> 
>> The coding stype is not up to kernel standards.  I have prototypes in the
>> wrong places and other hacks.
>> 
>> There's a problem with mm_cpumask() not being reliable.
> 
> Interesting, this might be a way to reduce those IPIs with fairly 
> minimal fast path cost. Would be interesting to see how much performance 
> advantage it has over my dumb simple shoot-lazies.

My real motivation isn’t really performance per se. I think there’s considerable value in keeping the core algorithms the same across all architectures, and I think my approach can manage that with only a single hint from the architecture as to which CPUs to scan.

With shoot-lazies, in contrast, enabling it everywhere would either malfunction or have very poor performance or even DoS issues on arches like arm64 and s390x that don’t track mm_cpumask at all.  I’m sure we could come up with some way to mitigate that, but I think that my approach may be better overall for keeping the core code uniform and relatively straightforward.

> 
> For powerpc I don't think we'd be inclined to go that way, so don't feel 
> the need to add this complexity for us alone -- we'd be more inclined to 
> move the exit lazy to the final TLB shootdown path, which we're slowly 
> getting more infrastructure in place to do.
> 


> 
> There's a few nits but I don't think I can see a fundamental problem 
> yet.

Thanks!

I can polish the patch, but I want to be sure the memory ordering parts are clear.

> 
> Thanks,
> Nick

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code
  2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code Andy Lutomirski
  2020-12-04  7:06   ` Nicholas Piggin
  2020-12-04  8:17   ` Nadav Amit
@ 2020-12-04 20:24   ` Mathieu Desnoyers
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Mathieu Desnoyers @ 2020-12-04 20:24 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andy Lutomirski, Peter Zijlstra
  Cc: Nicholas Piggin, Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, linux-arch,
	linux-kernel, linux-mm, linuxppc-dev, x86, Will Deacon,
	Catalin Marinas, riel, Dave Hansen, Nadav Amit, Jann Horn

----- On Dec 4, 2020, at 12:26 AM, Andy Lutomirski luto@kernel.org wrote:

> The core scheduler isn't a great place for
> membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode() -- the core scheduler doesn't
> actually know whether we are lazy.  With the old code, if a CPU is
> running a membarrier-registered task, goes idle, gets unlazied via a TLB
> shootdown IPI, and switches back to the membarrier-registered task, it
> will do an unnecessary core sync.
> 
> Conveniently, x86 is the only architecture that does anything in this
> hook, so we can just move the code.
> 
> XXX: there are some comments in swich_mm_irqs_off() that seem to be
> trying to document what barriers are expected, and it's not clear to me
> that these barriers are actually present in all paths through the
> code.  So I think this change makes the code more comprehensible and
> has no effect on the code's correctness, but I'm not at all convinced
> that the code is correct.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
> ---
> arch/x86/mm/tlb.c   | 17 ++++++++++++++++-
> kernel/sched/core.c | 14 +++++++-------
> 2 files changed, 23 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> index 3338a1feccf9..23df035b80e8 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/mm/tlb.c
> @@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
> #include <linux/export.h>
> #include <linux/cpu.h>
> #include <linux/debugfs.h>
> +#include <linux/sched/mm.h>
> 
> #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
> #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
> @@ -496,6 +497,8 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct
> mm_struct *next,
> 		 * from one thread in a process to another thread in the same
> 		 * process. No TLB flush required.
> 		 */
> +
> +		// XXX: why is this okay wrt membarrier?
> 		if (!was_lazy)
> 			return;

As I recall, when the scheduler switches between threads which belong to
the same mm, it does not have to provide explicit memory barriers for
membarrier because it does not change the "rq->curr->mm" value which is
used as condition in the membarrier loop to send the IPI.

