[v3] drivers/virt: vmgenid: add vm generation id driver
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Message ID 96625ce2-66c6-34b8-ef81-7c17c05b4c7a@amazon.com
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  • [v3] drivers/virt: vmgenid: add vm generation id driver
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Commit Message

Adrian Catangiu Nov. 27, 2020, 6:26 p.m. UTC
- Background

The VM Generation ID is a feature defined by Microsoft (paper:
http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=260709) and supported by
multiple hypervisor vendors.

The feature is required in virtualized environments by apps that work
with local copies/caches of world-unique data such as random values,
uuids, monotonically increasing counters, etc.
Such apps can be negatively affected by VM snapshotting when the VM
is either cloned or returned to an earlier point in time.

The VM Generation ID is a simple concept meant to alleviate the issue
by providing a unique ID that changes each time the VM is restored
from a snapshot. The hw provided UUID value can be used to
differentiate between VMs or different generations of the same VM.

- Problem

The VM Generation ID is exposed through an ACPI device by multiple
hypervisor vendors but neither the vendors or upstream Linux have no
default driver for it leaving users to fend for themselves.

Furthermore, simply finding out about a VM generation change is only
the starting point of a process to renew internal states of possibly
multiple applications across the system. This process could benefit
from a driver that provides an interface through which orchestration
can be easily done.

- Solution

This patch is a driver that exposes a monotonic incremental Virtual
Machine Generation u32 counter via a char-dev FS interface. The FS
interface provides sync and async VmGen counter updates notifications.
It also provides VmGen counter retrieval and confirmation mechanisms.

The generation counter and the interface through which it is exposed
are available even when there is no acpi device present.

When the device is present, the hw provided UUID is not exposed to
userspace, it is internally used by the driver to keep accounting for
the exposed VmGen counter. The counter starts from zero when the
driver is initialized and monotonically increments every time the hw
UUID changes (the VM generation changes).
On each hw UUID change, the new hypervisor-provided UUID is also fed
to the kernel RNG.

If there is no acpi vmgenid device present, the generation changes are
not driven by hw vmgenid events but can be driven by software through
a dedicated driver ioctl.

This patch builds on top of Or Idgar <oridgar@gmail.com>'s proposal
https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/3/1/498

- Future improvements

Ideally we would want the driver to register itself based on devices'
_CID and not _HID, but unfortunately I couldn't find a way to do that.
The problem is that ACPI device matching is done by
'__acpi_match_device()' which exclusively looks at
'acpi_hardware_id *hwid'.

There is a path for platform devices to match on _CID when _HID is
'PRP0001' - but this is not the case for the Qemu vmgenid device.

Guidance and help here would be greatly appreciated.

Signed-off-by: Adrian Catangiu <acatan@amazon.com>

---

v1 -> v2:

  - expose to userspace a monotonically increasing u32 Vm Gen Counter
    instead of the hw VmGen UUID
  - since the hw/hypervisor-provided 128-bit UUID is not public
    anymore, add it to the kernel RNG as device randomness
  - insert driver page containing Vm Gen Counter in the user vma in
    the driver's mmap handler instead of using a fault handler
  - turn driver into a misc device driver to auto-create /dev/vmgenid
  - change ioctl arg to avoid leaking kernel structs to userspace
  - update documentation
  - various nits
  - rebase on top of linus latest

v2 -> v3:

  - separate the core driver logic and interface, from the ACPI device.
    The ACPI vmgenid device is now one possible backend.
  - fix issue when timeout=0 in VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS
  - add locking to avoid races between fs ops handlers and hw irq
    driven generation updates
  - change VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS ioctl so if the current caller is
    outdated or a generation change happens while waiting (thus making
    current caller outdated), the ioctl returns -EINTR to signal the
    user to handle event and retry. Fixes blocking on oneself.
  - add VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE ioctl conditioned by
    CAP_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE capability, through which software can force
    generation bump.
---
 Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst | 240 +++++++++++++++++++++++
 drivers/virt/Kconfig           |  17 ++
 drivers/virt/Makefile          |   1 +
 drivers/virt/vmgenid.c         | 435
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h   |  14 ++
 5 files changed, 707 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst
 create mode 100644 drivers/virt/vmgenid.c
 create mode 100644 include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h

Comments

Mike Rapoport Nov. 28, 2020, 10:16 a.m. UTC | #1
Hi Adrian,

Usually each version of a patch is a separate e-mail thread

On Fri, Nov 27, 2020 at 08:26:02PM +0200, Catangiu, Adrian Costin wrote:
> - Background
> 
> The VM Generation ID is a feature defined by Microsoft (paper:
> http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=260709) and supported by
> multiple hypervisor vendors.
> 
> The feature is required in virtualized environments by apps that work
> with local copies/caches of world-unique data such as random values,
> uuids, monotonically increasing counters, etc.
> Such apps can be negatively affected by VM snapshotting when the VM
> is either cloned or returned to an earlier point in time.
> 
> The VM Generation ID is a simple concept meant to alleviate the issue
> by providing a unique ID that changes each time the VM is restored
> from a snapshot. The hw provided UUID value can be used to
> differentiate between VMs or different generations of the same VM.
> 
> - Problem
> 
> The VM Generation ID is exposed through an ACPI device by multiple
> hypervisor vendors but neither the vendors or upstream Linux have no
> default driver for it leaving users to fend for themselves.
> 
> Furthermore, simply finding out about a VM generation change is only
> the starting point of a process to renew internal states of possibly
> multiple applications across the system. This process could benefit
> from a driver that provides an interface through which orchestration
> can be easily done.
> 
> - Solution
> 
> This patch is a driver that exposes a monotonic incremental Virtual
> Machine Generation u32 counter via a char-dev FS interface. The FS
> interface provides sync and async VmGen counter updates notifications.
> It also provides VmGen counter retrieval and confirmation mechanisms.
> 
> The generation counter and the interface through which it is exposed
> are available even when there is no acpi device present.
> 
> When the device is present, the hw provided UUID is not exposed to
> userspace, it is internally used by the driver to keep accounting for
> the exposed VmGen counter. The counter starts from zero when the
> driver is initialized and monotonically increments every time the hw
> UUID changes (the VM generation changes).
> On each hw UUID change, the new hypervisor-provided UUID is also fed
> to the kernel RNG.
> 
> If there is no acpi vmgenid device present, the generation changes are
> not driven by hw vmgenid events but can be driven by software through
> a dedicated driver ioctl.
> 
> This patch builds on top of Or Idgar <oridgar@gmail.com>'s proposal
> https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/3/1/498
> 
> - Future improvements
> 
> Ideally we would want the driver to register itself based on devices'
> _CID and not _HID, but unfortunately I couldn't find a way to do that.
> The problem is that ACPI device matching is done by
> '__acpi_match_device()' which exclusively looks at
> 'acpi_hardware_id *hwid'.
> 
> There is a path for platform devices to match on _CID when _HID is
> 'PRP0001' - but this is not the case for the Qemu vmgenid device.
> 
> Guidance and help here would be greatly appreciated.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Adrian Catangiu <acatan@amazon.com>
> 
> ---
 
Please put the history in the descending order next time

v2 -> v3:
...

v1 -> v2:
...

> v1 -> v2:
> 
>   - expose to userspace a monotonically increasing u32 Vm Gen Counter
>     instead of the hw VmGen UUID
>   - since the hw/hypervisor-provided 128-bit UUID is not public
>     anymore, add it to the kernel RNG as device randomness
>   - insert driver page containing Vm Gen Counter in the user vma in
>     the driver's mmap handler instead of using a fault handler
>   - turn driver into a misc device driver to auto-create /dev/vmgenid
>   - change ioctl arg to avoid leaking kernel structs to userspace
>   - update documentation
>   - various nits
>   - rebase on top of linus latest
> 
> v2 -> v3:
> 
>   - separate the core driver logic and interface, from the ACPI device.
>     The ACPI vmgenid device is now one possible backend.
>   - fix issue when timeout=0 in VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS
>   - add locking to avoid races between fs ops handlers and hw irq
>     driven generation updates
>   - change VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS ioctl so if the current caller is
>     outdated or a generation change happens while waiting (thus making
>     current caller outdated), the ioctl returns -EINTR to signal the
>     user to handle event and retry. Fixes blocking on oneself.
>   - add VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE ioctl conditioned by
>     CAP_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE capability, through which software can force
>     generation bump.
> ---
>  Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst | 240 +++++++++++++++++++++++
>  drivers/virt/Kconfig           |  17 ++
>  drivers/virt/Makefile          |   1 +
>  drivers/virt/vmgenid.c         | 435 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h   |  14 ++
>  5 files changed, 707 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst
>  create mode 100644 drivers/virt/vmgenid.c
>  create mode 100644 include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst b/Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..b6a9f8d
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,240 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +============
> +VMGENID
> +============

The "==" line should be the same length as the title, I think.

