[v2,6/9] ALSA: virtio: PCM substream operators
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Message ID 20210124165408.1122868-7-anton.yakovlev@opensynergy.com
State New, archived
Headers show
Series
  • [v2,1/9] uapi: virtio_ids: add a sound device type ID from OASIS spec
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Commit Message

Anton Yakovlev Jan. 24, 2021, 4:54 p.m. UTC
Introduce the operators required for the operation of substreams.

Signed-off-by: Anton Yakovlev <anton.yakovlev@opensynergy.com>
---
 sound/virtio/Makefile         |   3 +-
 sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.c     |   5 +-
 sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.h     |   2 +
 sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c | 513 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 521 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c

Comments

Guennadi Liakhovetski Jan. 25, 2021, 4:59 p.m. UTC | #1
On Sun, 24 Jan 2021, Anton Yakovlev wrote:

> Introduce the operators required for the operation of substreams.
>
> Signed-off-by: Anton Yakovlev <anton.yakovlev@opensynergy.com>
> ---
> sound/virtio/Makefile         |   3 +-
> sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.c     |   5 +-
> sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.h     |   2 +
> sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c | 513 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 4 files changed, 521 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c

[snip]

> diff --git a/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..19882777fcd6
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,513 @@

[snip]

> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_release() - Release the PCM substream on the device side.
> + * @substream: VirtIO substream.
> + *
> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
> + */
> +static inline bool virtsnd_pcm_released(struct virtio_pcm_substream *substream)
> +{
> +	/*
> +	 * The spec states that upon receipt of the RELEASE command "the device
> +	 * MUST complete all pending I/O messages for the specified stream ID".
> +	 * Thus, we consider the absence of I/O messages in the queue as an
> +	 * indication that the substream has been released.
> +	 */
> +	return atomic_read(&substream->msg_count) == 0;

Also here having it atomic doesn't really seem to help. This just means, 
that at some point of time it was == 0.

> +}
> +
> +static int virtsnd_pcm_release(struct virtio_pcm_substream *substream)

kernel-doc missing

> +{
> +	struct virtio_snd *snd = substream->snd;
> +	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
> +	unsigned int js = msecs_to_jiffies(msg_timeout_ms);
> +	int rc;
> +
> +	msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(substream, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_RELEASE,
> +					GFP_KERNEL);
> +	if (IS_ERR(msg))
> +		return PTR_ERR(msg);
> +
> +	rc = virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(snd, msg);
> +	if (rc)
> +		return rc;
> +
> +	return wait_event_interruptible_timeout(substream->msg_empty,
> +						virtsnd_pcm_released(substream),
> +						js);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_open() - Open the PCM substream.
> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
> + *
> + * Context: Any context.
> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
> + */
> +static int virtsnd_pcm_open(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
> +{
> +	struct virtio_pcm *pcm = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
> +	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = NULL;
> +
> +	if (pcm) {
> +		switch (substream->stream) {
> +		case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK:
> +		case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE: {
> +			struct virtio_pcm_stream *stream =
> +				&pcm->streams[substream->stream];
> +
> +			if (substream->number < stream->nsubstreams)

Can this condition ever be false?

> +				ss = stream->substreams[substream->number];
> +			break;
> +		}
> +		}
> +	}
> +
> +	if (!ss)
> +		return -EBADFD;
> +
> +	substream->runtime->hw = ss->hw;
> +	substream->private_data = ss;
> +
> +	return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_close() - Close the PCM substream.
> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
> + *
> + * Context: Any context.
> + * Return: 0.
> + */
> +static int virtsnd_pcm_close(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
> +{
> +	return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_hw_params() - Set the parameters of the PCM substream.
> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
> + * @hw_params: Hardware parameters (can be NULL).
> + *
> + * The function can be called both from the upper level (in this case,
> + * @hw_params is not NULL) or from the driver itself (in this case, @hw_params
> + * is NULL, and the parameter values are taken from the runtime structure).
> + *
> + * In all cases, the function:
> + *   1. checks the state of the virtqueue and, if necessary, tries to fix it,
> + *   2. sets the parameters on the device side,
> + *   3. allocates a hardware buffer and I/O messages.
> + *
> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
> + */
> +static int virtsnd_pcm_hw_params(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
> +				 struct snd_pcm_hw_params *hw_params)
> +{
> +	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
> +	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
> +	struct virtio_device *vdev = ss->snd->vdev;
> +	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
> +	struct virtio_snd_pcm_set_params *request;
> +	snd_pcm_format_t format;
> +	unsigned int channels;
> +	unsigned int rate;
> +	unsigned int buffer_bytes;
> +	unsigned int period_bytes;
> +	unsigned int periods;
> +	unsigned int i;
> +	int vformat = -1;
> +	int vrate = -1;
> +	int rc;
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * If we got here after ops->trigger() was called, the queue may
> +	 * still contain messages. In this case, we need to release the
> +	 * substream first.
> +	 */
> +	if (atomic_read(&ss->msg_count)) {
> +		rc = virtsnd_pcm_release(ss);
> +		if (rc) {
> +			dev_err(&vdev->dev,
> +				"SID %u: invalid I/O queue state\n",
> +				ss->sid);
> +			return rc;
> +		}
> +	}
> +
> +	/* Set hardware parameters in device */
> +	if (hw_params) {
> +		format = params_format(hw_params);
> +		channels = params_channels(hw_params);
> +		rate = params_rate(hw_params);
> +		buffer_bytes = params_buffer_bytes(hw_params);
> +		period_bytes = params_period_bytes(hw_params);
> +		periods = params_periods(hw_params);
> +	} else {
> +		format = runtime->format;
> +		channels = runtime->channels;
> +		rate = runtime->rate;
> +		buffer_bytes = frames_to_bytes(runtime, runtime->buffer_size);
> +		period_bytes = frames_to_bytes(runtime, runtime->period_size);
> +		periods = runtime->periods;
> +	}
> +
> +	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(g_a2v_format_map); ++i)
> +		if (g_a2v_format_map[i].alsa_bit == format) {
> +			vformat = g_a2v_format_map[i].vio_bit;
> +
> +			break;
> +		}
> +
> +	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(g_a2v_rate_map); ++i)
> +		if (g_a2v_rate_map[i].rate == rate) {
> +			vrate = g_a2v_rate_map[i].vio_bit;
> +
> +			break;
> +		}
> +
> +	if (vformat == -1 || vrate == -1)
> +		return -EINVAL;
> +
> +	msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_SET_PARAMS,
> +					GFP_KERNEL);
> +	if (IS_ERR(msg))
> +		return PTR_ERR(msg);
> +
> +	request = sg_virt(&msg->sg_request);
> +
> +	request->buffer_bytes = cpu_to_virtio32(vdev, buffer_bytes);
> +	request->period_bytes = cpu_to_virtio32(vdev, period_bytes);
> +	request->channels = channels;
> +	request->format = vformat;
> +	request->rate = vrate;

I presume the latter three fields don't have to be endienness-converted, 
perhaps they're 8-bit wide only.

