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From: David Hildenbrand <david@redhat.com>
To: qemu-devel@nongnu.org
Cc: Pankaj Gupta <pankaj.gupta.linux@gmail.com>,
	Wei Yang <richard.weiyang@linux.alibaba.com>,
	"Michael S . Tsirkin" <mst@redhat.com>,
	David Hildenbrand <david@redhat.com>,
	"Dr . David Alan Gilbert" <dgilbert@redhat.com>,
	Peter Xu <peterx@redhat.com>, Auger Eric <eric.auger@redhat.com>,
	Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com>,
	teawater <teawaterz@linux.alibaba.com>,
	Igor Mammedov <imammedo@redhat.com>,
	Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com>,
	Marek Kedzierski <mkedzier@redhat.com>
Subject: [PATCH RESEND v7 09/13] vfio: Support for RamDiscardManager in the vIOMMU case
Date: Tue, 13 Apr 2021 11:55:27 +0200	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20210413095531.25603-10-david@redhat.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20210413095531.25603-1-david@redhat.com>

vIOMMU support works already with RamDiscardManager as long as guests only
map populated memory. Both, populated and discarded memory is mapped
into &address_space_memory, where vfio_get_xlat_addr() will find that
memory, to create the vfio mapping.

Sane guests will never map discarded memory (e.g., unplugged memory
blocks in virtio-mem) into an IOMMU - or keep it mapped into an IOMMU while
memory is getting discarded. However, there are two cases where a malicious
guests could trigger pinning of more memory than intended.

One case is easy to handle: the guest trying to map discarded memory
into an IOMMU.

The other case is harder to handle: the guest keeping memory mapped in
the IOMMU while it is getting discarded. We would have to walk over all
mappings when discarding memory and identify if any mapping would be a
violation. Let's keep it simple for now and print a warning, indicating
that setting RLIMIT_MEMLOCK can mitigate such attacks.

We have to take care of incoming migration: at the point the
IOMMUs get restored and start creating mappings in vfio, RamDiscardManager
implementations might not be back up and running yet: let's add runstate
priorities to enforce the order when restoring.

Acked-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com>
Acked-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>
Cc: Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com>
Cc: "Michael S. Tsirkin" <mst@redhat.com>
Cc: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com>
Cc: Dr. David Alan Gilbert <dgilbert@redhat.com>
Cc: Igor Mammedov <imammedo@redhat.com>
Cc: Pankaj Gupta <pankaj.gupta.linux@gmail.com>
Cc: Peter Xu <peterx@redhat.com>
Cc: Auger Eric <eric.auger@redhat.com>
Cc: Wei Yang <richard.weiyang@linux.alibaba.com>
Cc: teawater <teawaterz@linux.alibaba.com>
Cc: Marek Kedzierski <mkedzier@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: David Hildenbrand <david@redhat.com>
---
 hw/vfio/common.c            | 39 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 hw/virtio/virtio-mem.c      |  1 +
 include/migration/vmstate.h |  1 +
 3 files changed, 41 insertions(+)