> +
> +The VM Generation ID is a feature defined by Microsoft (paper:
> +http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=260709) and supported by
> +multiple hypervisor vendors.
> +
> +The feature is required in virtualized environments by apps that work

Please spell 'applications' fully

> +with local copies/caches of world-unique data such as random values,
> +uuids, monotonically increasing counters, etc.

UUIDs

> +Such apps can be negatively affected by VM snapshotting when the VM

       ^applications

> +is either cloned or returned to an earlier point in time.
> +
> +The VM Generation ID is a simple concept meant to alleviate the issue
> +by providing a unique ID that changes each time the VM is restored
> +from a snapshot. The hw provided UUID value can be used to

                       ^hardware (and below as well)

> +differentiate between VMs or different generations of the same VM.
> +
> +The VM Generation ID is exposed through an ACPI device by multiple
> +hypervisor vendors. The driver for it lives at
> +``drivers/virt/vmgenid.c``
> +
> +The ``vmgenid`` driver exposes a monotonic incremental Virtual
> +Machine Generation u32 counter via a char-dev FS interface that
> +provides sync and async VmGen counter updates notifications. It also
> +provides VmGen counter retrieval and confirmation mechanisms.

It would be nice to memntion here the name of the chardev :)

> +This counter and the interface through which it is exposed are
> +available even when there is no acpi device present.
> +
> +When the device is present, the hw provided UUID is not exposed to
> +userspace, it is internally used by the driver to keep accounting for
> +the exposed VmGen counter. The counter starts from zero when the
> +driver is initialized and monotonically increments every time the hw
> +UUID changes (the VM generation changes).
> +On each hw UUID change, the new UUID is also fed to the kernel RNG.
> +
> +If there is no acpi vmgenid device present, the generation changes are
> +not driven by hw vmgenid events and thus should be driven by software
> +through a dedicated driver ioctl.
> +
> +Driver interface:
> +
> +``open()``:
> +  When the device is opened, a copy of the current Vm-Gen-Id (counter)
> +  is associated with the open file descriptor. The driver now tracks
> +  this file as an independent *watcher*. The driver tracks how many
> +  watchers are aware of the latest Vm-Gen-Id counter and how many of
> +  them are *outdated*; outdated being those that have lived through
> +  a Vm-Gen-Id change but not yet confirmed the new generation counter.
> +
> +``read()``:
> +  Read is meant to provide the *new* VM generation counter when a
> +  generation change takes place. The read operation blocks until the
> +  associated counter is no longer up to date - until HW vm gen id
> +  changes - at which point the new counter is provided/returned.
> +  Nonblocking ``read()`` uses ``EAGAIN`` to signal that there is no
> +  *new* counter value available. The generation counter is considered
> +  *new* for each open file descriptor that hasn't confirmed the new
> +  value, following a generation change. Therefore, once a generation
> +  change takes place, all ``read()`` calls will immediately return the
> +  new generation counter and will continue to do so until the
> +  new value is confirmed back to the driver through ``write()``.
> +  Partial reads are not allowed - read buffer needs to be at least
> +  ``sizeof(unsigned)`` in size.
> +
> +``write()``:
> +  Write is used to confirm the up-to-date Vm Gen counter back to the
> +  driver.
> +  Following a VM generation change, all existing watchers are marked
> +  as *outdated*. Each file descriptor will maintain the *outdated*
> +  status until a ``write()`` confirms the up-to-date counter back to
> +  the driver.
> +  Partial writes are not allowed - write buffer should be exactly
> +  ``sizeof(unsigned)`` in size.
> +
> +``poll()``:
> +  Poll is implemented to allow polling for generation counter updates.
> +  Such updates result in ``EPOLLIN`` polling status until the new
> +  up-to-date counter is confirmed back to the driver through a
> +  ``write()``.
> +
> +``ioctl()``:
> +  The driver also adds support for tracking count of open file
> +  descriptors that haven't acknowledged a generation counter update.
> +  This is exposed through two IOCTLs:
> +
> +  - VMGENID_GET_OUTDATED_WATCHERS: immediately returns the number of
> +    *outdated* watchers - number of file descriptors that were open
> +    during a VM generation change, and which have not yet confirmed the
> +    new generation counter.
> +  - VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS: blocks until there are no more *outdated*
> +    watchers, or if a ``timeout`` argument is provided, until the
> +    timeout expires.
> +    If the current caller is *outdated* or a generation change happens
> +    while waiting (thus making current caller *outdated*), the ioctl
> +    returns ``-EINTR`` to signal the user to handle event and retry.
> +  - VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE: forces a generation counter bump. Can only
> +    be used by processes with CAP_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE or CAP_SYS_ADMIN
> +    capabilities.
> +
> +``mmap()``:
> +  The driver supports ``PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED`` mmaps of a single page
> +  in size. The first 4 bytes of the mapped page will contain an
> +  up-to-date copy of the VM generation counter.
> +  The mapped memory can be used as a low-latency generation counter
> +  probe mechanism in critical sections - see examples.
> +
> +``close()``:
> +  Removes the file descriptor as a Vm generation counter watcher.
> +
> +Example application workflows
> +-----------------------------
> +
> +1) Watchdog thread simplified example::
> +
> +    void watchdog_thread_handler(int *thread_active)
> +    {
> +        unsigned genid;
> +        int fd = open("/dev/vmgenid", O_RDWR | O_CLOEXEC, S_IRUSR |
> S_IWUSR);
> +
> +        do {
> +            // read new gen ID - blocks until VM generation changes
> +            read(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
> +
> +            // because of VM generation change, we need to rebuild world
> +            reseed_app_env();
> +
> +            // confirm we're done handling gen ID update
> +            write(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
> +        } while (atomic_read(thread_active));
> +
> +        close(fd);
> +    }
> +
> +2) ASYNC simplified example::
> +
> +    void handle_io_on_vmgenfd(int vmgenfd)
> +    {
> +        unsigned genid;
> +
> +        // read new gen ID - we need it to confirm we've handled update
> +        read(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
> +
> +        // because of VM generation change, we need to rebuild world
> +        reseed_app_env();
> +
> +        // confirm we're done handling the gen ID update
> +        write(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
> +    }
> +
> +    int main() {
> +        int epfd, vmgenfd;
> +        struct epoll_event ev;
> +
> +        epfd = epoll_create(EPOLL_QUEUE_LEN);
> +
> +        vmgenfd = open("/dev/vmgenid",
> +                       O_RDWR | O_CLOEXEC | O_NONBLOCK,
> +                       S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
> +
> +        // register vmgenid for polling
> +        ev.events = EPOLLIN;
> +        ev.data.fd = vmgenfd;
> +        epoll_ctl(epfd, EPOLL_CTL_ADD, vmgenfd, &ev);
> +
> +        // register other parts of your app for polling
> +        // ...
> +
> +        while (1) {
> +            // wait for something to do...
> +            int nfds = epoll_wait(epfd, events,
> +                MAX_EPOLL_EVENTS_PER_RUN,
> +                EPOLL_RUN_TIMEOUT);
> +            if (nfds < 0) die("Error in epoll_wait!");
> +
> +            // for each ready fd
> +            for(int i = 0; i < nfds; i++) {
> +                int fd = events[i].data.fd;
> +
> +                if (fd == vmgenfd)
> +                    handle_io_on_vmgenfd(vmgenfd);
> +                else
> +                    handle_some_other_part_of_the_app(fd);
> +            }
> +        }
> +
> +        return 0;
> +    }
> +
> +3) Mapped memory polling simplified example::
> +
> +    /*
> +     * app/library function that provides cached secrets
> +     */
> +    char * safe_cached_secret(app_data_t *app)
> +    {
> +        char *secret;
> +        volatile unsigned *const genid_ptr = get_vmgenid_mapping(app);
> +    again:
> +        secret = __cached_secret(app);
> +
> +        if (unlikely(*genid_ptr != app->cached_genid)) {
> +            // rebuild world then confirm the genid update (thru write)
> +            rebuild_caches(app);
> +
> +            app->cached_genid = *genid_ptr;
> +            ack_vmgenid_update(app);
> +
> +            goto again;
> +        }
> +
> +        return secret;
> +    }
> +
> +4) Orchestrator simplified example::
> +
> +    /*
> +     * orchestrator - manages multiple apps and libraries used by a service
> +     * and tries to make sure all sensitive components gracefully handle
> +     * VM generation changes.
> +     * Following function is called on detection of a VM generation change.
> +     */
> +    int handle_vmgen_update(int vmgen_fd, unsigned new_gen_id)
> +    {
> +        // pause until all components have handled event
> +        pause_service();
> +
> +        // confirm *this* watcher as up-to-date
> +        write(vmgen_fd, &new_gen_id, sizeof(unsigned));
> +
> +        // wait for all *others* for at most 5 seconds.
> +        ioctl(vmgen_fd, VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS, 5000);
> +
> +        // all apps on the system have rebuilt worlds
> +        resume_service();
> +    }
> diff --git a/drivers/virt/Kconfig b/drivers/virt/Kconfig
> index 80c5f9c1..5d5f37b 100644
> --- a/drivers/virt/Kconfig
> +++ b/drivers/virt/Kconfig
> @@ -13,6 +13,23 @@ menuconfig VIRT_DRIVERS
>  
>  if VIRT_DRIVERS
>  
> +config VMGENID
> +    tristate "Virtual Machine Generation ID driver"
> +    depends on ACPI