> +
> +	if (ss->features & (1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_MSG_POLLING))
> +		request->features |=
> +			cpu_to_virtio32(vdev,
> +					1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_MSG_POLLING);
> +
> +	if (ss->features & (1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_EVT_XRUNS))
> +		request->features |=
> +			cpu_to_virtio32(vdev,
> +					1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_EVT_XRUNS);
> +
> +	rc = virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(ss->snd, msg);

Wouldn't it be better to only try to send the message after below 
allocations completed successfully?

> +	if (rc)
> +		return rc;
> +
> +	/* If the buffer was already allocated earlier, do nothing. */
> +	if (runtime->dma_area)
> +		return 0;
> +
> +	/* Allocate hardware buffer */
> +	rc = snd_pcm_lib_malloc_pages(substream, buffer_bytes);
> +	if (rc < 0)
> +		return rc;
> +
> +	/* Allocate and initialize I/O messages */
> +	rc = virtsnd_pcm_msg_alloc(ss, periods, runtime->dma_area,
> +				   period_bytes);
> +	if (rc)
> +		snd_pcm_lib_free_pages(substream);
> +
> +	return rc;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_hw_free() - Reset the parameters of the PCM substream.
> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
> + *
> + * The function does the following:
> + *   1. tries to release the PCM substream on the device side,
> + *   2. frees the hardware buffer.
> + *
> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
> + */
> +static int virtsnd_pcm_hw_free(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
> +{
> +	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
> +	int rc;
> +
> +	rc = virtsnd_pcm_release(ss);
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * Even if we failed to send the RELEASE message or wait for the queue
> +	 * flush to complete, we can safely delete the buffer. Because after
> +	 * receiving the STOP command, the device must stop all I/O message
> +	 * processing. If there are still pending messages in the queue, the
> +	 * next ops->hw_params() call should deal with this.
> +	 */
> +	snd_pcm_lib_free_pages(substream);
> +
> +	return rc;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_hw_params() - Prepare the PCM substream.

copy-paste: this is virtsnd_pcm_prepare()

> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
> + *
> + * The function can be called both from the upper level or from the driver
> + * itself.
> + *
> + * In all cases, the function:
> + *   1. checks the state of the virtqueue and, if necessary, tries to fix it,
> + *   2. prepares the substream on the device side.
> + *
> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep. May take and release the tx/rx
> + *          queue spinlock.
> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
> + */
> +static int virtsnd_pcm_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
> +{
> +	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
> +	struct virtio_snd_queue *queue = virtsnd_pcm_queue(ss);
> +	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
> +	unsigned long flags;
> +	int rc;
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * If we got here after ops->trigger() was called, the queue may
> +	 * still contain messages. In this case, we need to reset the
> +	 * substream first.
> +	 */
> +	if (atomic_read(&ss->msg_count)) {
> +		rc = virtsnd_pcm_hw_params(substream, NULL);
> +		if (rc)
> +			return rc;
> +	}
> +
> +	spin_lock_irqsave(&queue->lock, flags);
> +	ss->msg_last_enqueued = -1;
> +	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&queue->lock, flags);
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * Since I/O messages are asynchronous, they can be completed
> +	 * when the runtime structure no longer exists. Since each
> +	 * completion implies incrementing the hw_ptr, we cache all the
> +	 * current values needed to compute the new hw_ptr value.
> +	 */
> +	ss->frame_bytes = substream->runtime->frame_bits >> 3;
> +	ss->period_size = substream->runtime->period_size;
> +	ss->buffer_size = substream->runtime->buffer_size;
> +
> +	atomic_set(&ss->hw_ptr, 0);
> +	atomic_set(&ss->xfer_xrun, 0);
> +	atomic_set(&ss->msg_count, 0);
> +
> +	msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_PREPARE,
> +					GFP_KERNEL);
> +	if (IS_ERR(msg))
> +		return PTR_ERR(msg);
> +
> +	return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(ss->snd, msg);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_trigger() - Process command for the PCM substream.
> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
> + * @command: Substream command (SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_XXX).
> + *
> + * Depending on the command, the function does the following:
> + *   1. enables/disables data transmission,
> + *   2. starts/stops the substream on the device side.
> + *
> + * Context: Atomic context. May take and release the tx/rx queue spinlock.

Really? Cannot .trigger() sleep? E.g. I see mdelay(25) in 
snd_es18xx_playback1_trigger()

> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
> + */
> +static int virtsnd_pcm_trigger(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, int command)
> +{
> +	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
> +	struct virtio_snd *snd = ss->snd;
> +	struct virtio_snd_queue *queue = virtsnd_pcm_queue(ss);
> +	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
> +
> +	switch (command) {
> +	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_START:
> +	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_PAUSE_RELEASE: {
> +		int rc;
> +
> +		spin_lock(&queue->lock);
> +		rc = virtsnd_pcm_msg_send(ss);
> +		spin_unlock(&queue->lock);

Maybe it would be good to explain why locking is required here and isn't 
required in most other locations, where messages are sent?

