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* [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
@ 2016-03-17 16:06 Tianyang Chen
  2016-03-17 18:27 ` Dario Faggioli
                   ` (2 more replies)
  0 siblings, 3 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Tianyang Chen @ 2016-03-17 16:06 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: xen-devel
  Cc: dario.faggioli, Tianyang Chen, george.dunlap, Dagaen Golomb, Meng Xu

The current RTDS code has several problems:
 - the scheduler, although the algorithm is event driven by
   nature, follows a time driven model (is invoked periodically!),
   making the code look unnatural;
 - budget replenishment logic, budget enforcement logic and scheduling
   decisions are mixed and entangled, making the code hard to understand;
 - the various queues of vcpus are scanned various times, making the
   code inefficient;

This patch separates budget replenishment and enforcement. It does that
by handling the former with a dedicated timer, and a queue of pending
replenishment events.

A replenishment queue has been added to keep track of all vcpus that
are runnable.

We also make sure that the main scheduling function is called when a
scheduling decision is necessary, such as when the currently running
vcpu runs out of budget.

Finally, when waking up a vcpu, it is now enough to tickle the various
CPUs appropriately, like all other schedulers also do.

Signed-off-by: Tianyang Chen <tiche@seas.upenn.edu>
Signed-off-by: Meng Xu <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu>
Signed-off-by: Dagaen Golomb <dgolomb@seas.upenn.edu>
---
changes since v10:
    Re-worded commit messages.
    Moved helper macros to where they belong.

changes since v9:
    Re-worded some of the comments
    Fixed the wrong returned value from rt_schedule().

changes since v8:
    Replaced spin_lock_irqsave with spin_lock_irq.
    Bug fix in burn_budget() where budget == 0.
    Removed unnecessary tickling in the timer handler when
    vcpus have the same deadline.

changes since v7:
    Coding sytle.
    Added a flag to indicate that a vcpu was depleted.
    Added a local list including updated vcpus in the
    timer handler. It is used to decide which vcpu should
    tickle.

changes since v6:
    Removed unnecessary vcpu_on_q() checks for runq_insert()
    Renamed replenishment queue related functions without
    underscores
    New replq_reinsert() function for rt_vcpu_wake()

changes since v5:
    Removed unnecessary vcpu_on_replq() checks
    deadline_queue_insert() returns a flag to indicate if it's
    needed to re-program the timer
    Removed unnecessary timer checks
    Added helper functions to remove vcpus from queues
    coding style

Changes since v4:
    removed unnecessary replenishment queue checks in vcpu_wake()
    extended replq_remove() to all cases in vcpu_sleep()
    used _deadline_queue_insert() helper function for both queues
    _replq_insert() and _replq_remove() program timer internally

Changes since v3:
    removed running queue.
    added repl queue to keep track of repl events.
    timer is now per scheduler.
    timer is init on a valid cpu in a cpupool.
---
 xen/common/sched_rt.c |  429 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------
 1 file changed, 333 insertions(+), 96 deletions(-)

diff --git a/xen/common/sched_rt.c b/xen/common/sched_rt.c
index bfed2e2..fc3863e 100644
--- a/xen/common/sched_rt.c
+++ b/xen/common/sched_rt.c
@@ -3,7 +3,10 @@
  * EDF scheduling is a real-time scheduling algorithm used in embedded field.
  *
  * by Sisu Xi, 2013, Washington University in Saint Louis
- * and Meng Xu, 2014, University of Pennsylvania
+ * Meng Xu, 2014-2016, University of Pennsylvania
+ *
+ * Conversion toward event driven model by Tianyang Chen
+ * and Dagaen Golomb, 2016, University of Pennsylvania
  *
  * based on the code of credit Scheduler
  */
@@ -16,6 +19,7 @@
 #include <xen/delay.h>
 #include <xen/event.h>
 #include <xen/time.h>
+#include <xen/timer.h>
 #include <xen/perfc.h>
 #include <xen/sched-if.h>
 #include <xen/softirq.h>
@@ -87,7 +91,7 @@
 #define RTDS_DEFAULT_BUDGET     (MICROSECS(4000))
 
 #define UPDATE_LIMIT_SHIFT      10
-#define MAX_SCHEDULE            (MILLISECS(1))
+
 /*
  * Flags
  */
@@ -115,6 +119,16 @@
 #define RTDS_delayed_runq_add (1<<__RTDS_delayed_runq_add)
 
 /*
+ * RTDS_depleted: Does this vcp run out of budget?
+ * This flag is
+ * + set in burn_budget() if a vcpu has zero budget left;
+ * + cleared and checked in the repenishment handler,
+ *   for the vcpus that are being replenished.
+ */
+#define __RTDS_depleted     3
+#define RTDS_depleted (1<<__RTDS_depleted)
+
+/*
  * rt tracing events ("only" 512 available!). Check
  * include/public/trace.h for more details.
  */
@@ -142,6 +156,8 @@ static cpumask_var_t *_cpumask_scratch;
  */
 static unsigned int nr_rt_ops;
 
+static void repl_timer_handler(void *data);
+
 /*
  * Systme-wide private data, include global RunQueue/DepletedQ
  * Global lock is referenced by schedule_data.schedule_lock from all
@@ -152,7 +168,9 @@ struct rt_private {
     struct list_head sdom;      /* list of availalbe domains, used for dump */
     struct list_head runq;      /* ordered list of runnable vcpus */
     struct list_head depletedq; /* unordered list of depleted vcpus */
+    struct list_head replq;     /* ordered list of vcpus that need replenishment */
     cpumask_t tickled;          /* cpus been tickled */
+    struct timer *repl_timer;   /* replenishment timer */
 };
 