I think this is not needed. We have /dev/vmgenid regardless of ACPI
device for container usecase and we may have a different HW emulation
for s390 and PowerPC.

> +    default N
> +    help
> +      This is a Virtual Machine Generation ID driver which provides
> +      a virtual machine generation counter. The driver exposes FS ops
> +      on /dev/vmgenid through which it can provide information and
> +      notifications on VM generation changes that happen on snapshots
> +      or cloning.
> +      This enables applications and libraries that store or cache
> +      sensitive information, to know that they need to regenerate it
> +      after process memory has been exposed to potential copying.
> +
> +      To compile this driver as a module, choose M here: the
> +      module will be called vmgenid.
> +
>  config FSL_HV_MANAGER
>      tristate "Freescale hypervisor management driver"
>      depends on FSL_SOC
> diff --git a/drivers/virt/Makefile b/drivers/virt/Makefile
> index f28425c..889be01 100644
> --- a/drivers/virt/Makefile
> +++ b/drivers/virt/Makefile
> @@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
>  #
>  
>  obj-$(CONFIG_FSL_HV_MANAGER)    += fsl_hypervisor.o
> +obj-$(CONFIG_VMGENID)        += vmgenid.o
>  obj-y                += vboxguest/
>  
>  obj-$(CONFIG_NITRO_ENCLAVES)    += nitro_enclaves/
> diff --git a/drivers/virt/vmgenid.c b/drivers/virt/vmgenid.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..c4d4683
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/drivers/virt/vmgenid.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,435 @@
> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +/*
> + * Virtual Machine Generation ID driver
> + *
> + * Copyright (C) 2018 Red Hat Inc. All rights reserved.
> + *
> + * Copyright (C) 2020 Amazon. All rights reserved.
> + *
> + *    Authors:
> + *      Adrian Catangiu <acatan@amazon.com>
> + *      Or Idgar <oridgar@gmail.com>
> + *      Gal Hammer <ghammer@redhat.com>
> + *
> + */
> +#include <linux/acpi.h>
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <linux/miscdevice.h>
> +#include <linux/mm.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/poll.h>
> +#include <linux/random.h>
> +#include <linux/uuid.h>
> +#include <linux/vmgenid.h>
> +
> +#define DEV_NAME "vmgenid"
> +ACPI_MODULE_NAME(DEV_NAME);
> +
> +struct acpi_data {
> +    uuid_t uuid;
> +    void   *uuid_iomap;
> +};
> +
> +struct driver_data {

I'd suggest vmgenid_data

> +    unsigned long     map_buf;

We use tab=8 for indentation. Please run your patch though
scripts/checkpatch.pl to make sure it conforms the coding style.

> +    wait_queue_head_t read_waitq;
> +    atomic_t          generation_counter;
> +
> +    unsigned int      watchers;
> +    atomic_t          outdated_watchers;
> +    wait_queue_head_t outdated_waitq;
> +    spinlock_t        lock;
> +
> +    struct acpi_data  *acpi_data;
> +};
> +struct driver_data driver_data;

static 

> +
> +struct file_data {
> +    unsigned int acked_gen_counter;
> +};
> +
> +static int equals_gen_counter(unsigned int counter)
> +{
> +    return counter == atomic_read(&driver_data.generation_counter);
> +}
> +
> +static void vmgenid_bump_generation(void)
> +{
> +    unsigned long flags;
> +    int counter;
> +
> +    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +    counter = atomic_inc_return(&driver_data.generation_counter);
> +    *((int *) driver_data.map_buf) = counter;
> +    atomic_set(&driver_data.outdated_watchers, driver_data.watchers);
> +
> +    wake_up_interruptible(&driver_data.read_waitq);
> +    wake_up_interruptible(&driver_data.outdated_waitq);
> +    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +static void vmgenid_put_outdated_watchers(void)
> +{
> +    if (atomic_dec_and_test(&driver_data.outdated_watchers))
> +        wake_up_interruptible(&driver_data.outdated_waitq);
> +}
> +
> +static int vmgenid_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
> +{
> +    struct file_data *fdata = kzalloc(sizeof(struct file_data),
> GFP_KERNEL);
> +    unsigned long flags;
> +
> +    if (!fdata)
> +        return -ENOMEM;
> +
> +    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +    fdata->acked_gen_counter =
> atomic_read(&driver_data.generation_counter);
> +    ++driver_data.watchers;
> +    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +
> +    file->private_data = fdata;
> +
> +    return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static int vmgenid_close(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
> +{
> +    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
> +    unsigned long flags;
> +
> +    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter))
> +        vmgenid_put_outdated_watchers();
> +    --driver_data.watchers;
> +    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +
> +    kfree(fdata);
> +
> +    return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static ssize_t
> +vmgenid_read(struct file *file, char __user *ubuf, size_t nbytes,

Please keep the function name at the same line as return type and wrap
parameters to the next line.

> loff_t *ppos)
> +{
> +    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
> +    ssize_t ret;
> +    int gen_counter;
> +
> +    if (nbytes == 0)
> +        return 0;
> +    /* disallow partial reads */
> +    if (nbytes < sizeof(gen_counter))
> +        return -EINVAL;
> +
> +    if (equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)) {
> +        if (file->f_flags & O_NONBLOCK)
> +            return -EAGAIN;
> +        ret = wait_event_interruptible(
> +            driver_data.read_waitq,
> +            !equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)
> +        );
> +        if (ret)
> +            return ret;
> +    }
> +
> +    gen_counter = atomic_read(&driver_data.generation_counter);
> +    ret = copy_to_user(ubuf, &gen_counter, sizeof(gen_counter));
> +    if (ret)
> +        return -EFAULT;
> +
> +    return sizeof(gen_counter);
> +}
> +
> +static ssize_t vmgenid_write(struct file *file, const char __user *ubuf,
> +                size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
> +{
> +    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
> +    unsigned int new_acked_gen;
> +    unsigned long flags;
> +
> +    /* disallow partial writes */
> +    if (count != sizeof(new_acked_gen))
> +        return -EINVAL;
> +    if (copy_from_user(&new_acked_gen, ubuf, count))
> +        return -EFAULT;
> +
> +    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +    /* wrong gen-counter acknowledged */
> +    if (!equals_gen_counter(new_acked_gen)) {
> +        spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +        return -EINVAL;
> +    }
> +    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)) {
> +        fdata->acked_gen_counter = new_acked_gen;
> +        vmgenid_put_outdated_watchers();
> +    }
> +    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
> +
> +    return (ssize_t)count;
> +}
> +
> +static __poll_t
> +vmgenid_poll(struct file *file, poll_table *wait)
> +{
> +    __poll_t mask = 0;
> +    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
> +
> +    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter))
> +        return EPOLLIN | EPOLLRDNORM;
> +
> +    poll_wait(file, &driver_data.read_waitq, wait);
> +
> +    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter))
> +        mask = EPOLLIN | EPOLLRDNORM;
> +
> +    return mask;
> +}
> +
> +static long vmgenid_ioctl(struct file *file,
> +        unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
> +{
> +    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
> +    unsigned long timeout_ns;
> +    ktime_t until;
> +    int ret = 0;
> +
> +    switch (cmd) {
> +    case VMGENID_GET_OUTDATED_WATCHERS:
> +        ret = atomic_read(&driver_data.outdated_watchers);
> +        break;
> +    case VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS:
> +        timeout_ns = arg * NSEC_PER_MSEC;
> +        until = timeout_ns ? ktime_set(0, timeout_ns) : KTIME_MAX;
> +
> +        ret = wait_event_interruptible_hrtimeout(
> +            driver_data.outdated_waitq,
> +            (!atomic_read(&driver_data.outdated_watchers) ||
> +                    !equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)),
> +            until
> +        );
> +        if (atomic_read(&driver_data.outdated_watchers))
> +            ret = -EINTR;
> +        else
> +            ret = 0;
> +        break;
> +    case VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE:
> +        if (!checkpoint_restore_ns_capable(current_user_ns()))
> +            return -EACCES;
> +        vmgenid_bump_generation();
> +        break;
> +    default:
> +        ret = -EINVAL;
> +        break;
> +    }
> +    return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static int vmgenid_mmap(struct file *file, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
> +{
> +    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
> +
> +    if (vma->vm_pgoff != 0 || vma_pages(vma) > 1)
> +        return -EINVAL;
> +
> +    if ((vma->vm_flags & VM_WRITE) != 0)
> +        return -EPERM;
> +
> +    vma->vm_flags |= VM_DONTEXPAND | VM_DONTDUMP;
> +    vma->vm_flags &= ~VM_MAYWRITE;
> +    vma->vm_private_data = fdata;
> +
> +    return vm_insert_page(vma, vma->vm_start,
> +                          virt_to_page(driver_data.map_buf));
> +}
> +
> +static const struct file_operations fops = {
> +    .owner          = THIS_MODULE,
> +    .mmap           = vmgenid_mmap,
> +    .open           = vmgenid_open,
> +    .release        = vmgenid_close,
> +    .read           = vmgenid_read,
> +    .write          = vmgenid_write,
> +    .poll           = vmgenid_poll,
> +    .unlocked_ioctl = vmgenid_ioctl,
> +};
> +
> +struct miscdevice vmgenid_misc = {

