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From: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
To: "Joel Fernandes (Google)" <joel@joelfernandes.org>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, kernel-team@android.com,
	kernel-team@lge.com, Byungchul Park <byungchul.park@lge.com>,
	Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>,
	Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>,
	Lai Jiangshan <jiangshanlai@gmail.com>,
	Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com>,
	max.byungchul.park@gmail.com, Rao Shoaib <rao.shoaib@oracle.com>,
	rcu@vger.kernel.org, Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v4 1/2] rcu/tree: Add basic support for kfree_rcu() batching
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 2019 09:43:30 -0700
Message-ID: <20190816164330.GA8320@linux.ibm.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20190814160411.58591-1-joel@joelfernandes.org>

Hello, Joel,

I reworked the commit log as follows, but was then unsuccessful in
working out which -rcu commit to apply it to.  Could you please
tell me what commit to apply this to?  (Once applied, git cherry-pick
is usually pretty good about handling minor conflicts.)

							Thanx, Paul

On Wed, Aug 14, 2019 at 12:04:10PM -0400, Joel Fernandes (Google) wrote:
> A recent discussion about stability and performance systems with
> kfree_rcu() flooding [1] led to another discussion how to better handle
> this situation.
> 
> This commit starts simple, adding only basic batching support for
> kfree_rcu(). It is "basic" because it does none of the slab management,
> dynamic allocation, or code movement carried out by a previous attempt
> [2].  These additional improvements can be implemented later as agreement
> is reached on these other issues.  For example, future work might
> increase cache locality by applying vector object lists, kfree_bulk(),
> or per-slab batching to further improve handling of kfree_rcu() floods.
> 
> Performance tests are provided in a latter commmit.  These tests show a
> 5x reduction in number of grace periods on a 16 CPU system, with minimal
> increase in kfree() latency.
> 
> Note that this commit prevents rcu_barrier() from waiting for the
> execution of the kfree() calls associated with prior kfree_rcu()
> invocations.  This should not be a problem, given that the resulting
> pending kfree() calls do not prevent module unloading or filesystem
> unmounting.  The reason rcu_barrier() no longer waits for the kfree()
> calls is that the kfree_rcu() requests are now batched, so that at
> any given time there might be kfree_rcu() requests that are not yet
> known to the core RCU machinery.  Furthermore, once a kfree_rcu()
> grace period has elapsed, the actual kfree() invocations happen in
> workqueue context.  So rcu_barrier() no longer waits for all of the
> prior requests, nor it does not wait for the workqueue handlers to
> start, let alone complete.  If there is ever a good reason to wait for
> the kfree() invocation corresponding to all prior kfree_rcu() calls,
> an approapriate kfree_rcu_barrier() can be constructed.  However, at
> the moment no reasonable use case is apparent.
> 
> This commit can result in increased memory footprint because the
> batching can increase the kfree_rcu()-to-kfree() latency.  Later
> commits will reduce this memory footprint.
> 
> Later commits will also remove the special handling of kfree_rcu() by
> __rcu_reclaim() within the RCU core.  This will require changes to
> rcuperf testing and to early boot handling of kfree_rcu().
> 
> [1] http://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20190723035725-mutt-send-email-mst@kernel.org
> [2] https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/12/19/824
> 
> Cc: kernel-team@android.com
> Cc: kernel-team@lge.com
> Co-developed-by: Byungchul Park <byungchul.park@lge.com>
> Signed-off-by: Byungchul Park <byungchul.park@lge.com>
> Signed-off-by: Joel Fernandes (Google) <joel@joelfernandes.org>
> 
> ---
> v3->v4: Some corrections by Paul.
> 	Used xchg in places to simplify code.
> 
> v2->v3: Just some code comment changes thanks to Byungchul.
> 
> RFCv1->PATCH v2: Removed limits on the ->head list, just let it grow.
>                    Dropped KFREE_MAX_JIFFIES to HZ/50 from HZ/20 to reduce OOM occurrence.
>                    Removed sleeps in rcuperf test, just using cond_resched()in loop.
>                    Better code comments ;)
> 
>  include/linux/rcutiny.h |   5 ++
>  include/linux/rcutree.h |   1 +
>  kernel/rcu/tree.c       | 194 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
>  3 files changed, 194 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/include/linux/rcutiny.h b/include/linux/rcutiny.h
> index 8e727f57d814..383f2481750f 100644
> --- a/include/linux/rcutiny.h
> +++ b/include/linux/rcutiny.h
> @@ -39,6 +39,11 @@ static inline void kfree_call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func)
>  	call_rcu(head, func);
>  }
>  
> +static inline void kfree_call_rcu_nobatch(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func)
> +{
> +	call_rcu(head, func);
> +}
> +
>  void rcu_qs(void);
>  
>  static inline void rcu_softirq_qs(void)