 /*
@@ -160,6 +178,7 @@ struct rt_private {
  */
 struct rt_vcpu {
     struct list_head q_elem;    /* on the runq/depletedq list */
+    struct list_head replq_elem; /* on the replenishment events list */
 
     /* Up-pointers */
     struct rt_dom *sdom;
@@ -213,8 +232,14 @@ static inline struct list_head *rt_depletedq(const struct scheduler *ops)
     return &rt_priv(ops)->depletedq;
 }
 
+static inline struct list_head *rt_replq(const struct scheduler *ops)
+{
+    return &rt_priv(ops)->replq;
+}
+
 /*
- * Queue helper functions for runq and depletedq
+ * Helper functions for manipulating the runqueue, the depleted queue,
+ * and the replenishment events queue.
  */
 static int
 __vcpu_on_q(const struct rt_vcpu *svc)
@@ -228,6 +253,18 @@ __q_elem(struct list_head *elem)
     return list_entry(elem, struct rt_vcpu, q_elem);
 }
 
+static struct rt_vcpu *
+replq_elem(struct list_head *elem)
+{
+    return list_entry(elem, struct rt_vcpu, replq_elem);
+}
+
+static int
+vcpu_on_replq(const struct rt_vcpu *svc)
+{
+    return !list_empty(&svc->replq_elem);
+}
+
 /*
  * Debug related code, dump vcpu/cpu information
  */
@@ -288,7 +325,7 @@ rt_dump_pcpu(const struct scheduler *ops, int cpu)
 static void
 rt_dump(const struct scheduler *ops)
 {
-    struct list_head *runq, *depletedq, *iter;
+    struct list_head *runq, *depletedq, *replq, *iter;
     struct rt_private *prv = rt_priv(ops);
     struct rt_vcpu *svc;
     struct rt_dom *sdom;
@@ -301,6 +338,7 @@ rt_dump(const struct scheduler *ops)
 
     runq = rt_runq(ops);
     depletedq = rt_depletedq(ops);
+    replq = rt_replq(ops);
 
     printk("Global RunQueue info:\n");
     list_for_each( iter, runq )
@@ -316,6 +354,13 @@ rt_dump(const struct scheduler *ops)
         rt_dump_vcpu(ops, svc);
     }
 
+    printk("Global Replenishment Events info:\n");
+    list_for_each( iter, replq )
+    {
+        svc = replq_elem(iter);
+        rt_dump_vcpu(ops, svc);
+    }
+
     printk("Domain info:\n");
     list_for_each( iter, &prv->sdom )
     {
@@ -380,11 +425,84 @@ rt_update_deadline(s_time_t now, struct rt_vcpu *svc)
     return;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Helpers for removing and inserting a vcpu in a queue
+ * that is being kept ordered by the vcpus' deadlines (as EDF
+ * mandates).
+ *
+ * For callers' convenience, the vcpu removing helper returns
+ * true if the vcpu removed was the one at the front of the
+ * queue; similarly, the inserting helper returns true if the
+ * inserted ended at the front of the queue (i.e., in both
+ * cases, if the vcpu with the earliest deadline is what we
+ * are dealing with).
+ */
+static inline bool_t
+deadline_queue_remove(struct list_head *queue, struct list_head *elem)
+{
+    int pos = 0;
+
+    if ( queue->next != elem )
+        pos = 1;
+
+    list_del_init(elem);
+    return !pos;
+}
+
+static inline bool_t
+deadline_queue_insert(struct rt_vcpu * (*qelem)(struct list_head *),
+                      struct rt_vcpu *svc, struct list_head *elem,
+                      struct list_head *queue)
+{
+    struct list_head *iter;
+    int pos = 0;
+
+    list_for_each ( iter, queue )
+    {
+        struct rt_vcpu * iter_svc = (*qelem)(iter);
+        if ( svc->cur_deadline <= iter_svc->cur_deadline )
+            break;
+        pos++;
+    }
+    list_add_tail(elem, iter);
+    return !pos;
+}
+#define deadline_runq_insert(...) \
+  deadline_queue_insert(&__q_elem, ##__VA_ARGS__)
+#define deadline_replq_insert(...) \
+  deadline_queue_insert(&replq_elem, ##__VA_ARGS__)
+
 static inline void
 __q_remove(struct rt_vcpu *svc)
 {
-    if ( __vcpu_on_q(svc) )
-        list_del_init(&svc->q_elem);
+    ASSERT( __vcpu_on_q(svc) );
+    list_del_init(&svc->q_elem);
+}
+
+static inline void
+replq_remove(const struct scheduler *ops, struct rt_vcpu *svc)
+{
+    struct rt_private *prv = rt_priv(ops);
+    struct list_head *replq = rt_replq(ops);
+
+    ASSERT( vcpu_on_replq(svc) );
+
+    if ( deadline_queue_remove(replq, &svc->replq_elem) )
+    {
+        /*
+         * The replenishment timer needs to be set to fire when a
+         * replenishment for the vcpu at the front of the replenishment
+         * queue is due. If it is such vcpu that we just removed, we may
+         * need to reprogram the timer.
+         */
+        if ( !list_empty(replq) )
+        {
+            struct rt_vcpu *svc_next = replq_elem(replq->next);
+            set_timer(prv->repl_timer, svc_next->cur_deadline);
+        }
+        else
+            stop_timer(prv->repl_timer);
+    }
 }
 