static

> +    .minor = MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR,
> +    .name = "vmgenid",
> +    .fops = &fops,
> +};
> +
> +static int vmgenid_acpi_map(struct acpi_data *priv, acpi_handle handle)
> +{
> +    int i;
> +    phys_addr_t phys_addr;
> +    struct acpi_buffer buffer = { ACPI_ALLOCATE_BUFFER, NULL };
> +    acpi_status status;
> +    union acpi_object *pss;
> +    union acpi_object *element;
> +
> +    status = acpi_evaluate_object(handle, "ADDR", NULL, &buffer);
> +    if (ACPI_FAILURE(status)) {
> +        ACPI_EXCEPTION((AE_INFO, status, "Evaluating ADDR"));
> +        return -ENODEV;
> +    }
> +    pss = buffer.pointer;
> +    if (!pss || pss->type != ACPI_TYPE_PACKAGE || pss->package.count != 2)
> +        return -EINVAL;
> +
> +    phys_addr = 0;
> +    for (i = 0; i < pss->package.count; i++) {
> +        element = &(pss->package.elements[i]);
> +        if (element->type != ACPI_TYPE_INTEGER)
> +            return -EINVAL;
> +        phys_addr |= element->integer.value << i * 32;
> +    }
> +
> +    priv->uuid_iomap = acpi_os_map_memory(phys_addr, sizeof(uuid_t));
> +    if (!priv->uuid_iomap) {
> +        pr_err("Could not map memory at 0x%llx, size %u\n",
> +               phys_addr,
> +               (u32) sizeof(uuid_t));
> +        return -ENOMEM;
> +    }
> +
> +    memcpy_fromio(&priv->uuid, priv->uuid_iomap, sizeof(uuid_t));
> +
> +    return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static int vmgenid_acpi_add(struct acpi_device *device)
> +{
> +    int ret;
> +
> +    if (!device)
> +        return -EINVAL;
> +
> +    driver_data.acpi_data = kzalloc(sizeof(struct acpi_data), GFP_KERNEL);
> +    if (!driver_data.acpi_data) {
> +        pr_err("vmgenid: failed to allocate acpi_data\n");
> +        return -ENOMEM;
> +    }
> +    device->driver_data = &driver_data;
> +
> +    ret = vmgenid_acpi_map(driver_data.acpi_data, device->handle);
> +    if (ret < 0) {
> +        pr_err("vmgenid: failed to map acpi device\n");
> +        goto err;
> +    }
> +
> +    return 0;
> +
> +err:
> +    kfree(driver_data.acpi_data);
> +    driver_data.acpi_data = NULL;
> +
> +    return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static int vmgenid_acpi_remove(struct acpi_device *device)
> +{
> +    struct acpi_data *priv;
> +
> +    if (!device || !acpi_driver_data(device))
> +        return -EINVAL;
> +
> +    device->driver_data = NULL;
> +    priv = driver_data.acpi_data;
> +    driver_data.acpi_data = NULL;
> +
> +    if (priv && priv->uuid_iomap)
> +        acpi_os_unmap_memory(priv->uuid_iomap, sizeof(uuid_t));
> +    kfree(priv);
> +
> +    return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static void vmgenid_acpi_notify(struct acpi_device *device, u32 event)
> +{
> +    struct acpi_data *priv;
> +    uuid_t old_uuid;
> +
> +    if (!device || !acpi_driver_data(device)) {
> +        pr_err("VMGENID notify with NULL private data\n");
> +        return;
> +    }
> +    priv = driver_data.acpi_data;
> +
> +    /* update VM Generation UUID */
> +    old_uuid = priv->uuid;
> +    memcpy_fromio(&priv->uuid, priv->uuid_iomap, sizeof(uuid_t));
> +
> +    if (memcmp(&old_uuid, &priv->uuid, sizeof(uuid_t))) {
> +        /* HW uuid updated */
> +        vmgenid_bump_generation();
> +        add_device_randomness(&priv->uuid, sizeof(uuid_t));
> +    }
> +}
> +
> +static const struct acpi_device_id vmgenid_ids[] = {
> +    {"QEMUVGID", 0},
> +    {"", 0},
> +};
> +
> +static struct acpi_driver acpi_vmgenid_driver = {
> +    .name = "vm_generation_id",
> +    .ids = vmgenid_ids,
> +    .owner = THIS_MODULE,
> +    .ops = {
> +        .add = vmgenid_acpi_add,
> +        .remove = vmgenid_acpi_remove,
> +        .notify = vmgenid_acpi_notify,
> +    }
> +};
> +
> +static int __init vmgenid_init(void)
> +{
> +    int ret;
> +
> +    driver_data.map_buf = get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
> +    if (!driver_data.map_buf)
> +        return -ENOMEM;
> +
> +    atomic_set(&driver_data.generation_counter, 0);
> +    atomic_set(&driver_data.outdated_watchers, 0);
> +    init_waitqueue_head(&driver_data.read_waitq);
> +    init_waitqueue_head(&driver_data.outdated_waitq);
> +    spin_lock_init(&driver_data.lock);
> +    driver_data.acpi_data = NULL;
> +
> +    ret = misc_register(&vmgenid_misc);
> +    if (ret < 0) {
> +        pr_err("misc_register() failed for vmgenid\n");
> +        goto err;
> +    }
> +
> +    ret = acpi_bus_register_driver(&acpi_vmgenid_driver);
> +    if (ret < 0)
> +        pr_warn("No vmgenid acpi device found\n");

I think this needs to be reworked to support no-ACPI version. For
instance we can call here something like

	ret = vmgenid_hw_register();

and have 

#ifdef CONFIG_ACPI
static int vmgenid_hw_register(void)
{
	return acpi_bus_register_driver(&acpi_vmgenid_driver);
}
#else
static int vmgenid_hw_register(void)
{
	return 0;
}
#endif