Thanks
Guennadi

> +		if (rc)
> +			return rc;
> +
> +		atomic_set(&ss->xfer_enabled, 1);
> +
> +		msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_START,
> +						GFP_ATOMIC);
> +		if (IS_ERR(msg))
> +			return PTR_ERR(msg);
> +
> +		return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send(snd, msg);
> +	}
> +	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_STOP:
> +	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_PAUSE_PUSH: {
> +		atomic_set(&ss->xfer_enabled, 0);
> +
> +		msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_STOP,
> +						GFP_ATOMIC);
> +		if (IS_ERR(msg))
> +			return PTR_ERR(msg);
> +
> +		return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send(snd, msg);
> +	}
> +	default: {
> +		return -EINVAL;
> +	}
> +	}
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * virtsnd_pcm_pointer() - Get the current hardware position for the PCM
> + *                         substream.
> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
> + *
> + * Context: Atomic context.
> + * Return: Hardware position in frames inside [0 ... buffer_size) range.
> + */
> +static snd_pcm_uframes_t
> +virtsnd_pcm_pointer(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
> +{
> +	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
> +
> +	if (atomic_read(&ss->xfer_xrun))
> +		return SNDRV_PCM_POS_XRUN;
> +
> +	return (snd_pcm_uframes_t)atomic_read(&ss->hw_ptr);
> +}
> +
> +/* PCM substream operators map. */
> +const struct snd_pcm_ops virtsnd_pcm_ops = {
> +	.open = virtsnd_pcm_open,
> +	.close = virtsnd_pcm_close,
> +	.ioctl = snd_pcm_lib_ioctl,
> +	.hw_params = virtsnd_pcm_hw_params,
> +	.hw_free = virtsnd_pcm_hw_free,
> +	.prepare = virtsnd_pcm_prepare,
> +	.trigger = virtsnd_pcm_trigger,
> +	.pointer = virtsnd_pcm_pointer,
> +};
> -- 
> 2.30.0
>
>
> _______________________________________________
> Virtualization mailing list
> Virtualization@lists.linux-foundation.org
> https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/mailman/listinfo/virtualization
>
Guennadi Liakhovetski Jan. 26, 2021, 7:25 a.m. UTC | #2
One more thing I missed yesterday:

On Mon, 25 Jan 2021, Guennadi Liakhovetski wrote:

>
> On Sun, 24 Jan 2021, Anton Yakovlev wrote:
>
>> Introduce the operators required for the operation of substreams.
>> 
>> Signed-off-by: Anton Yakovlev <anton.yakovlev@opensynergy.com>
>> ---
>> sound/virtio/Makefile         |   3 +-
>> sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.c     |   5 +-
>> sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.h     |   2 +
>> sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c | 513 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>> 4 files changed, 521 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
>> create mode 100644 sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c
>
> [snip]
>
>> diff --git a/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 000000000000..19882777fcd6
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c
>> @@ -0,0 +1,513 @@
>
> [snip]
>
>> +/**
>> + * virtsnd_pcm_release() - Release the PCM substream on the device side.
>> + * @substream: VirtIO substream.
>> + *
>> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
>> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
>> + */
>> +static inline bool virtsnd_pcm_released(struct virtio_pcm_substream 
>> *substream)
>> +{
>> +	/*
>> +	 * The spec states that upon receipt of the RELEASE command "the 
>> device
>> +	 * MUST complete all pending I/O messages for the specified stream 
>> ID".
>> +	 * Thus, we consider the absence of I/O messages in the queue as an
>> +	 * indication that the substream has been released.
>> +	 */
>> +	return atomic_read(&substream->msg_count) == 0;
>
> Also here having it atomic doesn't really seem to help. This just means, that 
> at some point of time it was == 0.
>
>> +}
>> +
>> +static int virtsnd_pcm_release(struct virtio_pcm_substream *substream)
>
> kernel-doc missing
>
>> +{
>> +	struct virtio_snd *snd = substream->snd;
>> +	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
>> +	unsigned int js = msecs_to_jiffies(msg_timeout_ms);
>> +	int rc;
>> +
>> +	msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(substream, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_RELEASE,
>> +					GFP_KERNEL);
>> +	if (IS_ERR(msg))
>> +		return PTR_ERR(msg);
>> +
>> +	rc = virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(snd, msg);
>> +	if (rc)
>> +		return rc;
>> +
>> +	return wait_event_interruptible_timeout(substream->msg_empty,
>> +						virtsnd_pcm_released(substream),
>> +						js);

wait_event_interruptible_timeout() will return a positive number in 
success cases, 0 means a timeout and condition still false. Whereas when 
you call this function you interpret 0 as success and you expect any != 0 
to be a negative error. Wondering how this worked during your tests?

Thanks
Guennadi
Anton Yakovlev Feb. 1, 2021, 11:21 p.m. UTC | #3
On 25.01.2021 17:59, Guennadi Liakhovetski wrote:
 > On Sun, 24 Jan 2021, Anton Yakovlev wrote:
 >
 > [snip]
 >
 >> +/**
 >> + * virtsnd_pcm_release() - Release the PCM substream on the device 
side.
 >> + * @substream: VirtIO substream.
 >> + *
 >> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
 >> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 >> + */
 >> +static inline bool virtsnd_pcm_released(struct virtio_pcm_substream
 >> *substream)
 >> +{
 >> +     /*
 >> +      * The spec states that upon receipt of the RELEASE command "the
 >> device
 >> +      * MUST complete all pending I/O messages for the specified
 >> stream ID".
 >> +      * Thus, we consider the absence of I/O messages in the queue 
as an
 >> +      * indication that the substream has been released.
 >> +      */
 >> +     return atomic_read(&substream->msg_count) == 0;
 >
 > Also here having it atomic doesn't really seem to help. This just means,
 > that at some point of time it was == 0.

Technically, you're right. In practice, everything looks like this:

I/O messages are added to the virtqueue either at the start of the
substream or in the interrupt handler (and only as long as .xfer_enabled
is true). In general, this means that the .msg_count can only be
incremented in the interrupt handler. As soon as the substream stops,
the .xfer_enabled becomes false and the .msg_count no longer increases.
This means that the .msg_count was either already 0, or we need to wait
for it to become 0.


 >> +}
 >> +
 >> +static int virtsnd_pcm_release(struct virtio_pcm_substream *substream)
 >
 > kernel-doc missing

Yeap, thanks!


 >> +{
 >> +     struct virtio_snd *snd = substream->snd;
 >> +     struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
 >> +     unsigned int js = msecs_to_jiffies(msg_timeout_ms);
 >> +     int rc;
 >> +
 >> +     msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(substream,
 >> VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_RELEASE,
 >> +                                     GFP_KERNEL);
 >> +     if (IS_ERR(msg))
 >> +             return PTR_ERR(msg);
 >> +
 >> +     rc = virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(snd, msg);
 >> +     if (rc)
 >> +             return rc;
 >> +
 >> +     return wait_event_interruptible_timeout(substream->msg_empty,
 >> +
 >> virtsnd_pcm_released(substream),
 >> +                                             js);
 >
 > wait_event_interruptible_timeout() will return a positive number in
 > success cases, 0 means a timeout and condition still false. Whereas when
 > you call this function you interpret 0 as success and you expect any != 0
 > to be a negative error. Wondering how this worked during your tests?