 /*
@@ -397,27 +515,69 @@ __runq_insert(const struct scheduler *ops, struct rt_vcpu *svc)
 {
     struct rt_private *prv = rt_priv(ops);
     struct list_head *runq = rt_runq(ops);
-    struct list_head *iter;
 
     ASSERT( spin_is_locked(&prv->lock) );
-
     ASSERT( !__vcpu_on_q(svc) );
+    ASSERT( vcpu_on_replq(svc) );
 
     /* add svc to runq if svc still has budget */
     if ( svc->cur_budget > 0 )
-    {
-        list_for_each(iter, runq)
-        {
-            struct rt_vcpu * iter_svc = __q_elem(iter);
-            if ( svc->cur_deadline <= iter_svc->cur_deadline )
-                    break;
-         }
-        list_add_tail(&svc->q_elem, iter);
-    }
+        deadline_runq_insert(svc, &svc->q_elem, runq);
     else
-    {
         list_add(&svc->q_elem, &prv->depletedq);
+}
+
+static void
+replq_insert(const struct scheduler *ops, struct rt_vcpu *svc)
+{
+    struct list_head *replq = rt_replq(ops);
+    struct rt_private *prv = rt_priv(ops);
+
+    ASSERT( !vcpu_on_replq(svc) );
+
+    /*
+     * The timer may be re-programmed if svc is inserted
+     * at the front of the event list.
+     */
+    if ( deadline_replq_insert(svc, &svc->replq_elem, replq) )
+        set_timer(prv->repl_timer, svc->cur_deadline);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Removes and re-inserts an event to the replenishment queue.
+ * The aim is to update its position inside the queue, as its
+ * deadline (and hence its replenishment time) could have
+ * changed.
+ */
+static void
+replq_reinsert(const struct scheduler *ops, struct rt_vcpu *svc)
+{
+    struct list_head *replq = rt_replq(ops);
+    struct rt_vcpu *rearm_svc = svc;
+    bool_t rearm = 0;
+
+    ASSERT( vcpu_on_replq(svc) );
+
+    /*
+     * If svc was at the front of the replenishment queue, we certainly
+     * need to re-program the timer, and we want to use the deadline of
+     * the vcpu which is now at the front of the queue (which may still
+     * be svc or not).
+     *
+     * We may also need to re-program, if svc has been put at the front
+     * of the replenishment queue when being re-inserted.
+     */
+    if ( deadline_queue_remove(replq, &svc->replq_elem) )
+    {
+        deadline_replq_insert(svc, &svc->replq_elem, replq);
+        rearm_svc = replq_elem(replq->next);
+        rearm = 1;
     }
+    else
+        rearm = deadline_replq_insert(svc, &svc->replq_elem, replq);
+
+    if ( rearm )
+        set_timer(rt_priv(ops)->repl_timer, rearm_svc->cur_deadline);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -449,11 +609,18 @@ rt_init(struct scheduler *ops)
     INIT_LIST_HEAD(&prv->sdom);
     INIT_LIST_HEAD(&prv->runq);
     INIT_LIST_HEAD(&prv->depletedq);
+    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&prv->replq);
 
     cpumask_clear(&prv->tickled);
 
     ops->sched_data = prv;
 
+    /*
+     * The timer initialization will happen later when
+     * the first pcpu is added to this pool in alloc_pdata.
+     */
+    prv->repl_timer = NULL;
+
     return 0;
 
  no_mem:
@@ -473,6 +640,10 @@ rt_deinit(struct scheduler *ops)
         xfree(_cpumask_scratch);
         _cpumask_scratch = NULL;
     }
+
+    kill_timer(prv->repl_timer);
+    xfree(prv->repl_timer);
+
     ops->sched_data = NULL;
     xfree(prv);
 }
@@ -494,6 +665,17 @@ rt_alloc_pdata(const struct scheduler *ops, int cpu)
     if ( !alloc_cpumask_var(&_cpumask_scratch[cpu]) )
         return NULL;
 
+    if ( prv->repl_timer == NULL )
+    {
+        /* Allocate the timer on the first cpu of this pool. */
+        prv->repl_timer = xzalloc(struct timer);
+
+        if ( prv->repl_timer == NULL )
+            return NULL;
+
+        init_timer(prv->repl_timer, repl_timer_handler, (void *)ops, cpu);
+    }
+
     /* 1 indicates alloc. succeed in schedule.c */
     return (void *)1;
 }
@@ -587,6 +769,7 @@ rt_alloc_vdata(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc, void *dd)
         return NULL;
 
     INIT_LIST_HEAD(&svc->q_elem);
+    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&svc->replq_elem);
     svc->flags = 0U;
     svc->sdom = dd;
     svc->vcpu = vc;
@@ -610,7 +793,8 @@ rt_free_vdata(const struct scheduler *ops, void *priv)
 }
 
 /*
- * This function is called in sched_move_domain() in schedule.c
+ * It is called in sched_move_domain() and sched_init_vcpu
+ * in schedule.c.
  * When move a domain to a new cpupool.
  * It inserts vcpus of moving domain to the scheduler's RunQ in
  * dest. cpupool.
@@ -628,8 +812,13 @@ rt_vcpu_insert(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc)
     if ( now >= svc->cur_deadline )
         rt_update_deadline(now, svc);
 
