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From: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
To: akpm@linux-foundation.org, andreyknvl@google.com,
	aryabinin@virtuozzo.com, Branislav.Rankov@arm.com,
	catalin.marinas@arm.com, dvyukov@google.com, elver@google.com,
	eugenis@google.com, glider@google.com, gor@linux.ibm.com,
	kevin.brodsky@arm.com, linux-mm@kvack.org,
	mm-commits@vger.kernel.org, torvalds@linux-foundation.org,
	vincenzo.frascino@arm.com, will.deacon@arm.com
Subject: [patch 14/78] kasan: drop unnecessary GPL text from comment headers
Date: Fri, 18 Dec 2020 14:02:10 -0800
Message-ID: <20201218220210.Dw1XK0QbY%akpm@linux-foundation.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20201218140046.497484741326828e5b5d46ec@linux-foundation.org>

From: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Subject: kasan: drop unnecessary GPL text from comment headers

Patch series "kasan: add hardware tag-based mode for arm64", v11.

This patchset adds a new hardware tag-based mode to KASAN [1].  The new
mode is similar to the existing software tag-based KASAN, but relies on
arm64 Memory Tagging Extension (MTE) [2] to perform memory and pointer
tagging (instead of shadow memory and compiler instrumentation).

This patchset is co-developed and tested by
Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>.

This patchset is available here:

https://github.com/xairy/linux/tree/up-kasan-mte-v11

For testing in QEMU hardware tag-based KASAN requires:

1. QEMU built from master [4] (use "-machine virt,mte=on -cpu max" arguments
   to run).
2. GCC version 10.

[1] https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/dev-tools/kasan.html
[2] https://community.arm.com/developer/ip-products/processors/b/processors-ip-blog/posts/enhancing-memory-safety
[3] git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/arm64/linux for-next/mte
[4] https://github.com/qemu/qemu

====== Overview

The underlying ideas of the approach used by hardware tag-based KASAN are:

1. By relying on the Top Byte Ignore (TBI) arm64 CPU feature, pointer tags
   are stored in the top byte of each kernel pointer.

2. With the Memory Tagging Extension (MTE) arm64 CPU feature, memory tags
   for kernel memory allocations are stored in a dedicated memory not
   accessible via normal instuctions.

3. On each memory allocation, a random tag is generated, embedded it into
   the returned pointer, and the corresponding memory is tagged with the
   same tag value.

4. With MTE the CPU performs a check on each memory access to make sure
   that the pointer tag matches the memory tag.

5. On a tag mismatch the CPU generates a tag fault, and a KASAN report is
   printed.

Same as other KASAN modes, hardware tag-based KASAN is intended as a
debugging feature at this point.

====== Rationale

There are two main reasons for this new hardware tag-based mode:

1. Previously implemented software tag-based KASAN is being successfully
   used on dogfood testing devices due to its low memory overhead (as
   initially planned). The new hardware mode keeps the same low memory
   overhead, and is expected to have significantly lower performance
   impact, due to the tag checks being performed by the hardware.
   Therefore the new mode can be used as a better alternative in dogfood
   testing for hardware that supports MTE.

2. The new mode lays the groundwork for the planned in-kernel MTE-based
   memory corruption mitigation to be used in production.

====== Technical details

Considering the implementation perspective, hardware tag-based KASAN is
almost identical to the software mode.  The key difference is using MTE
for assigning and checking tags.

Compared to the software mode, the hardware mode uses 4 bits per tag, as
dictated by MTE.  Pointer tags are stored in bits [56:60), the top 4 bits
have the normal value 0xF.  Having less distict tags increases the
probablity of false negatives (from ~1/256 to ~1/16) in certain cases.

Only synchronous exceptions are set up and used by hardware tag-based KASAN.

====== Benchmarks

Note: all measurements have been performed with software emulation of Memory
Tagging Extension, performance numbers for hardware tag-based KASAN on the
actual hardware are expected to be better.

Boot time [1]:
* 2.8 sec for clean kernel
* 5.7 sec for hardware tag-based KASAN
* 11.8 sec for software tag-based KASAN
* 11.6 sec for generic KASAN

Slab memory usage after boot [2]:
* 7.0 kb for clean kernel
* 9.7 kb for hardware tag-based KASAN
* 9.7 kb for software tag-based KASAN
* 41.3 kb for generic KASAN

Measurements have been performed with:
* defconfig-based configs
* Manually built QEMU master
* QEMU arguments: -machine virt,mte=on -cpu max
* CONFIG_KASAN_STACK_ENABLE disabled
* CONFIG_KASAN_INLINE enabled
* clang-10 as the compiler and gcc-10 as the assembler
    
[1] Time before the ext4 driver is initialized.
[2] Measured as `cat /proc/meminfo | grep Slab`.