> diff --git a/include/linux/rcutree.h b/include/linux/rcutree.h
> index 735601ac27d3..7e38b39ec634 100644
> --- a/include/linux/rcutree.h
> +++ b/include/linux/rcutree.h
> @@ -34,6 +34,7 @@ static inline void rcu_virt_note_context_switch(int cpu)
>  
>  void synchronize_rcu_expedited(void);
>  void kfree_call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func);
> +void kfree_call_rcu_nobatch(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func);
>  
>  void rcu_barrier(void);
>  bool rcu_eqs_special_set(int cpu);
> diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree.c b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
> index a14e5fbbea46..1d1847cadea2 100644
> --- a/kernel/rcu/tree.c
> +++ b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
> @@ -2593,17 +2593,185 @@ void call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func)
>  }
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(call_rcu);
>  
> +
> +/* Maximum number of jiffies to wait before draining a batch. */
> +#define KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES (HZ / 50)
> +
>  /*
> - * Queue an RCU callback for lazy invocation after a grace period.
> - * This will likely be later named something like "call_rcu_lazy()",
> - * but this change will require some way of tagging the lazy RCU
> - * callbacks in the list of pending callbacks. Until then, this
> - * function may only be called from __kfree_rcu().
> + * Maximum number of kfree(s) to batch, if this limit is hit then the batch of
> + * kfree(s) is queued for freeing after a grace period, right away.
>   */
> -void kfree_call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func)
> +struct kfree_rcu_cpu {
> +	/* The rcu_work node for queuing work with queue_rcu_work(). The work
> +	 * is done after a grace period.
> +	 */
> +	struct rcu_work rcu_work;
> +
> +	/* The list of objects being queued in a batch but are not yet
> +	 * scheduled to be freed.
> +	 */
> +	struct rcu_head *head;
> +
> +	/* The list of objects that have now left ->head and are queued for
> +	 * freeing after a grace period.
> +	 */
> +	struct rcu_head *head_free;
> +
> +	/* Protect concurrent access to this structure. */
> +	spinlock_t lock;
> +
> +	/* The delayed work that flushes ->head to ->head_free incase ->head
> +	 * within KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES. In case flushing cannot be done if RCU
> +	 * is busy, ->head just continues to grow and we retry flushing later.
> +	 */
> +	struct delayed_work monitor_work;
> +	bool monitor_todo;	/* Is a delayed work pending execution? */
> +};
> +
> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct kfree_rcu_cpu, krc);
> +
> +/*
> + * This function is invoked in workqueue context after a grace period.
> + * It frees all the objects queued on ->head_free.
> + */
> +static void kfree_rcu_work(struct work_struct *work)
> +{
> +	unsigned long flags;
> +	struct rcu_head *head, *next;
> +	struct kfree_rcu_cpu *krcp = container_of(to_rcu_work(work),
> +					struct kfree_rcu_cpu, rcu_work);
> +
> +	spin_lock_irqsave(&krcp->lock, flags);
> +	head = krcp->head_free;
> +	krcp->head_free = NULL;
> +	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&krcp->lock, flags);
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * The head is detached and not referenced from anywhere, so lockless
> +	 * access is Ok.
> +	 */
> +	for (; head; head = next) {
> +		next = head->next;
> +		/* Could be possible to optimize with kfree_bulk in future */
> +		__rcu_reclaim(rcu_state.name, head);
> +		cond_resched_tasks_rcu_qs();
> +	}
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Schedule the kfree batch RCU work to run in workqueue context after a GP.
> + *
> + * This function is invoked by kfree_rcu_monitor() when the KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES
> + * timeout has been reached.
> + */
> +static inline bool queue_kfree_rcu_work(struct kfree_rcu_cpu *krcp)
> +{
> +	lockdep_assert_held(&krcp->lock);
> +
> +	/* If a previous RCU batch work is already in progress, we cannot queue
> +	 * another one, just refuse the optimization and it will be retried
> +	 * again in KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES time.
> +	 */
> +	if (krcp->head_free)
> +		return false;
> +
> +	krcp->head_free = krcp->head;
> +	krcp->head = NULL;
> +	INIT_RCU_WORK(&krcp->rcu_work, kfree_rcu_work);
> +	queue_rcu_work(system_wq, &krcp->rcu_work);
> +
> +	return true;
> +}
> +
> +static inline void kfree_rcu_drain_unlock(struct kfree_rcu_cpu *krcp,
> +				   unsigned long flags)
> +{
> +	/* Flush ->head to ->head_free, all objects on ->head_free will be
> +	 * kfree'd after a grace period.
> +	 */
> +	if (queue_kfree_rcu_work(krcp)) {
> +		/* Success! Our job is done here. */
> +		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&krcp->lock, flags);
> +		return;
> +	}
> +
> +	/* Previous batch that was queued to RCU did not get free yet, let us
> +	 * try again soon.
> +	 */
> +	if (!xchg(&krcp->monitor_todo, true))
> +		schedule_delayed_work(&krcp->monitor_work, KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES);