> 
> @@ -508,12 +511,24 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct
> mm_struct *next,
> 		smp_mb();
> 		next_tlb_gen = atomic64_read(&next->context.tlb_gen);
> 		if (this_cpu_read(cpu_tlbstate.ctxs[prev_asid].tlb_gen) ==
> -				next_tlb_gen)
> +		    next_tlb_gen) {
> +			/*
> +			 * We're reactivating an mm, and membarrier might
> +			 * need to serialize.  Tell membarrier.
> +			 */
> +
> +			// XXX: I can't understand the logic in
> +			// membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode().  What's
> +			// the mm check for?
> +			membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(next);

I think you mean the:

        if (current->mm != mm)
                return;

check at the beginning.

We have to look at it from the scheduler context from which this function is called
(yeah, I know, it's not so great to mix up scheduler and mm states like this).

in finish_task_switch() we have:

        struct mm_struct *mm = rq->prev_mm;
[...]
        if (mm) {
                membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(mm);
                mmdrop(mm);
        }

I recall that this current->mm vs rq->prev_mm check is just there to
figure out whether we are in lazy tlb mode, and don't sync core in lazy
tlb mode. Hopefully I'm not stating anything stupid here, maybe Peter
could enlighten us. And you should definitely be careful when calling this
helper from other contexts, as it was originally crafted only for that
single use in the scheduler.


> 			return;
> +		}
> 
> 		/*
> 		 * TLB contents went out of date while we were in lazy
> 		 * mode. Fall through to the TLB switching code below.
> +		 * No need for an explicit membarrier invocation -- the CR3
> +		 * write will serialize.
> 		 */
> 		new_asid = prev_asid;
> 		need_flush = true;
> diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
> index 2d95dc3f4644..6c4b76147166 100644
> --- a/kernel/sched/core.c
> +++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
> @@ -3619,22 +3619,22 @@ static struct rq *finish_task_switch(struct task_struct
> *prev)
> 	kcov_finish_switch(current);
> 
> 	fire_sched_in_preempt_notifiers(current);
> +
> 	/*
> 	 * When switching through a kernel thread, the loop in
> 	 * membarrier_{private,global}_expedited() may have observed that
> 	 * kernel thread and not issued an IPI. It is therefore possible to
> 	 * schedule between user->kernel->user threads without passing though
> 	 * switch_mm(). Membarrier requires a barrier after storing to
> -	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, so provide them here:
> +	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, and mmdrop() provides
> +	 * this barrier.
> 	 *
> -	 * - a full memory barrier for {PRIVATE,GLOBAL}_EXPEDITED, implicitly
> -	 *   provided by mmdrop(),
> -	 * - a sync_core for SYNC_CORE.
> +	 * XXX: I don't think mmdrop() actually does this.  There's no
> +	 * smp_mb__before/after_atomic() in there.

I recall mmdrop providing a memory barrier. It looks like I event went though the
trouble of documenting it myself. ;-)

static inline void mmdrop(struct mm_struct *mm)
{
        /*
         * The implicit full barrier implied by atomic_dec_and_test() is
         * required by the membarrier system call before returning to
         * user-space, after storing to rq->curr.
         */
        if (unlikely(atomic_dec_and_test(&mm->mm_count)))
                __mmdrop(mm);
}


> 	 */
> -	if (mm) {
> -		membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(mm);

OK so here is the meat. The current code is using the (possibly incomplete)
lazy TLB state known by the scheduler to sync core, and it appears it may be
a bit more heavy that what is strictly needed.

Your change instead rely on the internal knowledge of lazy TLB within x86
switch_mm_irqs_off to achieve this, which overall seems like an improvement.

I agree with Nick's comment that it should go on top of his exit_lazy_mm
patches.