diff --git a/hw/vfio/common.c b/hw/vfio/common.c
index f8a2fe8441..8a9bbf2791 100644
--- a/hw/vfio/common.c
+++ b/hw/vfio/common.c
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@
 #include "qemu/range.h"
 #include "sysemu/kvm.h"
 #include "sysemu/reset.h"
+#include "sysemu/runstate.h"
 #include "trace.h"
 #include "qapi/error.h"
 #include "migration/migration.h"
@@ -569,6 +570,44 @@ static bool vfio_get_xlat_addr(IOMMUTLBEntry *iotlb, void **vaddr,
         error_report("iommu map to non memory area %"HWADDR_PRIx"",
                      xlat);
         return false;
+    } else if (memory_region_has_ram_discard_manager(mr)) {
+        RamDiscardManager *rdm = memory_region_get_ram_discard_manager(mr);
+        MemoryRegionSection tmp = {
+            .mr = mr,
+            .offset_within_region = xlat,
+            .size = int128_make64(len),
+        };
+
+        /*
+         * Malicious VMs can map memory into the IOMMU, which is expected
+         * to remain discarded. vfio will pin all pages, populating memory.
+         * Disallow that. vmstate priorities make sure any RamDiscardManager
+         * were already restored before IOMMUs are restored.
+         */
+        if (!ram_discard_manager_is_populated(rdm, &tmp)) {
+            error_report("iommu map to discarded memory (e.g., unplugged via"
+                         " virtio-mem): %"HWADDR_PRIx"",
+                         iotlb->translated_addr);
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        /*
+         * Malicious VMs might trigger discarding of IOMMU-mapped memory. The
+         * pages will remain pinned inside vfio until unmapped, resulting in a
+         * higher memory consumption than expected. If memory would get
+         * populated again later, there would be an inconsistency between pages
+         * pinned by vfio and pages seen by QEMU. This is the case until
+         * unmapped from the IOMMU (e.g., during device reset).
+         *
+         * With malicious guests, we really only care about pinning more memory
+         * than expected. RLIMIT_MEMLOCK set for the user/process can never be
+         * exceeded and can be used to mitigate this problem.
+         */
+        warn_report_once("Using vfio with vIOMMUs and coordinated discarding of"
+                         " RAM (e.g., virtio-mem) works, however, malicious"
+                         " guests can trigger pinning of more memory than"
+                         " intended via an IOMMU. It's possible to mitigate "
+                         " by setting/adjusting RLIMIT_MEMLOCK.");
     }
 
     /*
diff --git a/hw/virtio/virtio-mem.c b/hw/virtio/virtio-mem.c
index e209b56057..cbd07fc9f1 100644
--- a/hw/virtio/virtio-mem.c
+++ b/hw/virtio/virtio-mem.c
@@ -886,6 +886,7 @@ static const VMStateDescription vmstate_virtio_mem_device = {
     .name = "virtio-mem-device",
     .minimum_version_id = 1,
     .version_id = 1,
+    .priority = MIG_PRI_VIRTIO_MEM,
     .post_load = virtio_mem_post_load,
     .fields = (VMStateField[]) {
         VMSTATE_WITH_TMP(VirtIOMEM, VirtIOMEMMigSanityChecks,
diff --git a/include/migration/vmstate.h b/include/migration/vmstate.h
index 075ee80096..3bf58ff043 100644
--- a/include/migration/vmstate.h
+++ b/include/migration/vmstate.h
@@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ typedef enum {
     MIG_PRI_DEFAULT = 0,
     MIG_PRI_IOMMU,              /* Must happen before PCI devices */
     MIG_PRI_PCI_BUS,            /* Must happen before IOMMU */
+    MIG_PRI_VIRTIO_MEM,         /* Must happen before IOMMU */
     MIG_PRI_GICV3_ITS,          /* Must happen before PCI devices */
     MIG_PRI_GICV3,              /* Must happen before the ITS */
     MIG_PRI_MAX,
-- 
2.30.2



  parent reply	other threads:[~2021-04-13 10:06 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 14+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-04-13  9:55 [PATCH RESEND v7 00/13] virtio-mem: vfio support David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 01/13] memory: Introduce RamDiscardManager for RAM memory regions David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 02/13] memory: Helpers to copy/free a MemoryRegionSection David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 03/13] virtio-mem: Factor out traversing unplugged ranges David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 04/13] virtio-mem: Don't report errors when ram_block_discard_range() fails David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 05/13] virtio-mem: Implement RamDiscardManager interface David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 06/13] vfio: Support for RamDiscardManager in the !vIOMMU case David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 07/13] vfio: Query and store the maximum number of possible DMA mappings David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 08/13] vfio: Sanity check maximum number of DMA mappings with RamDiscardManager David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` David Hildenbrand [this message]
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 10/13] softmmu/physmem: Don't use atomic operations in ram_block_discard_(disable|require) David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 11/13] softmmu/physmem: Extend ram_block_discard_(require|disable) by two discard types David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 12/13] virtio-mem: Require only coordinated discards David Hildenbrand
2021-04-13  9:55 ` [PATCH RESEND v7 13/13] vfio: Disable only uncoordinated discards for VFIO_TYPE1 iommus David Hildenbrand

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