> +
> +    return 0;
> +
> +err:
> +    free_pages(driver_data.map_buf, 0);
> +    driver_data.map_buf = 0;
> +
> +    return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static void __exit vmgenid_exit(void)
> +{
> +    acpi_bus_unregister_driver(&acpi_vmgenid_driver);
> +
> +    misc_deregister(&vmgenid_misc);
> +    free_pages(driver_data.map_buf, 0);
> +    driver_data.map_buf = 0;
> +}
> +
> +module_init(vmgenid_init);
> +module_exit(vmgenid_exit);
> +
> +MODULE_AUTHOR("Adrian Catangiu");
> +MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Virtual Machine Generation ID");
> +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
> +MODULE_VERSION("0.1");
> diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h b/include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..9316b00
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
> +/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note */
> +
> +#ifndef _UAPI_LINUX_VMGENID_H
> +#define _UAPI_LINUX_VMGENID_H
> +
> +#include <linux/ioctl.h>
> +
> +#define VMGENID_IOCTL 0x2d
> +#define VMGENID_GET_OUTDATED_WATCHERS _IO(VMGENID_IOCTL, 1)
> +#define VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS         _IO(VMGENID_IOCTL, 2)
> +#define VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE      _IO(VMGENID_IOCTL, 3)
> +
> +#endif /* _UAPI_LINUX_VMGENID_H */
> +
> -- 
> 2.7.4
>
Eric W. Biederman Dec. 1, 2020, 6 p.m. UTC | #2
"Catangiu, Adrian Costin" <acatan@amazon.com> writes:

> - Background
>
> The VM Generation ID is a feature defined by Microsoft (paper:
> http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=260709) and supported by
> multiple hypervisor vendors.
>
> The feature is required in virtualized environments by apps that work
> with local copies/caches of world-unique data such as random values,
> uuids, monotonically increasing counters, etc.
> Such apps can be negatively affected by VM snapshotting when the VM
> is either cloned or returned to an earlier point in time.

How does this differ from /proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id?

> The VM Generation ID is a simple concept meant to alleviate the issue
> by providing a unique ID that changes each time the VM is restored
> from a snapshot. The hw provided UUID value can be used to
> differentiate between VMs or different generations of the same VM.

Does the VM generation ID change in a running that effectively things it
is running?

> - Problem
>
> The VM Generation ID is exposed through an ACPI device by multiple
> hypervisor vendors but neither the vendors or upstream Linux have no
> default driver for it leaving users to fend for themselves.
>
> Furthermore, simply finding out about a VM generation change is only
> the starting point of a process to renew internal states of possibly
> multiple applications across the system. This process could benefit
> from a driver that provides an interface through which orchestration
> can be easily done.
>
> - Solution
>
> This patch is a driver that exposes a monotonic incremental Virtual
> Machine Generation u32 counter via a char-dev FS interface.

Earlier it was a UUID now it is 32bit number?

> The FS
> interface provides sync and async VmGen counter updates notifications.
> It also provides VmGen counter retrieval and confirmation mechanisms.
>
> The generation counter and the interface through which it is exposed
> are available even when there is no acpi device present.
>
> When the device is present, the hw provided UUID is not exposed to
> userspace, it is internally used by the driver to keep accounting for
> the exposed VmGen counter. The counter starts from zero when the
> driver is initialized and monotonically increments every time the hw
> UUID changes (the VM generation changes).
> On each hw UUID change, the new hypervisor-provided UUID is also fed
> to the kernel RNG.

Should this be a hotplug even rather than a new character device?

Without plugging into udev and the rest of the hotplug infrastructure
I suspect things will be missed.

> If there is no acpi vmgenid device present, the generation changes are
> not driven by hw vmgenid events but can be driven by software through
> a dedicated driver ioctl.
>
> This patch builds on top of Or Idgar <oridgar@gmail.com>'s proposal
> https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/3/1/498


Eric
Alexander Graf Dec. 7, 2020, 1:11 p.m. UTC | #3
On 27.11.20 19:26, Catangiu, Adrian Costin wrote:
> - Background
> 
> The VM Generation ID is a feature defined by Microsoft (paper:
> http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=260709) and supported by
> multiple hypervisor vendors.
> 
> The feature is required in virtualized environments by apps that work
> with local copies/caches of world-unique data such as random values,
> uuids, monotonically increasing counters, etc.
> Such apps can be negatively affected by VM snapshotting when the VM
> is either cloned or returned to an earlier point in time.
> 
> The VM Generation ID is a simple concept meant to alleviate the issue
> by providing a unique ID that changes each time the VM is restored
> from a snapshot. The hw provided UUID value can be used to
> differentiate between VMs or different generations of the same VM.
> 
> - Problem
> 
> The VM Generation ID is exposed through an ACPI device by multiple
> hypervisor vendors but neither the vendors or upstream Linux have no
> default driver for it leaving users to fend for themselves.
> 
> Furthermore, simply finding out about a VM generation change is only
> the starting point of a process to renew internal states of possibly
> multiple applications across the system. This process could benefit
> from a driver that provides an interface through which orchestration
> can be easily done.
> 
> - Solution
> 
> This patch is a driver that exposes a monotonic incremental Virtual
> Machine Generation u32 counter via a char-dev FS interface. The FS
> interface provides sync and async VmGen counter updates notifications.
> It also provides VmGen counter retrieval and confirmation mechanisms.
> 
> The generation counter and the interface through which it is exposed
> are available even when there is no acpi device present.
> 
> When the device is present, the hw provided UUID is not exposed to
> userspace, it is internally used by the driver to keep accounting for
> the exposed VmGen counter. The counter starts from zero when the
> driver is initialized and monotonically increments every time the hw
> UUID changes (the VM generation changes).
> On each hw UUID change, the new hypervisor-provided UUID is also fed
> to the kernel RNG.
> 
> If there is no acpi vmgenid device present, the generation changes are
> not driven by hw vmgenid events but can be driven by software through
> a dedicated driver ioctl.
> 
> This patch builds on top of Or Idgar <oridgar@gmail.com>'s proposal
> https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/3/1/498
> 
> - Future improvements
> 
> Ideally we would want the driver to register itself based on devices'
> _CID and not _HID, but unfortunately I couldn't find a way to do that.
> The problem is that ACPI device matching is done by
> '__acpi_match_device()' which exclusively looks at
> 'acpi_hardware_id *hwid'.
> 
> There is a path for platform devices to match on _CID when _HID is
> 'PRP0001' - but this is not the case for the Qemu vmgenid device.
> 
> Guidance and help here would be greatly appreciated.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Adrian Catangiu <acatan@amazon.com>
> 
> ---
> 
> v1 -> v2:
> 
>    - expose to userspace a monotonically increasing u32 Vm Gen Counter
>      instead of the hw VmGen UUID
>    - since the hw/hypervisor-provided 128-bit UUID is not public
>      anymore, add it to the kernel RNG as device randomness
>    - insert driver page containing Vm Gen Counter in the user vma in
>      the driver's mmap handler instead of using a fault handler
>    - turn driver into a misc device driver to auto-create /dev/vmgenid
>    - change ioctl arg to avoid leaking kernel structs to userspace
>    - update documentation
>    - various nits
>    - rebase on top of linus latest
> 
> v2 -> v3:
> 
>    - separate the core driver logic and interface, from the ACPI device.
>      The ACPI vmgenid device is now one possible backend.
>    - fix issue when timeout=0 in VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS
>    - add locking to avoid races between fs ops handlers and hw irq
>      driven generation updates
>    - change VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS ioctl so if the current caller is
>      outdated or a generation change happens while waiting (thus making
>      current caller outdated), the ioctl returns -EINTR to signal the
>      user to handle event and retry. Fixes blocking on oneself.
>    - add VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE ioctl conditioned by
>      CAP_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE capability, through which software can force
>      generation bump.
> ---
>   Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst | 240 +++++++++++++++++++++++
>   drivers/virt/Kconfig           |  17 ++
>   drivers/virt/Makefile          |   1 +
>   drivers/virt/vmgenid.c         | 435
> +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>   include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h   |  14 ++
>   5 files changed, 707 insertions(+)
>   create mode 100644 Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst
>   create mode 100644 drivers/virt/vmgenid.c
>   create mode 100644 include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h
> 

[...]

> diff --git a/drivers/virt/Kconfig b/drivers/virt/Kconfig
> index 80c5f9c1..5d5f37b 100644
> --- a/drivers/virt/Kconfig
> +++ b/drivers/virt/Kconfig
> @@ -13,6 +13,23 @@ menuconfig VIRT_DRIVERS
>   
>   if VIRT_DRIVERS
>   
> +config VMGENID
> +    tristate "Virtual Machine Generation ID driver"
> +    depends on ACPI

I think you want to split the KConfig bit into two now. One for generic 
/dev/vmgenid support and another one for ACPI_VMGENID to automatically 
bump revisions when the hypervisor indicates it.