Thanks,

Mathieu


> +	if (mm)
> 		mmdrop(mm);
> -	}
> +
> 	if (unlikely(prev_state == TASK_DEAD)) {
> 		if (prev->sched_class->task_dead)
> 			prev->sched_class->task_dead(prev);
> --
> 2.28.0

-- 
Mathieu Desnoyers
EfficiOS Inc.
http://www.efficios.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code
  2020-12-04  8:17   ` Nadav Amit
@ 2020-12-04 20:39     ` Mathieu Desnoyers
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Mathieu Desnoyers @ 2020-12-04 20:39 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Nadav Amit, Peter Zijlstra
  Cc: Andy Lutomirski, Nicholas Piggin, Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann,
	linux-arch, linux-kernel, linux-mm, linuxppc-dev, x86,
	Will Deacon, Catalin Marinas, riel, Dave Hansen, Jann Horn

----- On Dec 4, 2020, at 3:17 AM, Nadav Amit nadav.amit@gmail.com wrote:

> I am not very familiar with membarrier, but here are my 2 cents while trying
> to answer your questions.
> 
>> On Dec 3, 2020, at 9:26 PM, Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org> wrote:
>> @@ -496,6 +497,8 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct
>> mm_struct *next,
>> 		 * from one thread in a process to another thread in the same
>> 		 * process. No TLB flush required.
>> 		 */
>> +
>> +		// XXX: why is this okay wrt membarrier?
>> 		if (!was_lazy)
>> 			return;
> 
> I am confused.
> 
> On one hand, it seems that membarrier_private_expedited() would issue an IPI
> to that core, as it would find that this core’s cpu_rq(cpu)->curr->mm is the
> same as the one that the membarrier applies to.

If the scheduler switches from one thread to another which both have the same mm,
it means cpu_rq(cpu)->curr->mm is invariant, even though ->curr changes. So there
is no need to issue a memory barrier or sync core for membarrier in this case,
because there is no way the IPI can be missed.

> But… (see below)
> 
> 
>> @@ -508,12 +511,24 @@ void switch_mm_irqs_off(struct mm_struct *prev, struct
>> mm_struct *next,
>> 		smp_mb();
>> 		next_tlb_gen = atomic64_read(&next->context.tlb_gen);
>> 		if (this_cpu_read(cpu_tlbstate.ctxs[prev_asid].tlb_gen) ==
>> -				next_tlb_gen)
>> +		    next_tlb_gen) {
>> +			/*
>> +			 * We're reactivating an mm, and membarrier might
>> +			 * need to serialize.  Tell membarrier.
>> +			 */
>> +
>> +			// XXX: I can't understand the logic in
>> +			// membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode().  What's
>> +			// the mm check for?
>> +			membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(next);
> 
> On the other hand the reason for this mm check that you mention contradicts
> my previous understanding as the git log says:
> 
> commit 2840cf02fae627860156737e83326df354ee4ec6
> Author: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com>
> Date:   Thu Sep 19 13:37:01 2019 -0400
> 
>    sched/membarrier: Call sync_core only before usermode for same mm
>    
>    When the prev and next task's mm change, switch_mm() provides the core
>    serializing guarantees before returning to usermode. The only case
>    where an explicit core serialization is needed is when the scheduler
>    keeps the same mm for prev and next.

Hrm, so your point here is that if the scheduler keeps the same mm for
prev and next, it means membarrier will have observed the same rq->curr->mm,
and therefore the IPI won't be missed. I wonder if that
membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode is needed at all then or if we
have just been too careful and did not consider that all the scenarios which
need to be core-sync'd are indeed taken care of ?

I see here that my prior commit message indeed discusses prev and next task's
mm, but in reality, we are comparing current->mm with rq->prev_mm. So from
a lazy TLB perspective, this probably matters, and we may still need a core sync
in some lazy TLB scenarios.