Yeah, that's actually a bug. We haven't hit a timeout on that control path.


 >> +}
 >> +
 >> +/**
 >> + * virtsnd_pcm_open() - Open the PCM substream.
 >> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
 >> + *
 >> + * Context: Any context.
 >> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 >> + */
 >> +static int virtsnd_pcm_open(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 >> +{
 >> +     struct virtio_pcm *pcm = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
 >> +     struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = NULL;
 >> +
 >> +     if (pcm) {
 >> +             switch (substream->stream) {
 >> +             case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK:
 >> +             case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE: {
 >> +                     struct virtio_pcm_stream *stream =
 >> +                             &pcm->streams[substream->stream];
 >> +
 >> +                     if (substream->number < stream->nsubstreams)
 >
 > Can this condition ever be false?

Hard to tell. But there may be some bug. In general, I try to adhere to
the rule that if an array element is referenced by index, it is better
to check the index value first.


 >> +                             ss = 
stream->substreams[substream->number];
 >> +                     break;
 >> +             }
 >> +             }
 >> +     }
 >> +
 >> +     if (!ss)
 >> +             return -EBADFD;
 >> +
 >> +     substream->runtime->hw = ss->hw;
 >> +     substream->private_data = ss;
 >> +
 >> +     return 0;
 >> +}
 >> +
 >> +/**
 >> + * virtsnd_pcm_close() - Close the PCM substream.
 >> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
 >> + *
 >> + * Context: Any context.
 >> + * Return: 0.
 >> + */
 >> +static int virtsnd_pcm_close(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 >> +{
 >> +     return 0;
 >> +}
 >> +
 >> +/**
 >> + * virtsnd_pcm_hw_params() - Set the parameters of the PCM substream.
 >> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
 >> + * @hw_params: Hardware parameters (can be NULL).
 >> + *
 >> + * The function can be called both from the upper level (in this case,
 >> + * @hw_params is not NULL) or from the driver itself (in this case,
 >> @hw_params
 >> + * is NULL, and the parameter values are taken from the runtime
 >> structure).
 >> + *
 >> + * In all cases, the function:
 >> + *   1. checks the state of the virtqueue and, if necessary, tries to
 >> fix it,
 >> + *   2. sets the parameters on the device side,
 >> + *   3. allocates a hardware buffer and I/O messages.
 >> + *
 >> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
 >> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 >> + */
 >> +static int virtsnd_pcm_hw_params(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
 >> +                              struct snd_pcm_hw_params *hw_params)
 >> +{
 >> +     struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
 >> +     struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss =
 >> snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
 >> +     struct virtio_device *vdev = ss->snd->vdev;
 >> +     struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
 >> +     struct virtio_snd_pcm_set_params *request;
 >> +     snd_pcm_format_t format;
 >> +     unsigned int channels;
 >> +     unsigned int rate;
 >> +     unsigned int buffer_bytes;
 >> +     unsigned int period_bytes;
 >> +     unsigned int periods;
 >> +     unsigned int i;
 >> +     int vformat = -1;
 >> +     int vrate = -1;
 >> +     int rc;
 >> +
 >> +     /*
 >> +      * If we got here after ops->trigger() was called, the queue may
 >> +      * still contain messages. In this case, we need to release the
 >> +      * substream first.
 >> +      */
 >> +     if (atomic_read(&ss->msg_count)) {
 >> +             rc = virtsnd_pcm_release(ss);
 >> +             if (rc) {
 >> +                     dev_err(&vdev->dev,
 >> +                             "SID %u: invalid I/O queue state\n",
 >> +                             ss->sid);
 >> +                     return rc;
 >> +             }
 >> +     }
 >> +
 >> +     /* Set hardware parameters in device */
 >> +     if (hw_params) {
 >> +             format = params_format(hw_params);
 >> +             channels = params_channels(hw_params);
 >> +             rate = params_rate(hw_params);
 >> +             buffer_bytes = params_buffer_bytes(hw_params);
 >> +             period_bytes = params_period_bytes(hw_params);
 >> +             periods = params_periods(hw_params);
 >> +     } else {
 >> +             format = runtime->format;
 >> +             channels = runtime->channels;
 >> +             rate = runtime->rate;
 >> +             buffer_bytes = frames_to_bytes(runtime,
 >> runtime->buffer_size);
 >> +             period_bytes = frames_to_bytes(runtime,
 >> runtime->period_size);
 >> +             periods = runtime->periods;
 >> +     }
 >> +
 >> +     for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(g_a2v_format_map); ++i)
 >> +             if (g_a2v_format_map[i].alsa_bit == format) {
 >> +                     vformat = g_a2v_format_map[i].vio_bit;
 >> +
 >> +                     break;
 >> +             }
 >> +
 >> +     for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(g_a2v_rate_map); ++i)
 >> +             if (g_a2v_rate_map[i].rate == rate) {
 >> +                     vrate = g_a2v_rate_map[i].vio_bit;
 >> +
 >> +                     break;
 >> +             }
 >> +
 >> +     if (vformat == -1 || vrate == -1)
 >> +             return -EINVAL;
 >> +
 >> +     msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_SET_PARAMS,
 >> +                                     GFP_KERNEL);
 >> +     if (IS_ERR(msg))
 >> +             return PTR_ERR(msg);
 >> +
 >> +     request = sg_virt(&msg->sg_request);
 >> +
 >> +     request->buffer_bytes = cpu_to_virtio32(vdev, buffer_bytes);
 >> +     request->period_bytes = cpu_to_virtio32(vdev, period_bytes);
 >> +     request->channels = channels;
 >> +     request->format = vformat;
 >> +     request->rate = vrate;
 >
 > I presume the latter three fields don't have to be endienness-converted,
 > perhaps they're 8-bit wide only.

Yes, these three values are u8.