In fact, you can probably make this two separate patches with two 
separate files (read: kernel modules) even. The generic code can just 
export symbols to bump the system genid.

I'm also not fully convinced that calling the generic mechanism 
"vmgenid" is still accurate at this point. Can you think of a better 
name? "System Generation ID", so "sysgenid" maybe?

> +    default N
> +    help
> +      This is a Virtual Machine Generation ID driver which provides
> +      a virtual machine generation counter. The driver exposes FS ops
> +      on /dev/vmgenid through which it can provide information and
> +      notifications on VM generation changes that happen on snapshots
> +      or cloning.
> +      This enables applications and libraries that store or cache
> +      sensitive information, to know that they need to regenerate it
> +      after process memory has been exposed to potential copying.
> +
> +      To compile this driver as a module, choose M here: the
> +      module will be called vmgenid.
> +
>   config FSL_HV_MANAGER
>       tristate "Freescale hypervisor management driver"
>       depends on FSL_SOC

[...]

> +    case VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE:
> +        if (!checkpoint_restore_ns_capable(current_user_ns()))
> +            return -EACCES;
> +        vmgenid_bump_generation();

I think this is racy and needs to be slightly different. Imagine the 
following:

   - container is running with genid 5
   - I take a snapshot of the container
   - Target system has genid 4
   - I resume the container
   - I call the genid update (genid = 5)

Then the container still sees genid 5, so *maybe* it won't adapt to the 
new environment. This will depend on whether the container gets enough 
time to adjust to genid=4 before we bump it to 5.

How about we pass a "bump, but not to this value" argument to the ioctl? 
Then it would look like this:

   - container is running with genid 5
   - I take a snapshot of the container and its genid (5)
   - Target system has genid 4
   - I resume the container
   - I call the genid update with avoid=5 (so we bump genid to 6)

Now all processes in the system will adapt to genid=6, including the 
resumed container.


Alex



Amazon Development Center Germany GmbH
Krausenstr. 38
10117 Berlin
Geschaeftsfuehrung: Christian Schlaeger, Jonathan Weiss
Eingetragen am Amtsgericht Charlottenburg unter HRB 149173 B
Sitz: Berlin
Ust-ID: DE 289 237 879

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst b/Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b6a9f8d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/virt/vmgenid.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,240 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+============
+VMGENID
+============
+
+The VM Generation ID is a feature defined by Microsoft (paper:
+http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=260709) and supported by
+multiple hypervisor vendors.
+
+The feature is required in virtualized environments by apps that work
+with local copies/caches of world-unique data such as random values,
+uuids, monotonically increasing counters, etc.
+Such apps can be negatively affected by VM snapshotting when the VM
+is either cloned or returned to an earlier point in time.
+
+The VM Generation ID is a simple concept meant to alleviate the issue
+by providing a unique ID that changes each time the VM is restored
+from a snapshot. The hw provided UUID value can be used to
+differentiate between VMs or different generations of the same VM.
+
+The VM Generation ID is exposed through an ACPI device by multiple
+hypervisor vendors. The driver for it lives at
+``drivers/virt/vmgenid.c``
+
+The ``vmgenid`` driver exposes a monotonic incremental Virtual
+Machine Generation u32 counter via a char-dev FS interface that
+provides sync and async VmGen counter updates notifications. It also
+provides VmGen counter retrieval and confirmation mechanisms.
+
+This counter and the interface through which it is exposed are
+available even when there is no acpi device present.
+
+When the device is present, the hw provided UUID is not exposed to
+userspace, it is internally used by the driver to keep accounting for
+the exposed VmGen counter. The counter starts from zero when the
+driver is initialized and monotonically increments every time the hw
+UUID changes (the VM generation changes).
+On each hw UUID change, the new UUID is also fed to the kernel RNG.
+
+If there is no acpi vmgenid device present, the generation changes are
+not driven by hw vmgenid events and thus should be driven by software
+through a dedicated driver ioctl.
+
+Driver interface:
+
+``open()``:
+  When the device is opened, a copy of the current Vm-Gen-Id (counter)
+  is associated with the open file descriptor. The driver now tracks
+  this file as an independent *watcher*. The driver tracks how many
+  watchers are aware of the latest Vm-Gen-Id counter and how many of
+  them are *outdated*; outdated being those that have lived through
+  a Vm-Gen-Id change but not yet confirmed the new generation counter.
+
+``read()``:
+  Read is meant to provide the *new* VM generation counter when a
+  generation change takes place. The read operation blocks until the
+  associated counter is no longer up to date - until HW vm gen id
+  changes - at which point the new counter is provided/returned.
+  Nonblocking ``read()`` uses ``EAGAIN`` to signal that there is no
+  *new* counter value available. The generation counter is considered
+  *new* for each open file descriptor that hasn't confirmed the new
+  value, following a generation change. Therefore, once a generation
+  change takes place, all ``read()`` calls will immediately return the
+  new generation counter and will continue to do so until the
+  new value is confirmed back to the driver through ``write()``.
+  Partial reads are not allowed - read buffer needs to be at least
+  ``sizeof(unsigned)`` in size.
+
+``write()``:
+  Write is used to confirm the up-to-date Vm Gen counter back to the
+  driver.
+  Following a VM generation change, all existing watchers are marked
+  as *outdated*. Each file descriptor will maintain the *outdated*
+  status until a ``write()`` confirms the up-to-date counter back to
+  the driver.
+  Partial writes are not allowed - write buffer should be exactly
+  ``sizeof(unsigned)`` in size.
+
+``poll()``:
+  Poll is implemented to allow polling for generation counter updates.
+  Such updates result in ``EPOLLIN`` polling status until the new
+  up-to-date counter is confirmed back to the driver through a
+  ``write()``.
+
+``ioctl()``:
+  The driver also adds support for tracking count of open file
+  descriptors that haven't acknowledged a generation counter update.
+  This is exposed through two IOCTLs:
+
+  - VMGENID_GET_OUTDATED_WATCHERS: immediately returns the number of
+    *outdated* watchers - number of file descriptors that were open
+    during a VM generation change, and which have not yet confirmed the
+    new generation counter.
+  - VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS: blocks until there are no more *outdated*
+    watchers, or if a ``timeout`` argument is provided, until the
+    timeout expires.
+    If the current caller is *outdated* or a generation change happens
+    while waiting (thus making current caller *outdated*), the ioctl
+    returns ``-EINTR`` to signal the user to handle event and retry.
+  - VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE: forces a generation counter bump. Can only
+    be used by processes with CAP_CHECKPOINT_RESTORE or CAP_SYS_ADMIN
+    capabilities.
+
+``mmap()``:
+  The driver supports ``PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED`` mmaps of a single page
+  in size. The first 4 bytes of the mapped page will contain an
+  up-to-date copy of the VM generation counter.
+  The mapped memory can be used as a low-latency generation counter
+  probe mechanism in critical sections - see examples.
+
+``close()``:
+  Removes the file descriptor as a Vm generation counter watcher.
+
+Example application workflows
+-----------------------------
+
+1) Watchdog thread simplified example::
+
+    void watchdog_thread_handler(int *thread_active)
+    {
+        unsigned genid;
+        int fd = open("/dev/vmgenid", O_RDWR | O_CLOEXEC, S_IRUSR |
S_IWUSR);
+
+        do {
+            // read new gen ID - blocks until VM generation changes
+            read(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
+
+            // because of VM generation change, we need to rebuild world
+            reseed_app_env();
+
+            // confirm we're done handling gen ID update
+            write(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
+        } while (atomic_read(thread_active));
+
+        close(fd);
+    }
+
+2) ASYNC simplified example::
+
+    void handle_io_on_vmgenfd(int vmgenfd)
+    {
+        unsigned genid;
+
+        // read new gen ID - we need it to confirm we've handled update
+        read(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
+
+        // because of VM generation change, we need to rebuild world
+        reseed_app_env();
+
+        // confirm we're done handling the gen ID update
+        write(fd, &genid, sizeof(genid));
+    }
+
+    int main() {
+        int epfd, vmgenfd;
+        struct epoll_event ev;
+
+        epfd = epoll_create(EPOLL_QUEUE_LEN);
+
+        vmgenfd = open("/dev/vmgenid",
+                       O_RDWR | O_CLOEXEC | O_NONBLOCK,
+                       S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
+
+        // register vmgenid for polling
+        ev.events = EPOLLIN;
+        ev.data.fd = vmgenfd;
+        epoll_ctl(epfd, EPOLL_CTL_ADD, vmgenfd, &ev);
+
+        // register other parts of your app for polling
+        // ...
+
+        while (1) {
+            // wait for something to do...
+            int nfds = epoll_wait(epfd, events,
+                MAX_EPOLL_EVENTS_PER_RUN,
+                EPOLL_RUN_TIMEOUT);
+            if (nfds < 0) die("Error in epoll_wait!");
+
+            // for each ready fd
+            for(int i = 0; i < nfds; i++) {
+                int fd = events[i].data.fd;
+
+                if (fd == vmgenfd)
+                    handle_io_on_vmgenfd(vmgenfd);
+                else
+                    handle_some_other_part_of_the_app(fd);
+            }
+        }
+
+        return 0;
+    }
+
+3) Mapped memory polling simplified example::
+
+    /*
+     * app/library function that provides cached secrets
+     */
+    char * safe_cached_secret(app_data_t *app)
+    {
+        char *secret;
+        volatile unsigned *const genid_ptr = get_vmgenid_mapping(app);
+    again:
+        secret = __cached_secret(app);
+
+        if (unlikely(*genid_ptr != app->cached_genid)) {
+            // rebuild world then confirm the genid update (thru write)
+            rebuild_caches(app);
+
+            app->cached_genid = *genid_ptr;
+            ack_vmgenid_update(app);
+
+            goto again;
+        }
+
+        return secret;
+    }
+
+4) Orchestrator simplified example::
+
+    /*
+     * orchestrator - manages multiple apps and libraries used by a service
+     * and tries to make sure all sensitive components gracefully handle
+     * VM generation changes.
+     * Following function is called on detection of a VM generation change.
+     */
+    int handle_vmgen_update(int vmgen_fd, unsigned new_gen_id)
+    {
+        // pause until all components have handled event
+        pause_service();
+
+        // confirm *this* watcher as up-to-date
+        write(vmgen_fd, &new_gen_id, sizeof(unsigned));
+
+        // wait for all *others* for at most 5 seconds.
+        ioctl(vmgen_fd, VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS, 5000);
+
+        // all apps on the system have rebuilt worlds
+        resume_service();
+    }
diff --git a/drivers/virt/Kconfig b/drivers/virt/Kconfig
index 80c5f9c1..5d5f37b 100644
--- a/drivers/virt/Kconfig
+++ b/drivers/virt/Kconfig
@@ -13,6 +13,23 @@  menuconfig VIRT_DRIVERS
 