> 
>> 	/*
>> 	 * When switching through a kernel thread, the loop in
>> 	 * membarrier_{private,global}_expedited() may have observed that
>> 	 * kernel thread and not issued an IPI. It is therefore possible to
>> 	 * schedule between user->kernel->user threads without passing though
>> 	 * switch_mm(). Membarrier requires a barrier after storing to
>> -	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, so provide them here:
>> +	 * rq->curr, before returning to userspace, and mmdrop() provides
>> +	 * this barrier.
>> 	 *
>> -	 * - a full memory barrier for {PRIVATE,GLOBAL}_EXPEDITED, implicitly
>> -	 *   provided by mmdrop(),
>> -	 * - a sync_core for SYNC_CORE.
>> +	 * XXX: I don't think mmdrop() actually does this.  There's no
>> +	 * smp_mb__before/after_atomic() in there.
> 
> I presume that since x86 is the only one that needs
> membarrier_mm_sync_core_before_usermode(), nobody noticed the missing
> smp_mb__before/after_atomic(). These are anyhow a compiler barrier in x86,
> and such a barrier would take place before the return to userspace.

mmdrop already provides the memory barriers for membarrer, as I documented within the
function.

Thanks,

Mathieu

-- 
Mathieu Desnoyers
EfficiOS Inc.
http://www.efficios.com

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting
  2020-12-04 14:37     ` Andy Lutomirski
@ 2020-12-05  4:49       ` Nicholas Piggin
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 10+ messages in thread
From: Nicholas Piggin @ 2020-12-05  4:49 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andy Lutomirski
  Cc: Anton Blanchard, Arnd Bergmann, Catalin Marinas, Dave Hansen,
	Jann Horn, linux-arch, LKML, Linux-MM, linuxppc-dev,
	Andy Lutomirski, Mathieu Desnoyers, Nadav Amit, Rik van Riel,
	Will Deacon, X86 ML

Excerpts from Andy Lutomirski's message of December 5, 2020 12:37 am:
> 
> 
>> On Dec 3, 2020, at 11:54 PM, Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com> wrote:
>> 
>> Excerpts from Andy Lutomirski's message of December 4, 2020 3:26 pm:
>>> This is a mockup.  It's designed to illustrate the algorithm and how the
>>> code might be structured.  There are several things blatantly wrong with
>>> it:
>>> 
>>> The coding stype is not up to kernel standards.  I have prototypes in the
>>> wrong places and other hacks.
>>> 
>>> There's a problem with mm_cpumask() not being reliable.
>> 
>> Interesting, this might be a way to reduce those IPIs with fairly 
>> minimal fast path cost. Would be interesting to see how much performance 
>> advantage it has over my dumb simple shoot-lazies.
> 
> My real motivation isn’t really performance per se. I think there’s considerable value in keeping the core algorithms the same across all architectures, and I think my approach can manage that with only a single hint from the architecture as to which CPUs to scan.
> 
> With shoot-lazies, in contrast, enabling it everywhere would either malfunction or have very poor performance or even DoS issues on arches like arm64 and s390x that don’t track mm_cpumask at all.  I’m sure we could come up with some way to mitigate that, but I think that my approach may be better overall for keeping the core code uniform and relatively straightforward.

I'd go the other way. The mm_cpumark, TLB, and lazy maintainence is 
different between architectures anyway. I'd keep the simple refcount,
and the pretty simple shoot-lazies approaches for now at least until
a bit more is done on other fronts. If x86 is shooting down lazies on 
the final TLB flush as well, then I might be inclined to think that's
the better way to go in the long term. Shoot-lazies would be a bit of
a bolted on hack for powerpc/hash but it has ~zero impact to core code
really.

Thanks,
Nick

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 10+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2020-12-05  4:50 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 10+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-12-04  5:26 [RFC v2 0/2] lazy mm refcounting Andy Lutomirski
2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 1/2] [NEEDS HELP] x86/mm: Handle unlazying membarrier core sync in the arch code Andy Lutomirski
2020-12-04  7:06   ` Nicholas Piggin
2020-12-04  8:17   ` Nadav Amit
2020-12-04 20:39     ` Mathieu Desnoyers
2020-12-04 20:24   ` Mathieu Desnoyers
2020-12-04  5:26 ` [RFC v2 2/2] [MOCKUP] sched/mm: Lightweight lazy mm refcounting Andy Lutomirski
2020-12-04  7:54   ` Nicholas Piggin
2020-12-04 14:37     ` Andy Lutomirski
2020-12-05  4:49       ` Nicholas Piggin

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