-    if ( !__vcpu_on_q(svc) && vcpu_runnable(vc) && !vc->is_running )
-        __runq_insert(ops, svc);
+    if ( !__vcpu_on_q(svc) && vcpu_runnable(vc) )
+    {
+        replq_insert(ops, svc);
+
+        if ( !vc->is_running )
+            __runq_insert(ops, svc);
+    }
     vcpu_schedule_unlock_irq(lock, vc);
 
     SCHED_STAT_CRANK(vcpu_insert);
@@ -652,6 +841,10 @@ rt_vcpu_remove(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc)
     lock = vcpu_schedule_lock_irq(vc);
     if ( __vcpu_on_q(svc) )
         __q_remove(svc);
+
+    if ( vcpu_on_replq(svc) )
+        replq_remove(ops,svc);
+
     vcpu_schedule_unlock_irq(lock, vc);
 }
 
@@ -706,8 +899,11 @@ burn_budget(const struct scheduler *ops, struct rt_vcpu *svc, s_time_t now)
 
     svc->cur_budget -= delta;
 
-    if ( svc->cur_budget < 0 )
+    if ( svc->cur_budget <= 0 )
+    {
         svc->cur_budget = 0;
+        set_bit(__RTDS_depleted, &svc->flags);
+    }
 
     /* TRACE */
     {
@@ -784,44 +980,6 @@ __runq_pick(const struct scheduler *ops, const cpumask_t *mask)
 }
 
 /*
- * Update vcpu's budget and
- * sort runq by insert the modifed vcpu back to runq
- * lock is grabbed before calling this function
- */
-static void
-__repl_update(const struct scheduler *ops, s_time_t now)
-{
-    struct list_head *runq = rt_runq(ops);
-    struct list_head *depletedq = rt_depletedq(ops);
-    struct list_head *iter;
-    struct list_head *tmp;
-    struct rt_vcpu *svc = NULL;
-
-    list_for_each_safe(iter, tmp, runq)
-    {
-        svc = __q_elem(iter);
-        if ( now < svc->cur_deadline )
-            break;
-
-        rt_update_deadline(now, svc);
-        /* reinsert the vcpu if its deadline is updated */
-        __q_remove(svc);
-        __runq_insert(ops, svc);
-    }
-
-    list_for_each_safe(iter, tmp, depletedq)
-    {
-        svc = __q_elem(iter);
-        if ( now >= svc->cur_deadline )
-        {
-            rt_update_deadline(now, svc);
-            __q_remove(svc); /* remove from depleted queue */
-            __runq_insert(ops, svc); /* add to runq */
-        }
-    }
-}
-
-/*
  * schedule function for rt scheduler.
  * The lock is already grabbed in schedule.c, no need to lock here
  */
@@ -840,8 +998,6 @@ rt_schedule(const struct scheduler *ops, s_time_t now, bool_t tasklet_work_sched
     /* burn_budget would return for IDLE VCPU */
     burn_budget(ops, scurr, now);
 
-    __repl_update(ops, now);
-
     if ( tasklet_work_scheduled )
     {
         trace_var(TRC_RTDS_SCHED_TASKLET, 1, 0,  NULL);
@@ -868,6 +1024,7 @@ rt_schedule(const struct scheduler *ops, s_time_t now, bool_t tasklet_work_sched
         set_bit(__RTDS_delayed_runq_add, &scurr->flags);
 
     snext->last_start = now;
+    ret.time =  -1; /* if an idle vcpu is picked */
     if ( !is_idle_vcpu(snext->vcpu) )
     {
         if ( snext != scurr )
@@ -880,9 +1037,8 @@ rt_schedule(const struct scheduler *ops, s_time_t now, bool_t tasklet_work_sched
             snext->vcpu->processor = cpu;
             ret.migrated = 1;
         }
+        ret.time = snext->cur_budget; /* invoke the scheduler next time */
     }
-
-    ret.time = MIN(snext->budget, MAX_SCHEDULE); /* sched quantum */
     ret.task = snext->vcpu;
 
     return ret;
@@ -903,7 +1059,10 @@ rt_vcpu_sleep(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc)
     if ( curr_on_cpu(vc->processor) == vc )
         cpu_raise_softirq(vc->processor, SCHEDULE_SOFTIRQ);
     else if ( __vcpu_on_q(svc) )
+    {
         __q_remove(svc);
+        replq_remove(ops, svc);
+    }
     else if ( svc->flags & RTDS_delayed_runq_add )
         clear_bit(__RTDS_delayed_runq_add, &svc->flags);
 }
@@ -1008,10 +1167,7 @@ rt_vcpu_wake(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc)
 {
     struct rt_vcpu * const svc = rt_vcpu(vc);
     s_time_t now = NOW();
-    struct rt_private *prv = rt_priv(ops);
-    struct rt_vcpu *snext = NULL; /* highest priority on RunQ */
-    struct rt_dom *sdom = NULL;
-    cpumask_t *online;
+    bool_t missed;
 
     BUG_ON( is_idle_vcpu(vc) );
 
@@ -1033,32 +1189,42 @@ rt_vcpu_wake(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc)
     else
         SCHED_STAT_CRANK(vcpu_wake_not_runnable);
 