 if VIRT_DRIVERS
 
+config VMGENID
+    tristate "Virtual Machine Generation ID driver"
+    depends on ACPI
+    default N
+    help
+      This is a Virtual Machine Generation ID driver which provides
+      a virtual machine generation counter. The driver exposes FS ops
+      on /dev/vmgenid through which it can provide information and
+      notifications on VM generation changes that happen on snapshots
+      or cloning.
+      This enables applications and libraries that store or cache
+      sensitive information, to know that they need to regenerate it
+      after process memory has been exposed to potential copying.
+
+      To compile this driver as a module, choose M here: the
+      module will be called vmgenid.
+
 config FSL_HV_MANAGER
     tristate "Freescale hypervisor management driver"
     depends on FSL_SOC
diff --git a/drivers/virt/Makefile b/drivers/virt/Makefile
index f28425c..889be01 100644
--- a/drivers/virt/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/virt/Makefile
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@ 
 #
 
 obj-$(CONFIG_FSL_HV_MANAGER)    += fsl_hypervisor.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_VMGENID)        += vmgenid.o
 obj-y                += vboxguest/
 
 obj-$(CONFIG_NITRO_ENCLAVES)    += nitro_enclaves/
diff --git a/drivers/virt/vmgenid.c b/drivers/virt/vmgenid.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c4d4683
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/virt/vmgenid.c
@@ -0,0 +1,435 @@ 
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+/*
+ * Virtual Machine Generation ID driver
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2018 Red Hat Inc. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2020 Amazon. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ *    Authors:
+ *      Adrian Catangiu <acatan@amazon.com>
+ *      Or Idgar <oridgar@gmail.com>
+ *      Gal Hammer <ghammer@redhat.com>
+ *
+ */
+#include <linux/acpi.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/miscdevice.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/poll.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
+#include <linux/uuid.h>
+#include <linux/vmgenid.h>
+
+#define DEV_NAME "vmgenid"
+ACPI_MODULE_NAME(DEV_NAME);
+
+struct acpi_data {
+    uuid_t uuid;
+    void   *uuid_iomap;
+};
+
+struct driver_data {
+    unsigned long     map_buf;
+    wait_queue_head_t read_waitq;
+    atomic_t          generation_counter;
+
+    unsigned int      watchers;
+    atomic_t          outdated_watchers;
+    wait_queue_head_t outdated_waitq;
+    spinlock_t        lock;
+
+    struct acpi_data  *acpi_data;
+};
+struct driver_data driver_data;
+
+struct file_data {
+    unsigned int acked_gen_counter;
+};
+
+static int equals_gen_counter(unsigned int counter)
+{
+    return counter == atomic_read(&driver_data.generation_counter);
+}
+
+static void vmgenid_bump_generation(void)
+{
+    unsigned long flags;
+    int counter;
+
+    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+    counter = atomic_inc_return(&driver_data.generation_counter);
+    *((int *) driver_data.map_buf) = counter;
+    atomic_set(&driver_data.outdated_watchers, driver_data.watchers);
+
+    wake_up_interruptible(&driver_data.read_waitq);
+    wake_up_interruptible(&driver_data.outdated_waitq);
+    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+}
+
+static void vmgenid_put_outdated_watchers(void)
+{
+    if (atomic_dec_and_test(&driver_data.outdated_watchers))
+        wake_up_interruptible(&driver_data.outdated_waitq);
+}
+
+static int vmgenid_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+    struct file_data *fdata = kzalloc(sizeof(struct file_data),
GFP_KERNEL);
+    unsigned long flags;
+
+    if (!fdata)
+        return -ENOMEM;
+
+    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+    fdata->acked_gen_counter =
atomic_read(&driver_data.generation_counter);
+    ++driver_data.watchers;
+    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+
+    file->private_data = fdata;
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static int vmgenid_close(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
+    unsigned long flags;
+
+    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter))
+        vmgenid_put_outdated_watchers();
+    --driver_data.watchers;
+    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+
+    kfree(fdata);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static ssize_t
+vmgenid_read(struct file *file, char __user *ubuf, size_t nbytes,
loff_t *ppos)
+{
+    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
+    ssize_t ret;
+    int gen_counter;
+
+    if (nbytes == 0)
+        return 0;
+    /* disallow partial reads */
+    if (nbytes < sizeof(gen_counter))
+        return -EINVAL;
+
+    if (equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)) {
+        if (file->f_flags & O_NONBLOCK)
+            return -EAGAIN;
+        ret = wait_event_interruptible(
+            driver_data.read_waitq,
+            !equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)
+        );
+        if (ret)
+            return ret;
+    }
+
+    gen_counter = atomic_read(&driver_data.generation_counter);
+    ret = copy_to_user(ubuf, &gen_counter, sizeof(gen_counter));
+    if (ret)
+        return -EFAULT;
+
+    return sizeof(gen_counter);
+}
+
+static ssize_t vmgenid_write(struct file *file, const char __user *ubuf,
+                size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
+    unsigned int new_acked_gen;
+    unsigned long flags;
+
+    /* disallow partial writes */
+    if (count != sizeof(new_acked_gen))
+        return -EINVAL;
+    if (copy_from_user(&new_acked_gen, ubuf, count))
+        return -EFAULT;
+
+    spin_lock_irqsave(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+    /* wrong gen-counter acknowledged */
+    if (!equals_gen_counter(new_acked_gen)) {
+        spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+        return -EINVAL;
+    }
+    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)) {
+        fdata->acked_gen_counter = new_acked_gen;
+        vmgenid_put_outdated_watchers();
+    }
+    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&driver_data.lock, flags);
+
+    return (ssize_t)count;
+}
+
+static __poll_t
+vmgenid_poll(struct file *file, poll_table *wait)
+{
+    __poll_t mask = 0;
+    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
+
+    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter))
+        return EPOLLIN | EPOLLRDNORM;
+
+    poll_wait(file, &driver_data.read_waitq, wait);
+
+    if (!equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter))
+        mask = EPOLLIN | EPOLLRDNORM;
+
+    return mask;
+}
+
+static long vmgenid_ioctl(struct file *file,
+        unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
+    unsigned long timeout_ns;
+    ktime_t until;
+    int ret = 0;
+
+    switch (cmd) {
+    case VMGENID_GET_OUTDATED_WATCHERS:
+        ret = atomic_read(&driver_data.outdated_watchers);
+        break;
+    case VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS:
+        timeout_ns = arg * NSEC_PER_MSEC;
+        until = timeout_ns ? ktime_set(0, timeout_ns) : KTIME_MAX;