====== Notes

The cover letter for software tag-based KASAN patchset can be found here:

https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=0116523cfffa62aeb5aa3b85ce7419f3dae0c1b8

===== Tags

Tested-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>


This patch (of 41):

Don't mention "GNU General Public License version 2" text explicitly, as
it's already covered by the SPDX-License-Identifier.

Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/cover.1606161801.git.andreyknvl@google.com
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/6ea9f5f4aa9dbbffa0d0c0a780b37699a4531034.1606161801.git.andreyknvl@google.com
Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
Reviewed-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Tested-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Evgenii Stepanov <eugenis@google.com>
Cc: Branislav Rankov <Branislav.Rankov@arm.com>
Cc: Kevin Brodsky <kevin.brodsky@arm.com>
Cc: Vasily Gorbik <gor@linux.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
---

 mm/kasan/common.c         |    5 -----
 mm/kasan/generic.c        |    5 -----
 mm/kasan/generic_report.c |    5 -----
 mm/kasan/init.c           |    5 -----
 mm/kasan/quarantine.c     |   10 ----------
 mm/kasan/report.c         |    5 -----
 mm/kasan/tags.c           |    5 -----
 mm/kasan/tags_report.c    |    5 -----
 8 files changed, 45 deletions(-)

--- a/mm/kasan/common.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/common.c
@@ -7,11 +7,6 @@
  *
  * Some code borrowed from https://github.com/xairy/kasan-prototype by
  *        Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@gmail.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
  */
 
 #include <linux/export.h>
--- a/mm/kasan/generic.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/generic.c
@@ -7,11 +7,6 @@
  *
  * Some code borrowed from https://github.com/xairy/kasan-prototype by
  *        Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@gmail.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
  */
 
 #define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt
--- a/mm/kasan/generic_report.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/generic_report.c
@@ -7,11 +7,6 @@
  *
  * Some code borrowed from https://github.com/xairy/kasan-prototype by
  *        Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@gmail.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
  */
 
 #include <linux/bitops.h>
--- a/mm/kasan/init.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/init.c
@@ -4,11 +4,6 @@
  *
  * Copyright (c) 2015 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
  * Author: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
  */
 
 #include <linux/memblock.h>
--- a/mm/kasan/quarantine.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/quarantine.c
@@ -6,16 +6,6 @@
  * Copyright (C) 2016 Google, Inc.
  *
  * Based on code by Dmitry Chernenkov.
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
- * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 as published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
- * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
- * WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
- * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
- * General Public License for more details.
- *
  */
 
 #include <linux/gfp.h>
--- a/mm/kasan/report.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/report.c
@@ -7,11 +7,6 @@
  *
  * Some code borrowed from https://github.com/xairy/kasan-prototype by
  *        Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@gmail.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
  */
 
 #include <linux/bitops.h>
--- a/mm/kasan/tags.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/tags.c
@@ -4,11 +4,6 @@
  *
  * Copyright (c) 2018 Google, Inc.
  * Author: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
  */
 
 #define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt
--- a/mm/kasan/tags_report.c~kasan-drop-unnecessary-gpl-text-from-comment-headers
+++ a/mm/kasan/tags_report.c
@@ -7,11 +7,6 @@
  *
  * Some code borrowed from https://github.com/xairy/kasan-prototype by
  *        Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@gmail.com>
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
  */
 