-    /* If context hasn't been saved for this vcpu yet, we can't put it on
-     * the Runqueue/DepletedQ. Instead, we set a flag so that it will be
-     * put on the Runqueue/DepletedQ after the context has been saved.
+    /*
+     * If a deadline passed while svc was asleep/blocked, we need new
+     * scheduling parameters (a new deadline and full budget).
+     */
+
+    missed = ( now >= svc->cur_deadline );
+    if ( missed )
+        rt_update_deadline(now, svc);
+
+    /*
+     * If context hasn't been saved for this vcpu yet, we can't put it on
+     * the run-queue/depleted-queue. Instead, we set the appropriate flag,
+     * the vcpu will be put back on queue after the context has been saved
+     * (in rt_context_save()).
      */
     if ( unlikely(svc->flags & RTDS_scheduled) )
     {
         set_bit(__RTDS_delayed_runq_add, &svc->flags);
+        /*
+         * The vcpu is waking up already, and we didn't even had the time to
+         * remove its next replenishment event from the replenishment queue
+         * when it blocked! No big deal. If we did not miss the deadline in
+         * the meantime, let's just leave it there. If we did, let's remove it
+         * and queue a new one (to occur at our new deadline).
+         */
+        if ( missed )
+           replq_reinsert(ops, svc);
         return;
     }
 
-    if ( now >= svc->cur_deadline)
-        rt_update_deadline(now, svc);
-
+    /* Replenishment event got cancelled when we blocked. Add it back. */
+    replq_insert(ops, svc);
     /* insert svc to runq/depletedq because svc is not in queue now */
     __runq_insert(ops, svc);
 
-    __repl_update(ops, now);
-
-    ASSERT(!list_empty(&prv->sdom));
-    sdom = list_entry(prv->sdom.next, struct rt_dom, sdom_elem);
-    online = cpupool_domain_cpumask(sdom->dom);
-    snext = __runq_pick(ops, online); /* pick snext from ALL valid cpus */
-
-    runq_tickle(ops, snext);
-
-    return;
+    runq_tickle(ops, svc);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -1069,10 +1235,6 @@ static void
 rt_context_saved(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc)
 {
     struct rt_vcpu *svc = rt_vcpu(vc);
-    struct rt_vcpu *snext = NULL;
-    struct rt_dom *sdom = NULL;
-    struct rt_private *prv = rt_priv(ops);
-    cpumask_t *online;
     spinlock_t *lock = vcpu_schedule_lock_irq(vc);
 
     clear_bit(__RTDS_scheduled, &svc->flags);
@@ -1084,15 +1246,11 @@ rt_context_saved(const struct scheduler *ops, struct vcpu *vc)
          likely(vcpu_runnable(vc)) )
     {
         __runq_insert(ops, svc);
-        __repl_update(ops, NOW());
-
-        ASSERT(!list_empty(&prv->sdom));
-        sdom = list_entry(prv->sdom.next, struct rt_dom, sdom_elem);
-        online = cpupool_domain_cpumask(sdom->dom);
-        snext = __runq_pick(ops, online); /* pick snext from ALL cpus */
-
-        runq_tickle(ops, snext);
+        runq_tickle(ops, svc);
     }
+    else
+        replq_remove(ops, svc);
+
 out:
     vcpu_schedule_unlock_irq(lock, vc);
 }
@@ -1150,6 +1308,85 @@ rt_dom_cntl(
     return rc;
 }
 
+/*
+ * The replenishment timer handler picks vcpus
+ * from the replq and does the actual replenishment.
+ */
+static void repl_timer_handler(void *data){
+    s_time_t now = NOW();
+    struct scheduler *ops = data;
+    struct rt_private *prv = rt_priv(ops);
+    struct list_head *replq = rt_replq(ops);
+    struct list_head *runq = rt_runq(ops);
+    struct timer *repl_timer = prv->repl_timer;
+    struct list_head *iter, *tmp;
+    struct rt_vcpu *svc;
+    LIST_HEAD(tmp_replq);
+
+    spin_lock_irq(&prv->lock);
+
+    /*
+     * Do the replenishment and move replenished vcpus
+     * to the temporary list to tickle.
+     * If svc is on run queue, we need to put it at
+     * the correct place since its deadline changes.
+     */
+    list_for_each_safe ( iter, tmp, replq )
+    {
+        svc = replq_elem(iter);
+
+        if ( now < svc->cur_deadline )
+            break;
+
+        list_del(&svc->replq_elem);
+        rt_update_deadline(now, svc);
+        list_add(&svc->replq_elem, &tmp_replq);
+
+        if ( __vcpu_on_q(svc) )
+        {
+            __q_remove(svc);
+            __runq_insert(ops, svc);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /*
+     * Iterate through the list of updated vcpus.
+     * If an updated vcpu is running, tickle the head of the
+     * runqueue if it has a higher priority.
+     * If an updated vcpu was depleted and on the runqueue, tickle it.
+     * Finally, reinsert the vcpus back to replenishement events list.
+     */
+    list_for_each_safe ( iter, tmp, &tmp_replq )
+    {
+        svc = replq_elem(iter);
+
+        if ( curr_on_cpu(svc->vcpu->processor) == svc->vcpu &&
+             !list_empty(runq) )
+        {
+            struct rt_vcpu *next_on_runq = __q_elem(runq->next);
+
+            if ( svc->cur_deadline > next_on_runq->cur_deadline )
+                runq_tickle(ops, next_on_runq);
+        }
+        else if ( __vcpu_on_q(svc) &&
+                  test_and_clear_bit(__RTDS_depleted, &svc->flags) )
+            runq_tickle(ops, svc);
+
+        list_del(&svc->replq_elem);
+        deadline_replq_insert(svc, &svc->replq_elem, replq);
+    }
+
+    /*
+     * If there are vcpus left in the replenishment event list,
+     * set the next replenishment to happen at the deadline of
+     * the one in the front.
+     */
+    if ( !list_empty(replq) )
+        set_timer(repl_timer, replq_elem(replq->next)->cur_deadline);
+
+    spin_unlock_irq(&prv->lock);
+}
+
 static const struct scheduler sched_rtds_def = {
     .name           = "SMP RTDS Scheduler",
     .opt_name       = "rtds",
-- 
1.7.9.5