 >> +
 >> +     if (ss->features & (1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_MSG_POLLING))
 >> +             request->features |=
 >> +                     cpu_to_virtio32(vdev,
 >> +                                     1U <<
 >> VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_MSG_POLLING);
 >> +
 >> +     if (ss->features & (1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_EVT_XRUNS))
 >> +             request->features |=
 >> +                     cpu_to_virtio32(vdev,
 >> +                                     1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_EVT_XRUNS);
 >> +
 >> +     rc = virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(ss->snd, msg);
 >
 > Wouldn't it be better to only try to send the message after below
 > allocations completed successfully?

I thought the reverse logic was better. This message asks the device to
set a specific set of parameters. And if the device returned an error
for some reason, then there is no point in allocating memory.


 >> +     if (rc)
 >> +             return rc;
 >> +
 >> +     /* If the buffer was already allocated earlier, do nothing. */
 >> +     if (runtime->dma_area)
 >> +             return 0;
 >> +
 >> +     /* Allocate hardware buffer */
 >> +     rc = snd_pcm_lib_malloc_pages(substream, buffer_bytes);
 >> +     if (rc < 0)
 >> +             return rc;
 >> +
 >> +     /* Allocate and initialize I/O messages */
 >> +     rc = virtsnd_pcm_msg_alloc(ss, periods, runtime->dma_area,
 >> +                                period_bytes);
 >> +     if (rc)
 >> +             snd_pcm_lib_free_pages(substream);
 >> +
 >> +     return rc;
 >> +}
 >> +
 >> +/**
 >> + * virtsnd_pcm_hw_free() - Reset the parameters of the PCM substream.
 >> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
 >> + *
 >> + * The function does the following:
 >> + *   1. tries to release the PCM substream on the device side,
 >> + *   2. frees the hardware buffer.
 >> + *
 >> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
 >> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 >> + */
 >> +static int virtsnd_pcm_hw_free(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 >> +{
 >> +     struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss =
 >> snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
 >> +     int rc;
 >> +
 >> +     rc = virtsnd_pcm_release(ss);
 >> +
 >> +     /*
 >> +      * Even if we failed to send the RELEASE message or wait for the
 >> queue
 >> +      * flush to complete, we can safely delete the buffer. Because
 >> after
 >> +      * receiving the STOP command, the device must stop all I/O 
message
 >> +      * processing. If there are still pending messages in the queue,
 >> the
 >> +      * next ops->hw_params() call should deal with this.
 >> +      */
 >> +     snd_pcm_lib_free_pages(substream);
 >> +
 >> +     return rc;
 >> +}
 >> +
 >> +/**
 >> + * virtsnd_pcm_hw_params() - Prepare the PCM substream.
 >
 > copy-paste: this is virtsnd_pcm_prepare()

Oops... :)


 >> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
 >> + *
 >> + * The function can be called both from the upper level or from the
 >> driver
 >> + * itself.
 >> + *
 >> + * In all cases, the function:
 >> + *   1. checks the state of the virtqueue and, if necessary, tries to
 >> fix it,
 >> + *   2. prepares the substream on the device side.
 >> + *
 >> + * Context: Any context that permits to sleep. May take and release
 >> the tx/rx
 >> + *          queue spinlock.
 >> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 >> + */
 >> +static int virtsnd_pcm_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 >> +{
 >> +     struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss =
 >> snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
 >> +     struct virtio_snd_queue *queue = virtsnd_pcm_queue(ss);
 >> +     struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
 >> +     unsigned long flags;
 >> +     int rc;
 >> +
 >> +     /*
 >> +      * If we got here after ops->trigger() was called, the queue may
 >> +      * still contain messages. In this case, we need to reset the
 >> +      * substream first.
 >> +      */
 >> +     if (atomic_read(&ss->msg_count)) {
 >> +             rc = virtsnd_pcm_hw_params(substream, NULL);
 >> +             if (rc)
 >> +                     return rc;
 >> +     }
 >> +
 >> +     spin_lock_irqsave(&queue->lock, flags);
 >> +     ss->msg_last_enqueued = -1;
 >> +     spin_unlock_irqrestore(&queue->lock, flags);
 >> +
 >> +     /*
 >> +      * Since I/O messages are asynchronous, they can be completed
 >> +      * when the runtime structure no longer exists. Since each
 >> +      * completion implies incrementing the hw_ptr, we cache all the
 >> +      * current values needed to compute the new hw_ptr value.
 >> +      */
 >> +     ss->frame_bytes = substream->runtime->frame_bits >> 3;
 >> +     ss->period_size = substream->runtime->period_size;
 >> +     ss->buffer_size = substream->runtime->buffer_size;
 >> +
 >> +     atomic_set(&ss->hw_ptr, 0);
 >> +     atomic_set(&ss->xfer_xrun, 0);
 >> +     atomic_set(&ss->msg_count, 0);
 >> +
 >> +     msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_PREPARE,
 >> +                                     GFP_KERNEL);
 >> +     if (IS_ERR(msg))
 >> +             return PTR_ERR(msg);
 >> +
 >> +     return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(ss->snd, msg);
 >> +}
 >> +
 >> +/**
 >> + * virtsnd_pcm_trigger() - Process command for the PCM substream.
 >> + * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
 >> + * @command: Substream command (SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_XXX).
 >> + *
 >> + * Depending on the command, the function does the following:
 >> + *   1. enables/disables data transmission,
 >> + *   2. starts/stops the substream on the device side.
 >> + *
 >> + * Context: Atomic context. May take and release the tx/rx queue
 >> spinlock.
 >
 > Really? Cannot .trigger() sleep? E.g. I see mdelay(25) in
 > snd_es18xx_playback1_trigger()

Actually, you made a good point here. I didn't know, that it is possible
to disable atomic mode for that callback. But, apparently, it is possible.
And virtio pcm definetly is nonatomic. I need to redo this code, thanks!


 >> + * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 >> + */
 >> +static int virtsnd_pcm_trigger(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
 >> int command)
 >> +{
 >> +     struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss =
 >> snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
 >> +     struct virtio_snd *snd = ss->snd;
 >> +     struct virtio_snd_queue *queue = virtsnd_pcm_queue(ss);
 >> +     struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
 >> +
 >> +     switch (command) {
 >> +     case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_START:
 >> +     case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_PAUSE_RELEASE: {
 >> +             int rc;
 >> +
 >> +             spin_lock(&queue->lock);
 >> +             rc = virtsnd_pcm_msg_send(ss);
 >> +             spin_unlock(&queue->lock);
 >
 > Maybe it would be good to explain why locking is required here and isn't
 > required in most other locations, where messages are sent?