 #include <linux/bitops.h>
_

  parent reply index

Thread overview: 89+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-12-18 22:00 incoming Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 01/78] mm/memcg: bail early from swap accounting if memcg disabled Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 02/78] mm/memcg: warning on !memcg after readahead page charged Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 03/78] mm/memcg: remove unused definitions Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 04/78] mm, kvm: account kvm_vcpu_mmap to kmemcg Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 05/78] mm/memcontrol:rewrite mem_cgroup_page_lruvec() Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 06/78] epoll: check for events when removing a timed out thread from the wait queue Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 07/78] epoll: simplify signal handling Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 08/78] epoll: pull fatal signal checks into ep_send_events() Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 09/78] epoll: move eavail next to the list_empty_careful check Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:01 ` [patch 10/78] epoll: simplify and optimize busy loop logic Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 11/78] epoll: pull all code between fetch_events and send_event into the loop Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 12/78] epoll: replace gotos with a proper loop Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 13/78] epoll: eliminate unnecessary lock for zero timeout Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` Andrew Morton [this message]
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 15/78] kasan: KASAN_VMALLOC depends on KASAN_GENERIC Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 16/78] kasan: group vmalloc code Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 17/78] kasan: shadow declarations only for software modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 18/78] kasan: rename (un)poison_shadow to (un)poison_range Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 19/78] kasan: rename KASAN_SHADOW_* to KASAN_GRANULE_* Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 20/78] kasan: only build init.c for software modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 21/78] kasan: split out shadow.c from common.c Andrew Morton
2020-12-19  0:28   ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19  1:13     ` Andrew Morton
2020-12-19 10:01       ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19 10:11       ` Marco Elver
2020-12-19 18:01       ` Andrey Konovalov
2020-12-19 19:17       ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-19 19:26         ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-21  9:46         ` Alexander Potapenko
2020-12-21 17:41           ` Linus Torvalds
2020-12-22 18:38             ` Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 22/78] kasan: define KASAN_MEMORY_PER_SHADOW_PAGE Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 23/78] kasan: rename report and tags files Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 24/78] kasan: don't duplicate config dependencies Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 25/78] kasan: hide invalid free check implementation Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 26/78] kasan: decode stack frame only with KASAN_STACK_ENABLE Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 27/78] kasan, arm64: only init shadow for software modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:02 ` [patch 28/78] kasan, arm64: only use kasan_depth " Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 29/78] kasan, arm64: move initialization message Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 30/78] kasan, arm64: rename kasan_init_tags and mark as __init Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 31/78] kasan: rename addr_has_shadow to addr_has_metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 32/78] kasan: rename print_shadow_for_address to print_memory_metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 33/78] kasan: rename SHADOW layout macros to META Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 34/78] kasan: separate metadata_fetch_row for each mode Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 35/78] kasan: introduce CONFIG_KASAN_HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 36/78] arm64: enable armv8.5-a asm-arch option Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 37/78] arm64: mte: add in-kernel MTE helpers Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 38/78] arm64: mte: reset the page tag in page->flags Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 39/78] arm64: mte: add in-kernel tag fault handler Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 40/78] arm64: kasan: allow enabling in-kernel MTE Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 41/78] arm64: mte: convert gcr_user into an exclude mask Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 42/78] arm64: mte: switch GCR_EL1 in kernel entry and exit Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 43/78] kasan, mm: untag page address in free_reserved_area Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 44/78] arm64: kasan: align allocations for HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 45/78] arm64: kasan: add arch layer for memory tagging helpers Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 46/78] kasan: define KASAN_GRANULE_SIZE for HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:03 ` [patch 47/78] kasan, x86, s390: update undef CONFIG_KASAN Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 48/78] kasan, arm64: expand CONFIG_KASAN checks Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 49/78] kasan, arm64: implement HW_TAGS runtime Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 50/78] kasan, arm64: print report from tag fault handler Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 51/78] kasan, mm: reset tags when accessing metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 52/78] kasan, arm64: enable CONFIG_KASAN_HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 53/78] kasan: add documentation for hardware tag-based mode Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 54/78] kselftest/arm64: check GCR_EL1 after context switch Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 55/78] kasan: simplify quarantine_put call site Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 56/78] kasan: rename get_alloc/free_info Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 57/78] kasan: introduce set_alloc_info Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 58/78] kasan, arm64: unpoison stack only with CONFIG_KASAN_STACK Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 59/78] kasan: allow VMAP_STACK for HW_TAGS mode Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 60/78] kasan: remove __kasan_unpoison_stack Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 61/78] kasan: inline kasan_reset_tag for tag-based modes Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 62/78] kasan: inline random_tag for HW_TAGS Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 63/78] kasan: open-code kasan_unpoison_slab Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:04 ` [patch 64/78] kasan: inline (un)poison_range and check_invalid_free Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 65/78] kasan: add and integrate kasan boot parameters Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 66/78] kasan, mm: check kasan_enabled in annotations Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 67/78] kasan, mm: rename kasan_poison_kfree Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 68/78] kasan: don't round_up too much Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 69/78] kasan: simplify assign_tag and set_tag calls Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 70/78] kasan: clarify comment in __kasan_kfree_large Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 71/78] kasan: sanitize objects when metadata doesn't fit Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 72/78] kasan, mm: allow cache merging with no metadata Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 73/78] kasan: update documentation Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 74/78] mm/Kconfig: fix spelling mistake "whats" -> "what's" Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 75/78] epoll: convert internal api to timespec64 Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 76/78] epoll: add syscall epoll_pwait2 Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 77/78] epoll: wire up " Andrew Morton
2020-12-18 22:05 ` [patch 78/78] selftests/filesystems: expand epoll with epoll_pwait2 Andrew Morton

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