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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-17 16:06 [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model Tianyang Chen
@ 2016-03-17 18:27 ` Dario Faggioli
  2016-03-17 20:12   ` Chen, Tianyang
  2016-03-18  4:09 ` Meng Xu
  2016-03-18 14:25 ` Meng Xu
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 11+ messages in thread
From: Dario Faggioli @ 2016-03-17 18:27 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tianyang Chen, xen-devel; +Cc: george.dunlap, Dagaen Golomb, Meng Xu


[-- Attachment #1.1: Type: text/plain, Size: 2295 bytes --]

On Thu, 2016-03-17 at 12:06 -0400, Tianyang Chen wrote:
> The current RTDS code has several problems:
>  - the scheduler, although the algorithm is event driven by
>    nature, follows a time driven model (is invoked periodically!),
>    making the code look unnatural;
>  - budget replenishment logic, budget enforcement logic and
> scheduling
>    decisions are mixed and entangled, making the code hard to
> understand;
>  - the various queues of vcpus are scanned various times, making the
>    code inefficient;
> 
> This patch separates budget replenishment and enforcement. It does
> that
> by handling the former with a dedicated timer, and a queue of pending
> replenishment events.
> 
> A replenishment queue has been added to keep track of all vcpus that
> are runnable.
> 
> We also make sure that the main scheduling function is called when a
> scheduling decision is necessary, such as when the currently running
> vcpu runs out of budget.
> 
> Finally, when waking up a vcpu, it is now enough to tickle the
> various
> CPUs appropriately, like all other schedulers also do.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Tianyang Chen <tiche@seas.upenn.edu>
> Signed-off-by: Meng Xu <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu>
> Signed-off-by: Dagaen Golomb <dgolomb@seas.upenn.edu>
>
You seem to have taken care of all my remaining comments to v10, so the
patch is:

Reviewed-by: Dario Faggioli <dario.faggioli@citrix.com>

(which you could have put there yourself, as I said. :-))

Thanks for all the good work.

If I can already point you to something else that can be improved
further in this scheduler, _completely_ independently from this, and
hence in a fully new patch (series), can you have a look at whether we
really need set_bit(), test_and_clear(), etc, instead of __set_bit(),
__test_and_clear(), etc.?

I'm asking because I'm under the impression that the latter are enough,
and if that is the case, we should go for them, as they're more
efficient.

Thanks again and Regards,
Dario
-- 
<<This happens because I choose it to happen!>> (Raistlin Majere)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Dario Faggioli, Ph.D, http://about.me/dario.faggioli
Senior Software Engineer, Citrix Systems R&D Ltd., Cambridge (UK)


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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-17 18:27 ` Dario Faggioli
@ 2016-03-17 20:12   ` Chen, Tianyang
  2016-03-18  1:45     ` Meng Xu
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 11+ messages in thread
From: Chen, Tianyang @ 2016-03-17 20:12 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Dario Faggioli, xen-devel; +Cc: george.dunlap, Dagaen Golomb, Meng Xu



On 03/17/2016 02:27 PM, Dario Faggioli wrote:
>> Finally, when waking up a vcpu, it is now enough to tickle the
>> various
>> CPUs appropriately, like all other schedulers also do.
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Tianyang Chen <tiche@seas.upenn.edu>
>> Signed-off-by: Meng Xu <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu>
>> Signed-off-by: Dagaen Golomb <dgolomb@seas.upenn.edu>
>>
> You seem to have taken care of all my remaining comments to v10, so the
> patch is:
>
> Reviewed-by: Dario Faggioli <dario.faggioli@citrix.com>
>
> (which you could have put there yourself, as I said. :-))
>
> Thanks for all the good work.
>

:-)

> If I can already point you to something else that can be improved
> further in this scheduler, _completely_ independently from this, and
> hence in a fully new patch (series), can you have a look at whether we
> really need set_bit(), test_and_clear(), etc, instead of __set_bit(),
> __test_and_clear(), etc.?
>
> I'm asking because I'm under the impression that the latter are enough,
> and if that is the case, we should go for them, as they're more
> efficient.

Sure. __set_bit() and __test_and_clear() are not atomic and can be 
reordered. They need to be protected by locks. So, it looks like where 
RTDS is using them already have spin_locks in place and re-ordering 
inside the critical region doesn't really mess anything up.

rt_schedule() sets: __RTDS_scheduled, __RTDS_delay_runq_add
burn_budget() sets: __RTDS_depleted
rt_wake() sets: __RTDS_delay_runq_add

rt_vcpu_sleep() clears: __RTDS_delayed_runq_add
rt_context_saved() clears: __RTDS_scheduled, __RTDS_delayed_runq_add
repl_timer_handler() clears: __RTDS_depleted

burn_budget() is inside of rt_schedule() but they are using different 
flags of different vcpus. So it's enough to just use __set_bit(), 
__clear_bit() and __test_and_clear().

I'm assuming the new patch should be based on the last patch I sent? 
Because replenishment handler is not presented in the old RTDS code?