There are two kinds of messages here: control messages and I/O. Functions
for sending control message acquire and release the control virtqueue
spinlock on their own. But we cannot do the same for I/O messages, since
virtsnd_pcm_msg_send is also called from the interrupt handler, which is
already grabbing the lock for the I/O virtqueue.


 > Thanks
 > Guennadi
 >
 >> +             if (rc)
 >> +                     return rc;
 >> +
 >> +             atomic_set(&ss->xfer_enabled, 1);
 >> +
 >> +             msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, 
VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_START,
 >> +                                             GFP_ATOMIC);
 >> +             if (IS_ERR(msg))
 >> +                     return PTR_ERR(msg);
 >> +
 >> +             return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send(snd, msg);
 >> +     }
 >> +     case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_STOP:
 >> +     case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_PAUSE_PUSH: {
 >> +             atomic_set(&ss->xfer_enabled, 0);
 >> +
 >> +             msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_STOP,
 >> +                                             GFP_ATOMIC);
 >> +             if (IS_ERR(msg))
 >> +                     return PTR_ERR(msg);
 >> +
 >> +             return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send(snd, msg);
 >> +     }
 >> +     default: {
 >> +             return -EINVAL;
 >> +     }
 >> +     }
 >> +}

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/sound/virtio/Makefile b/sound/virtio/Makefile
index 626af3cc3ed7..34493226793f 100644
--- a/sound/virtio/Makefile
+++ b/sound/virtio/Makefile
@@ -6,5 +6,6 @@  virtio_snd-objs := \
 	virtio_card.o \
 	virtio_ctl_msg.o \
 	virtio_pcm.o \
-	virtio_pcm_msg.o
+	virtio_pcm_msg.o \
+	virtio_pcm_ops.o
 
diff --git a/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.c b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.c
index 1ab50dcc88c8..6a1ca6b2c3ca 100644
--- a/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.c
+++ b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.c
@@ -121,7 +121,8 @@  static int virtsnd_pcm_build_hw(struct virtio_pcm_substream *substream,
 		SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP_VALID |
 		SNDRV_PCM_INFO_BATCH |
 		SNDRV_PCM_INFO_BLOCK_TRANSFER |
-		SNDRV_PCM_INFO_INTERLEAVED;
+		SNDRV_PCM_INFO_INTERLEAVED |
+		SNDRV_PCM_INFO_PAUSE;
 
 	if (!info->channels_min || info->channels_min > info->channels_max) {
 		dev_err(&vdev->dev,
@@ -503,6 +504,8 @@  int virtsnd_pcm_build_devs(struct virtio_snd *snd)
 				if (rc)
 					return rc;
 			}
+
+			snd_pcm_set_ops(pcm->pcm, i, &virtsnd_pcm_ops);
 		}
 
 	return 0;
diff --git a/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.h b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.h
index d011b7e1d18d..fe467bc05d8b 100644
--- a/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.h
+++ b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm.h
@@ -90,6 +90,8 @@  struct virtio_pcm {
 	struct virtio_pcm_stream streams[SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_LAST + 1];
 };
 
+extern const struct snd_pcm_ops virtsnd_pcm_ops;
+
 int virtsnd_pcm_validate(struct virtio_device *vdev);
 