> +	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&krcp->lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * This function is invoked after the KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES timeout has elapsed,
> + * and it drains the specified kfree_rcu_cpu structure's ->head list.
> + */
> +static void kfree_rcu_monitor(struct work_struct *work)
> +{
> +	unsigned long flags;
> +	struct kfree_rcu_cpu *krcp = container_of(work, struct kfree_rcu_cpu,
> +						 monitor_work.work);
> +
> +	spin_lock_irqsave(&krcp->lock, flags);
> +	if (xchg(&krcp->monitor_todo, false))
> +		kfree_rcu_drain_unlock(krcp, flags);
> +	else
> +		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&krcp->lock, flags);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * This version of kfree_call_rcu does not do batching of kfree_rcu() requests.
> + * Used only by rcuperf torture test for comparison with kfree_rcu_batch().
> + */
> +void kfree_call_rcu_nobatch(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func)
>  {
>  	__call_rcu(head, func, -1, 1);
>  }
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kfree_call_rcu_nobatch);
> +
> +/*
> + * Queue a request for lazy invocation of kfree() after a grace period.
> + *
> + * Each kfree_call_rcu() request is added to a batch. The batch will be drained
> + * every KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES number of jiffies. All the objects in the batch
> + * will be kfree'd in workqueue context. This allows us to:
> + *
> + * 1. Batch requests together to reduce the number of grace periods during
> + * heavy kfree_rcu() load.
> + *
> + * 2. In the future, makes it possible to use kfree_bulk() on a large number of
> + * kfree_rcu() requests thus reducing the per-object overhead of kfree() and
> + * also reducing cache misses.
> + */
> +void kfree_call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head, rcu_callback_t func)
> +{
> +	unsigned long flags;
> +	struct kfree_rcu_cpu *krcp;
> +
> +	/* kfree_call_rcu() batching requires timers to be up. If the scheduler
> +	 * is not yet up, just skip batching and do the non-batched version.
> +	 */
> +	if (rcu_scheduler_active != RCU_SCHEDULER_RUNNING)
> +		return kfree_call_rcu_nobatch(head, func);
> +
> +	head->func = func;
> +
> +	local_irq_save(flags);	/* For safely calling this_cpu_ptr(). */
> +	krcp = this_cpu_ptr(&krc);
> +	spin_lock(&krcp->lock);
> +
> +	/* Queue the kfree but don't yet schedule the batch. */
> +	head->next = krcp->head;
> +	krcp->head = head;
> +
> +	/* Schedule monitor for timely drain after KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES. */
> +	if (!xchg(&krcp->monitor_todo, true))
> +		schedule_delayed_work(&krcp->monitor_work, KFREE_DRAIN_JIFFIES);
> +
> +	spin_unlock(&krcp->lock);
> +	local_irq_restore(flags);
> +}
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kfree_call_rcu);
>  
>  /*
> @@ -3455,10 +3623,24 @@ static void __init rcu_dump_rcu_node_tree(void)
>  struct workqueue_struct *rcu_gp_wq;
>  struct workqueue_struct *rcu_par_gp_wq;
>  
> +static void __init kfree_rcu_batch_init(void)
> +{
> +	int cpu;
> +
> +	for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
> +		struct kfree_rcu_cpu *krcp = per_cpu_ptr(&krc, cpu);
> +
> +		spin_lock_init(&krcp->lock);
> +		INIT_DELAYED_WORK(&krcp->monitor_work, kfree_rcu_monitor);
> +	}
> +}
> +
>  void __init rcu_init(void)
>  {
>  	int cpu;
>  
> +	kfree_rcu_batch_init();
> +
>  	rcu_early_boot_tests();
>  
>  	rcu_bootup_announce();
> -- 
> 2.23.0.rc1.153.gdeed80330f-goog
> 

  parent reply index

Thread overview: 25+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2019-08-14 16:04 Joel Fernandes (Google)
2019-08-14 16:04 ` [PATCH v4 2/2] rcuperf: Add kfree_rcu() performance Tests Joel Fernandes (Google)
2019-08-14 22:58   ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-08-19 19:33     ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-19 22:23       ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-08-19 23:51         ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-20  2:50           ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-08-21  0:27             ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-21  0:31               ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-21  0:44                 ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-08-21  0:51                   ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-16 16:43 ` Paul E. McKenney [this message]
2019-08-16 17:44   ` [PATCH v4 1/2] rcu/tree: Add basic support for kfree_rcu() batching Joel Fernandes
2019-08-16 19:16     ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-08-17  1:32       ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-17  3:56         ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-08-17  4:30           ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-17  5:20             ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-08-17  5:53               ` Joel Fernandes
2019-08-17 21:45                 ` Paul E. McKenney
2019-09-18  9:58 ` Uladzislau Rezki
2019-09-30 20:16   ` Joel Fernandes
2019-10-01 11:27     ` Uladzislau Rezki
2019-10-04 17:20       ` Joel Fernandes
2019-10-08 16:23         ` Uladzislau Rezki

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