Thanks,
Tianyang Chen


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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-17 20:12   ` Chen, Tianyang
@ 2016-03-18  1:45     ` Meng Xu
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Meng Xu @ 2016-03-18  1:45 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Chen, Tianyang; +Cc: xen-devel, Dario Faggioli, George Dunlap, Dagaen Golomb

>
>> If I can already point you to something else that can be improved
>> further in this scheduler, _completely_ independently from this, and
>> hence in a fully new patch (series), can you have a look at whether we
>> really need set_bit(), test_and_clear(), etc, instead of __set_bit(),
>> __test_and_clear(), etc.?
>>
>> I'm asking because I'm under the impression that the latter are enough,
>> and if that is the case, we should go for them, as they're more
>> efficient.
>
>
> Sure. __set_bit() and __test_and_clear() are not atomic and can be
> reordered. They need to be protected by locks. So, it looks like where RTDS
> is using them already have spin_locks in place and re-ordering inside the
> critical region doesn't really mess anything up.
>
> rt_schedule() sets: __RTDS_scheduled, __RTDS_delay_runq_add
> burn_budget() sets: __RTDS_depleted
> rt_wake() sets: __RTDS_delay_runq_add
>
> rt_vcpu_sleep() clears: __RTDS_delayed_runq_add
> rt_context_saved() clears: __RTDS_scheduled, __RTDS_delayed_runq_add
> repl_timer_handler() clears: __RTDS_depleted
>
> burn_budget() is inside of rt_schedule() but they are using different flags
> of different vcpus. So it's enough to just use __set_bit(), __clear_bit()
> and __test_and_clear().
>
> I'm assuming the new patch should be based on the last patch I sent? Because
> replenishment handler is not presented in the old RTDS code?
>

Yes. You can work on the latest staging commit point and later rebase it.

BTW, I'm testing the patch tonight and will send out my Reviewed-by
tag once I tested it...

Thanks,

Meng


-- 
-----------
Meng Xu
PhD Student in Computer and Information Science
University of Pennsylvania
http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~mengxu/

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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-17 16:06 [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model Tianyang Chen
  2016-03-17 18:27 ` Dario Faggioli
@ 2016-03-18  4:09 ` Meng Xu
  2016-03-18  7:45   ` Jan Beulich
  2016-03-18  9:24   ` Dario Faggioli
  2016-03-18 14:25 ` Meng Xu
  2 siblings, 2 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Meng Xu @ 2016-03-18  4:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tianyang Chen; +Cc: xen-devel, Dario Faggioli, George Dunlap, Dagaen Golomb

Hi Tianyang,

Great job! However, we still have 1 mile in the 100-mile journey. :-D

I applied the patch on staging and tried some test cases. One of them
is as follows:

I tried to create a cpupool and then migrate a VM to the new cpupool;
However, the system triggers the bug as below. I guess this is some
kind of bug that are known to us,  and Dario had some uncommitted
patch to fix it, IIRC?

I'm thinking maybe we should mark this issue as known issue so that we
won't be surprised to see it.
However, this issue should not stay in the code forever, for sure. :-)

The test scenario is:
Pool-0 has rtds scheduler,
then I create  cpupools with credit, credit2, rtds scheduler; The bug
occurs when I run the scripts. However, my machine just got stuck and
never goes up.. :-(
What's worse, the remote power switch I have cannot be connected as
well, so I cannot power off/on the machine to reboot tonight. I will
do it tomorrow when I get to school.

Below is the error message.

(XEN) Xen call trace:

(XEN)    [<ffff82d0801293ed>] sched_rt.c#rt_free_pdata+0x48/0x93

(XEN)    [<ffff82d08012e182>] schedule_cpu_switch+0x250/0x28a

(XEN)    [<ffff82d080101b49>] cpupool.c#cpupool_assign_cpu_locked+0x31/0x11f

(XEN)    [<ffff82d080102385>] cpupool_do_sysctl+0x1eb/0x68d

(XEN)    [<ffff82d080130785>] do_sysctl+0x615/0x102c

(XEN)    [<ffff82d0802449c2>] lstar_enter+0xe2/0x13c

(XEN)

(XEN)

(XEN) ****************************************

(XEN) Panic on CPU 5:

(XEN) Assertion 'sd->schedule_lock == &prv->lock' failed at sched_rt.c:690


Thanks,

Meng

-----------
Meng Xu
PhD Student in Computer and Information Science
University of Pennsylvania
http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~mengxu/

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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-18  4:09 ` Meng Xu
@ 2016-03-18  7:45   ` Jan Beulich
  2016-03-18  9:23     ` Dario Faggioli
  2016-03-18 14:19     ` Meng Xu
  2016-03-18  9:24   ` Dario Faggioli
  1 sibling, 2 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Jan Beulich @ 2016-03-18  7:45 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Meng Xu
  Cc: xen-devel, Dario Faggioli, Tianyang Chen, George Dunlap, Dagaen Golomb

>>> On 18.03.16 at 05:09, <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu> wrote:
> Great job! However, we still have 1 mile in the 100-mile journey. :-D
> 
> I applied the patch on staging and tried some test cases. One of them
> is as follows:
> 
> I tried to create a cpupool and then migrate a VM to the new cpupool;
> However, the system triggers the bug as below. I guess this is some
> kind of bug that are known to us,  and Dario had some uncommitted
> patch to fix it, IIRC?

In the context of this patch the most relevant question is: Is this
an issue with the patch, or one that existed already before? After
all that's what we're in need to know whether the change can go
in. And skimming over the patch, it doesn't seem to alter code
related to where you see things blow up.