 int virtsnd_pcm_parse_cfg(struct virtio_snd *snd);
diff --git a/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..19882777fcd6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/sound/virtio/virtio_pcm_ops.c
@@ -0,0 +1,513 @@ 
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
+/*
+ * Sound card driver for virtio
+ * Copyright (C) 2020  OpenSynergy GmbH
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program; if not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+#include <sound/pcm_params.h>
+
+#include "virtio_card.h"
+
+/*
+ * Our main concern here is maintaining the correct state of the underlying I/O
+ * virtqueues. Thus, operators are implemented to support all of the following
+ * possible control paths (excluding all trivial ones):
+ *
+ *                        +---------+
+ *                        | open()  |<------------------+
+ *                        +----+----+                   |
+ *                             v                        |
+ *                      +------+------+                 |
+ *       +------------->| hw_params() |<-------------+  |
+ *       |              +-------------+              |  |
+ *       |                     v                     |  |
+ *       |               +-----------+               |  |
+ *       |               | prepare() |<-----------+  |  |
+ *       |               +-----------+            |  |  |
+ *       |                     v                  |  |  |
+ *       |        +-------------------------+     |  |  |
+ * +-----------+  | trigger(START/          |     |  |  |
+ * | restore() |  |         PAUSE_RELEASE/  |<-+  |  |  |
+ * +-----------+  |         RESUME)         |  |  |  |  |
+ *       ^        +-------------------------+  |  |  |  |
+ *       |                     v               |  |  |  |
+ *       |               +-----------+         |  |  |  |
+ *       |               | pointer() |         |  |  |  |
+ *       |               +-----------+         |  |  |  |
+ *       |                     v               |  |  |  |
+ *       |          +---------------------+    |  |  |  |
+ * +-----------+    | trigger(STOP/       |----+  |  |  |
+ * | freeze()  |<---|         PAUSE_PUSH/ |-------+  |  |
+ * +-----------+    |         SUSPEND)    |          |  |
+ *                  +---------------------+          |  |
+ *                             v                     |  |
+ *                       +-----------+               |  |
+ *                       | hw_free() |---------------+  |
+ *                       +-----------+                  |
+ *                             v                        |
+ *                        +---------+                   |
+ *                        | close() |-------------------+
+ *                        +---------+
+ */
+
+/* Map for converting ALSA format to VirtIO format. */
+struct virtsnd_a2v_format {
+	unsigned int alsa_bit;
+	unsigned int vio_bit;
+};
+
+static const struct virtsnd_a2v_format g_a2v_format_map[] = {
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_IMA_ADPCM, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_IMA_ADPCM },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_MU_LAW, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_MU_LAW },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_A_LAW, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_A_LAW },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S8, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S8 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U8, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U8 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S16_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S16 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U16_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U16 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S18_3LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S18_3 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U18_3LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U18_3 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S20_3LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S20_3 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U20_3LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U20_3 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S24_3LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S24_3 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U24_3LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U24_3 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S20_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S20 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U20_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U20 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S24_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S24 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U24_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U24 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_S32_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_S32 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_U32_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_U32 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_FLOAT_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_FLOAT },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_FLOAT64_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_FLOAT64 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_DSD_U8, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_DSD_U8 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_DSD_U16_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_DSD_U16 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_DSD_U32_LE, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_DSD_U32 },
+	{ SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_IEC958_SUBFRAME_LE,
+	  VIRTIO_SND_PCM_FMT_IEC958_SUBFRAME }
+};
+
+/* Map for converting ALSA frame rate to VirtIO frame rate. */
+struct virtsnd_a2v_rate {
+	unsigned int rate;
+	unsigned int vio_bit;
+};
+
+static const struct virtsnd_a2v_rate g_a2v_rate_map[] = {
+	{ 5512, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_5512 },
+	{ 8000, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_8000 },
+	{ 11025, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_11025 },
+	{ 16000, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_16000 },
+	{ 22050, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_22050 },
+	{ 32000, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_32000 },
+	{ 44100, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_44100 },
+	{ 48000, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_48000 },
+	{ 64000, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_64000 },
+	{ 88200, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_88200 },
+	{ 96000, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_96000 },
+	{ 176400, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_176400 },
+	{ 192000, VIRTIO_SND_PCM_RATE_192000 }
+};
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_release() - Release the PCM substream on the device side.
+ * @substream: VirtIO substream.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
+ * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
+ */
+static inline bool virtsnd_pcm_released(struct virtio_pcm_substream *substream)
+{
+	/*
+	 * The spec states that upon receipt of the RELEASE command "the device
+	 * MUST complete all pending I/O messages for the specified stream ID".
+	 * Thus, we consider the absence of I/O messages in the queue as an
+	 * indication that the substream has been released.
+	 */
+	return atomic_read(&substream->msg_count) == 0;
+}
+
+static int virtsnd_pcm_release(struct virtio_pcm_substream *substream)
+{
+	struct virtio_snd *snd = substream->snd;
+	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
+	unsigned int js = msecs_to_jiffies(msg_timeout_ms);
+	int rc;
+
+	msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(substream, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_RELEASE,
+					GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (IS_ERR(msg))
+		return PTR_ERR(msg);
+
+	rc = virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(snd, msg);
+	if (rc)
+		return rc;
+
+	return wait_event_interruptible_timeout(substream->msg_empty,
+						virtsnd_pcm_released(substream),
+						js);
+}
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_open() - Open the PCM substream.
+ * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
+ */
+static int virtsnd_pcm_open(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
+{
+	struct virtio_pcm *pcm = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
+	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = NULL;
+
+	if (pcm) {
+		switch (substream->stream) {
+		case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK:
+		case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE: {
+			struct virtio_pcm_stream *stream =
+				&pcm->streams[substream->stream];
+
+			if (substream->number < stream->nsubstreams)
+				ss = stream->substreams[substream->number];
+			break;
+		}
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!ss)
+		return -EBADFD;
+
+	substream->runtime->hw = ss->hw;
+	substream->private_data = ss;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_close() - Close the PCM substream.
+ * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ * Return: 0.
+ */
+static int virtsnd_pcm_close(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_hw_params() - Set the parameters of the PCM substream.
+ * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
+ * @hw_params: Hardware parameters (can be NULL).
+ *
