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From: "Alex Bennée" <alex.bennee@linaro.org>
To: "Daniel P. Berrangé" <berrange@redhat.com>
Cc: qemu-devel@nongnu.org
Subject: Re: [Qemu-devel] [PATCH 3/4] docs: document use of automatic cleanup functions in glib
Date: Wed, 28 Aug 2019 16:14:00 +0100
Message-ID: <878srd5nlz.fsf@linaro.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20190823163931.7442-4-berrange@redhat.com>


Daniel P. Berrangé <berrange@redhat.com> writes:

> Document the use of g_autofree and g_autoptr in glib for automatic
> freeing of memory, or other resource cleanup (eg mutex unlocking).
>
> Signed-off-by: Daniel P. Berrangé <berrange@redhat.com>
> ---
>  CODING_STYLE.md | 101 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  1 file changed, 101 insertions(+)
>
> diff --git a/CODING_STYLE.md b/CODING_STYLE.md
> index 9f4fc9dc77..f37b6c2d01 100644
> --- a/CODING_STYLE.md
> +++ b/CODING_STYLE.md
> @@ -479,3 +479,104 @@ terminate QEMU.
>
>  Note that &error_fatal is just another way to exit(1), and &error_abort
>  is just another way to abort().
> +
> +
> +## Automatic memory deallocation
> +
> +QEMU has a mandatory dependency either the GCC or CLang compiler. As
> +such it has the freedom to make use of a C language extension for
> +automatically running a cleanup function when a stack variable goes
> +out of scope. This can be used to simplify function cleanup paths,
> +often allowing many goto jumps to be eliminated, through automatic
> +free'ing of memory.
> +
> +The GLib2 library provides a number of functions/macros for enabling
> +automatic cleanup:
> +
> + https://developer.gnome.org/glib/stable/glib-Miscellaneous-Macros.html
> +
> +Most notably:
> +
> + - g_autofree - will invoke g_free() on the variable going out of scope
> +
> + - g_autoptr - for structs / objects, will invoke the cleanup func created
> +               by a previous use of G_DEFINE_AUTOPTR_CLEANUP_FUNC. This is
> +               supported for most GLib data types and GObjects
> +
> +For example, instead of
> +
> +    int somefunc(void) {
> +        int ret = -1;
> +        char *foo = g_strdup_printf("foo%", "wibble");
> +        GList *bar = .....
> +
> +        if (eek) {
> +           goto cleanup;
> +        }
> +
> +        ret = 0;
> +
> +      cleanup:
> +        g_free(foo);
> +        g_list_free(bar);
> +        return ret;
> +    }
> +
> +Using g_autofree/g_autoptr enables the code to be written as:
> +
> +    int somefunc(void) {
> +        g_autofree char *foo = g_strdup_printf("foo%", "wibble");
> +        g_autoptr (GList) bar = .....
> +
> +        if (eek) {
> +           return -1;
> +        }
> +
> +        return 0;
> +    }
> +
> +While this generally results in simpler, less leak-prone code, there
> +are still some caveats to beware of
> +
> + * Variables declared with g_auto* MUST always be initialized,
> +   otherwise the cleanup function will use uninitialized stack memory
> +
> + * If a variable declared with g_auto* holds a value which must
> +   live beyond the life of the function, that value must be saved
> +   and the original variable NULL'd out. This can be simpler using
> +   g_steal_pointer
> +
> +
> +    char *somefunc(void) {
> +        g_autofree char *foo = g_strdup_printf("foo%", "wibble");
> +        g_autoptr (GList) bar = .....
> +
> +        if (eek) {
> +           return NULL;
> +        }
> +
> +        return g_steal_pointer(&foo);
> +    }

All good so far.

> +
> +The cleanup functions are not restricted to simply free'ing memory. The
> +GMutexLocker class is a variant of GMutex that has automatic locking and
> +unlocking at start and end of the enclosing scope
> +
> +In the following example, the `lock` in `MyObj` will be held for the
> +precise duration of the `somefunc` function
> +
> +    typedef struct {
> +        GMutex lock;
> +    } MyObj;
> +
> +    char *somefunc(MyObj *obj) {
> +        g_autofree GMutexLocker *locker = g_mutex_locker_new(&obj->lock)
> +        g_autofree char *foo = g_strdup_printf("foo%", "wibble");
> +        g_autoptr (GList) bar = .....
> +
> +        if (eek) {
> +           return NULL;
> +        }
> +
> +        return g_steal_pointer(&foo);
> +    }

I would personally prefer we get some RFC patches for auto-unlocking under our
belt before we codify it's usage in our developer docs. Locking is a
fickle beast at the best of times and I'd like to see where it benefits
us before there is a rush to covert to the new style.

For one thing the only uses I see of g_mutex_lock is in our tests, the
main code base uses qemu_mutex_lock. How would we go about registering
the clean-up functions for those in the code base?

But apart from the lock stuff:

Reviewed-by: Alex Bennée <alex.bennee@linaro.org>

--
Alex Bennée


  parent reply index

Thread overview: 18+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2019-08-23 16:39 [Qemu-devel] [PATCH 0/4] docs: add docs about use of automatic cleanup functions Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-23 16:39 ` [Qemu-devel] [PATCH 1/4] docs: convert CODING_STYLE and HACKING to markdown syntax Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-28 12:25   ` Alex Bennée
2019-08-28 13:08     ` Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-23 16:39 ` [Qemu-devel] [PATCH 2/4] docs: merge HACKING.md contents into CODING_STYLE.md Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-23 19:35   ` Eric Blake
2019-08-28 15:06     ` Alex Bennée
2019-08-28 15:10       ` Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-23 16:39 ` [Qemu-devel] [PATCH 3/4] docs: document use of automatic cleanup functions in glib Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-23 19:53   ` Eric Blake
2019-08-28  9:00   ` Stefan Hajnoczi
2019-08-28 15:14   ` Alex Bennée [this message]
2019-08-28 15:20     ` Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-28 16:04       ` Alex Bennée
2019-08-23 16:39 ` [Qemu-devel] [PATCH 4/4] docs: add table of contents to CODING_STYLE.md Daniel P. Berrangé
2019-08-23 21:48 ` [Qemu-devel] [PATCH 0/4] docs: add docs about use of automatic cleanup functions Marc-André Lureau
2019-08-28 12:30   ` Alex Bennée
2019-08-28 13:07     ` Daniel P. Berrangé

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