+
+        ret = wait_event_interruptible_hrtimeout(
+            driver_data.outdated_waitq,
+            (!atomic_read(&driver_data.outdated_watchers) ||
+                    !equals_gen_counter(fdata->acked_gen_counter)),
+            until
+        );
+        if (atomic_read(&driver_data.outdated_watchers))
+            ret = -EINTR;
+        else
+            ret = 0;
+        break;
+    case VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE:
+        if (!checkpoint_restore_ns_capable(current_user_ns()))
+            return -EACCES;
+        vmgenid_bump_generation();
+        break;
+    default:
+        ret = -EINVAL;
+        break;
+    }
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static int vmgenid_mmap(struct file *file, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+    struct file_data *fdata = file->private_data;
+
+    if (vma->vm_pgoff != 0 || vma_pages(vma) > 1)
+        return -EINVAL;
+
+    if ((vma->vm_flags & VM_WRITE) != 0)
+        return -EPERM;
+
+    vma->vm_flags |= VM_DONTEXPAND | VM_DONTDUMP;
+    vma->vm_flags &= ~VM_MAYWRITE;
+    vma->vm_private_data = fdata;
+
+    return vm_insert_page(vma, vma->vm_start,
+                          virt_to_page(driver_data.map_buf));
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations fops = {
+    .owner          = THIS_MODULE,
+    .mmap           = vmgenid_mmap,
+    .open           = vmgenid_open,
+    .release        = vmgenid_close,
+    .read           = vmgenid_read,
+    .write          = vmgenid_write,
+    .poll           = vmgenid_poll,
+    .unlocked_ioctl = vmgenid_ioctl,
+};
+
+struct miscdevice vmgenid_misc = {
+    .minor = MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR,
+    .name = "vmgenid",
+    .fops = &fops,
+};
+
+static int vmgenid_acpi_map(struct acpi_data *priv, acpi_handle handle)
+{
+    int i;
+    phys_addr_t phys_addr;
+    struct acpi_buffer buffer = { ACPI_ALLOCATE_BUFFER, NULL };
+    acpi_status status;
+    union acpi_object *pss;
+    union acpi_object *element;
+
+    status = acpi_evaluate_object(handle, "ADDR", NULL, &buffer);
+    if (ACPI_FAILURE(status)) {
+        ACPI_EXCEPTION((AE_INFO, status, "Evaluating ADDR"));
+        return -ENODEV;
+    }
+    pss = buffer.pointer;
+    if (!pss || pss->type != ACPI_TYPE_PACKAGE || pss->package.count != 2)
+        return -EINVAL;
+
+    phys_addr = 0;
+    for (i = 0; i < pss->package.count; i++) {
+        element = &(pss->package.elements[i]);
+        if (element->type != ACPI_TYPE_INTEGER)
+            return -EINVAL;
+        phys_addr |= element->integer.value << i * 32;
+    }
+
+    priv->uuid_iomap = acpi_os_map_memory(phys_addr, sizeof(uuid_t));
+    if (!priv->uuid_iomap) {
+        pr_err("Could not map memory at 0x%llx, size %u\n",
+               phys_addr,
+               (u32) sizeof(uuid_t));
+        return -ENOMEM;
+    }
+
+    memcpy_fromio(&priv->uuid, priv->uuid_iomap, sizeof(uuid_t));
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static int vmgenid_acpi_add(struct acpi_device *device)
+{
+    int ret;
+
+    if (!device)
+        return -EINVAL;
+
+    driver_data.acpi_data = kzalloc(sizeof(struct acpi_data), GFP_KERNEL);
+    if (!driver_data.acpi_data) {
+        pr_err("vmgenid: failed to allocate acpi_data\n");
+        return -ENOMEM;
+    }
+    device->driver_data = &driver_data;
+
+    ret = vmgenid_acpi_map(driver_data.acpi_data, device->handle);
+    if (ret < 0) {
+        pr_err("vmgenid: failed to map acpi device\n");
+        goto err;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+
+err:
+    kfree(driver_data.acpi_data);
+    driver_data.acpi_data = NULL;
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static int vmgenid_acpi_remove(struct acpi_device *device)
+{
+    struct acpi_data *priv;
+
+    if (!device || !acpi_driver_data(device))
+        return -EINVAL;
+
+    device->driver_data = NULL;
+    priv = driver_data.acpi_data;
+    driver_data.acpi_data = NULL;
+
+    if (priv && priv->uuid_iomap)
+        acpi_os_unmap_memory(priv->uuid_iomap, sizeof(uuid_t));
+    kfree(priv);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static void vmgenid_acpi_notify(struct acpi_device *device, u32 event)
+{
+    struct acpi_data *priv;
+    uuid_t old_uuid;
+
+    if (!device || !acpi_driver_data(device)) {
+        pr_err("VMGENID notify with NULL private data\n");
+        return;
+    }
+    priv = driver_data.acpi_data;
+
+    /* update VM Generation UUID */
+    old_uuid = priv->uuid;
+    memcpy_fromio(&priv->uuid, priv->uuid_iomap, sizeof(uuid_t));
+
+    if (memcmp(&old_uuid, &priv->uuid, sizeof(uuid_t))) {
+        /* HW uuid updated */
+        vmgenid_bump_generation();
+        add_device_randomness(&priv->uuid, sizeof(uuid_t));
+    }
+}
+
+static const struct acpi_device_id vmgenid_ids[] = {
+    {"QEMUVGID", 0},
+    {"", 0},
+};
+
+static struct acpi_driver acpi_vmgenid_driver = {
+    .name = "vm_generation_id",
+    .ids = vmgenid_ids,
+    .owner = THIS_MODULE,
+    .ops = {
+        .add = vmgenid_acpi_add,
+        .remove = vmgenid_acpi_remove,
+        .notify = vmgenid_acpi_notify,
+    }
+};
+
+static int __init vmgenid_init(void)
+{
+    int ret;
+
+    driver_data.map_buf = get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
+    if (!driver_data.map_buf)
+        return -ENOMEM;
+
+    atomic_set(&driver_data.generation_counter, 0);
+    atomic_set(&driver_data.outdated_watchers, 0);
+    init_waitqueue_head(&driver_data.read_waitq);
+    init_waitqueue_head(&driver_data.outdated_waitq);
+    spin_lock_init(&driver_data.lock);
+    driver_data.acpi_data = NULL;
+
+    ret = misc_register(&vmgenid_misc);
+    if (ret < 0) {
+        pr_err("misc_register() failed for vmgenid\n");
+        goto err;
+    }
+
+    ret = acpi_bus_register_driver(&acpi_vmgenid_driver);
+    if (ret < 0)
+        pr_warn("No vmgenid acpi device found\n");
+
+    return 0;
+
+err:
+    free_pages(driver_data.map_buf, 0);
+    driver_data.map_buf = 0;
+
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static void __exit vmgenid_exit(void)
+{
+    acpi_bus_unregister_driver(&acpi_vmgenid_driver);
+
+    misc_deregister(&vmgenid_misc);
+    free_pages(driver_data.map_buf, 0);
+    driver_data.map_buf = 0;
+}
+
+module_init(vmgenid_init);
+module_exit(vmgenid_exit);
+
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Adrian Catangiu");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Virtual Machine Generation ID");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+MODULE_VERSION("0.1");
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h b/include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9316b00
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/vmgenid.h
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@ 
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note */
+
+#ifndef _UAPI_LINUX_VMGENID_H
+#define _UAPI_LINUX_VMGENID_H
+
+#include <linux/ioctl.h>
+
+#define VMGENID_IOCTL 0x2d
+#define VMGENID_GET_OUTDATED_WATCHERS _IO(VMGENID_IOCTL, 1)
+#define VMGENID_WAIT_WATCHERS         _IO(VMGENID_IOCTL, 2)
+#define VMGENID_FORCE_GEN_UPDATE      _IO(VMGENID_IOCTL, 3)
+
+#endif /* _UAPI_LINUX_VMGENID_H */
+