+ * The function can be called both from the upper level (in this case,
+ * @hw_params is not NULL) or from the driver itself (in this case, @hw_params
+ * is NULL, and the parameter values are taken from the runtime structure).
+ *
+ * In all cases, the function:
+ *   1. checks the state of the virtqueue and, if necessary, tries to fix it,
+ *   2. sets the parameters on the device side,
+ *   3. allocates a hardware buffer and I/O messages.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
+ * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
+ */
+static int virtsnd_pcm_hw_params(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
+				 struct snd_pcm_hw_params *hw_params)
+{
+	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
+	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
+	struct virtio_device *vdev = ss->snd->vdev;
+	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
+	struct virtio_snd_pcm_set_params *request;
+	snd_pcm_format_t format;
+	unsigned int channels;
+	unsigned int rate;
+	unsigned int buffer_bytes;
+	unsigned int period_bytes;
+	unsigned int periods;
+	unsigned int i;
+	int vformat = -1;
+	int vrate = -1;
+	int rc;
+
+	/*
+	 * If we got here after ops->trigger() was called, the queue may
+	 * still contain messages. In this case, we need to release the
+	 * substream first.
+	 */
+	if (atomic_read(&ss->msg_count)) {
+		rc = virtsnd_pcm_release(ss);
+		if (rc) {
+			dev_err(&vdev->dev,
+				"SID %u: invalid I/O queue state\n",
+				ss->sid);
+			return rc;
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* Set hardware parameters in device */
+	if (hw_params) {
+		format = params_format(hw_params);
+		channels = params_channels(hw_params);
+		rate = params_rate(hw_params);
+		buffer_bytes = params_buffer_bytes(hw_params);
+		period_bytes = params_period_bytes(hw_params);
+		periods = params_periods(hw_params);
+	} else {
+		format = runtime->format;
+		channels = runtime->channels;
+		rate = runtime->rate;
+		buffer_bytes = frames_to_bytes(runtime, runtime->buffer_size);
+		period_bytes = frames_to_bytes(runtime, runtime->period_size);
+		periods = runtime->periods;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(g_a2v_format_map); ++i)
+		if (g_a2v_format_map[i].alsa_bit == format) {
+			vformat = g_a2v_format_map[i].vio_bit;
+
+			break;
+		}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(g_a2v_rate_map); ++i)
+		if (g_a2v_rate_map[i].rate == rate) {
+			vrate = g_a2v_rate_map[i].vio_bit;
+
+			break;
+		}
+
+	if (vformat == -1 || vrate == -1)
+		return -EINVAL;
+
+	msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_SET_PARAMS,
+					GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (IS_ERR(msg))
+		return PTR_ERR(msg);
+
+	request = sg_virt(&msg->sg_request);
+
+	request->buffer_bytes = cpu_to_virtio32(vdev, buffer_bytes);
+	request->period_bytes = cpu_to_virtio32(vdev, period_bytes);
+	request->channels = channels;
+	request->format = vformat;
+	request->rate = vrate;
+
+	if (ss->features & (1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_MSG_POLLING))
+		request->features |=
+			cpu_to_virtio32(vdev,
+					1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_MSG_POLLING);
+
+	if (ss->features & (1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_EVT_XRUNS))
+		request->features |=
+			cpu_to_virtio32(vdev,
+					1U << VIRTIO_SND_PCM_F_EVT_XRUNS);
+
+	rc = virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(ss->snd, msg);
+	if (rc)
+		return rc;
+
+	/* If the buffer was already allocated earlier, do nothing. */
+	if (runtime->dma_area)
+		return 0;
+
+	/* Allocate hardware buffer */
+	rc = snd_pcm_lib_malloc_pages(substream, buffer_bytes);
+	if (rc < 0)
+		return rc;
+
+	/* Allocate and initialize I/O messages */
+	rc = virtsnd_pcm_msg_alloc(ss, periods, runtime->dma_area,
+				   period_bytes);
+	if (rc)
+		snd_pcm_lib_free_pages(substream);
+
+	return rc;
+}
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_hw_free() - Reset the parameters of the PCM substream.
+ * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
+ *
+ * The function does the following:
+ *   1. tries to release the PCM substream on the device side,
+ *   2. frees the hardware buffer.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context that permits to sleep.
+ * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
+ */
+static int virtsnd_pcm_hw_free(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
+{
+	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
+	int rc;
+
+	rc = virtsnd_pcm_release(ss);
+
+	/*
+	 * Even if we failed to send the RELEASE message or wait for the queue
+	 * flush to complete, we can safely delete the buffer. Because after
+	 * receiving the STOP command, the device must stop all I/O message
+	 * processing. If there are still pending messages in the queue, the
+	 * next ops->hw_params() call should deal with this.
+	 */
+	snd_pcm_lib_free_pages(substream);
+
+	return rc;
+}
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_hw_params() - Prepare the PCM substream.
+ * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
+ *
+ * The function can be called both from the upper level or from the driver
+ * itself.
+ *
+ * In all cases, the function:
+ *   1. checks the state of the virtqueue and, if necessary, tries to fix it,
+ *   2. prepares the substream on the device side.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context that permits to sleep. May take and release the tx/rx
+ *          queue spinlock.
+ * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
+ */
+static int virtsnd_pcm_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
+{
+	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
+	struct virtio_snd_queue *queue = virtsnd_pcm_queue(ss);
+	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
+	unsigned long flags;
+	int rc;
+
+	/*
+	 * If we got here after ops->trigger() was called, the queue may
+	 * still contain messages. In this case, we need to reset the
+	 * substream first.
+	 */
+	if (atomic_read(&ss->msg_count)) {
+		rc = virtsnd_pcm_hw_params(substream, NULL);
+		if (rc)
+			return rc;
+	}
+
+	spin_lock_irqsave(&queue->lock, flags);
+	ss->msg_last_enqueued = -1;
+	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&queue->lock, flags);
+
+	/*
+	 * Since I/O messages are asynchronous, they can be completed
+	 * when the runtime structure no longer exists. Since each
+	 * completion implies incrementing the hw_ptr, we cache all the
+	 * current values needed to compute the new hw_ptr value.
+	 */
+	ss->frame_bytes = substream->runtime->frame_bits >> 3;
+	ss->period_size = substream->runtime->period_size;
+	ss->buffer_size = substream->runtime->buffer_size;
+
+	atomic_set(&ss->hw_ptr, 0);
+	atomic_set(&ss->xfer_xrun, 0);
+	atomic_set(&ss->msg_count, 0);
+
+	msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_PREPARE,
+					GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (IS_ERR(msg))
+		return PTR_ERR(msg);
+
+	return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send_sync(ss->snd, msg);
+}
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_trigger() - Process command for the PCM substream.
+ * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
+ * @command: Substream command (SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_XXX).
+ *
+ * Depending on the command, the function does the following:
+ *   1. enables/disables data transmission,
+ *   2. starts/stops the substream on the device side.
+ *
+ * Context: Atomic context. May take and release the tx/rx queue spinlock.
+ * Return: 0 on success, -errno on failure.
+ */
+static int virtsnd_pcm_trigger(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, int command)
+{
+	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
+	struct virtio_snd *snd = ss->snd;
+	struct virtio_snd_queue *queue = virtsnd_pcm_queue(ss);
+	struct virtio_snd_msg *msg;
+
+	switch (command) {
+	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_START:
+	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_PAUSE_RELEASE: {
+		int rc;
+
+		spin_lock(&queue->lock);
+		rc = virtsnd_pcm_msg_send(ss);
+		spin_unlock(&queue->lock);
+		if (rc)
+			return rc;
+
+		atomic_set(&ss->xfer_enabled, 1);
+
+		msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_START,
+						GFP_ATOMIC);
+		if (IS_ERR(msg))
+			return PTR_ERR(msg);
+
+		return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send(snd, msg);
+	}
+	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_STOP:
+	case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_PAUSE_PUSH: {
+		atomic_set(&ss->xfer_enabled, 0);
+
+		msg = virtsnd_pcm_ctl_msg_alloc(ss, VIRTIO_SND_R_PCM_STOP,
+						GFP_ATOMIC);
+		if (IS_ERR(msg))
+			return PTR_ERR(msg);
+
+		return virtsnd_ctl_msg_send(snd, msg);
+	}
+	default: {
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+	}
+}
+
+/**
+ * virtsnd_pcm_pointer() - Get the current hardware position for the PCM
+ *                         substream.
+ * @substream: Kernel ALSA substream.
+ *
+ * Context: Atomic context.
+ * Return: Hardware position in frames inside [0 ... buffer_size) range.
+ */
+static snd_pcm_uframes_t
+virtsnd_pcm_pointer(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
+{
+	struct virtio_pcm_substream *ss = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
+
+	if (atomic_read(&ss->xfer_xrun))
+		return SNDRV_PCM_POS_XRUN;
+
+	return (snd_pcm_uframes_t)atomic_read(&ss->hw_ptr);
+}
+
+/* PCM substream operators map. */
+const struct snd_pcm_ops virtsnd_pcm_ops = {
+	.open = virtsnd_pcm_open,
+	.close = virtsnd_pcm_close,
+	.ioctl = snd_pcm_lib_ioctl,
+	.hw_params = virtsnd_pcm_hw_params,
+	.hw_free = virtsnd_pcm_hw_free,
+	.prepare = virtsnd_pcm_prepare,
+	.trigger = virtsnd_pcm_trigger,
+	.pointer = virtsnd_pcm_pointer,
+};