Jan


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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-18  7:45   ` Jan Beulich
@ 2016-03-18  9:23     ` Dario Faggioli
  2016-03-18 14:23       ` Meng Xu
  2016-03-18 14:19     ` Meng Xu
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 11+ messages in thread
From: Dario Faggioli @ 2016-03-18  9:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jan Beulich, Meng Xu
  Cc: xen-devel, Tianyang Chen, George Dunlap, Dagaen Golomb


[-- Attachment #1.1: Type: text/plain, Size: 1932 bytes --]

On Fri, 2016-03-18 at 01:45 -0600, Jan Beulich wrote:
> > 
> > > > On 18.03.16 at 05:09, <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu> wrote:
> > Great job! However, we still have 1 mile in the 100-mile journey.
> > :-D
> > 
> > I applied the patch on staging and tried some test cases. One of
> > them
> > is as follows:
> > 
> > I tried to create a cpupool and then migrate a VM to the new
> > cpupool;
>
BTW, Meng:

(XEN)    [<ffff82d08012e182>] schedule_cpu_switch+0x250/0x28a
(XEN)    [<ffff82d080101b49>] cpupool.c#cpupool_assign_cpu_locked+0x31/0x11f

I think you mean "and then move a CPU from a cpupool to another". Or
perhaps what you said is what your script does, and you weren't sure at
what stage it explodes.

Well, let me tell you: it's when you move a CPU between pools that have
schedulers that remaps the scheduler locks (such as Credit2-->RTDS and
vice versa).

> > However, the system triggers the bug as below. I guess this is some
> > kind of bug that are known to us,  and Dario had some uncommitted
> > patch to fix it, IIRC?
> In the context of this patch the most relevant question is: Is this
> an issue with the patch, or one that existed already before? 
>
Exactly!

And the answer is:
 - it's pre-existing
 - it's an even bigger issue than that ASSERT triggering (i.e., there
   are potential races even when things works)
 - I'm taking care of it.

> After
> all that's what we're in need to know whether the change can go
> in. 
>
Yep.

> And skimming over the patch, it doesn't seem to alter code
> related to where you see things blow up.
> 
Indeed it does not.

Thanks and Regards,
Dario
-- 
<<This happens because I choose it to happen!>> (Raistlin Majere)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Dario Faggioli, Ph.D, http://about.me/dario.faggioli
Senior Software Engineer, Citrix Systems R&D Ltd., Cambridge (UK)


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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-18  4:09 ` Meng Xu
  2016-03-18  7:45   ` Jan Beulich
@ 2016-03-18  9:24   ` Dario Faggioli
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Dario Faggioli @ 2016-03-18  9:24 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Meng Xu, Tianyang Chen; +Cc: xen-devel, George Dunlap, Dagaen Golomb


[-- Attachment #1.1: Type: text/plain, Size: 894 bytes --]

On Fri, 2016-03-18 at 00:09 -0400, Meng Xu wrote:
> The test scenario is:
> Pool-0 has rtds scheduler,
> then I create  cpupools with credit, credit2, rtds scheduler; The bug
> occurs when I run the scripts. However, my machine just got stuck and
> never goes up.. :-(
> What's worse, the remote power switch I have cannot be connected as
> well, so I cannot power off/on the machine to reboot tonight. I will
> do it tomorrow when I get to school.
> 
No need, I'm on it.

Or, actually, of course feel free to work on it, but that would only
mean there will be two of us doing the same thing. :-/

Regards,
Dario
-- 
<<This happens because I choose it to happen!>> (Raistlin Majere)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Dario Faggioli, Ph.D, http://about.me/dario.faggioli
Senior Software Engineer, Citrix Systems R&D Ltd., Cambridge (UK)


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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-18  7:45   ` Jan Beulich
  2016-03-18  9:23     ` Dario Faggioli
@ 2016-03-18 14:19     ` Meng Xu
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Meng Xu @ 2016-03-18 14:19 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jan Beulich
  Cc: xen-devel, Dario Faggioli, Tianyang Chen, George Dunlap, Dagaen Golomb

On Fri, Mar 18, 2016 at 3:45 AM, Jan Beulich <JBeulich@suse.com> wrote:
>>>> On 18.03.16 at 05:09, <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu> wrote:
>> Great job! However, we still have 1 mile in the 100-mile journey. :-D
>>
>> I applied the patch on staging and tried some test cases. One of them
>> is as follows:
>>
>> I tried to create a cpupool and then migrate a VM to the new cpupool;
>> However, the system triggers the bug as below. I guess this is some
>> kind of bug that are known to us,  and Dario had some uncommitted
>> patch to fix it, IIRC?
>
> In the context of this patch the most relevant question is: Is this
> an issue with the patch, or one that existed already before?

No. I don't think it's the issue introduced by this patch. (I saw
Dario replied as well. )

Thanks and Best Regards,

Meng

-----------
Meng Xu
PhD Student in Computer and Information Science
University of Pennsylvania
http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~mengxu/

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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-18  9:23     ` Dario Faggioli
@ 2016-03-18 14:23       ` Meng Xu
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Meng Xu @ 2016-03-18 14:23 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Dario Faggioli
  Cc: xen-devel, Dagaen Golomb, George Dunlap, Jan Beulich, Tianyang Chen

>> > I tried to create a cpupool and then migrate a VM to the new
>> > cpupool;
>>
> BTW, Meng:
>
> (XEN)    [<ffff82d08012e182>] schedule_cpu_switch+0x250/0x28a
> (XEN)    [<ffff82d080101b49>] cpupool.c#cpupool_assign_cpu_locked+0x31/0x11f
>
> I think you mean "and then move a CPU from a cpupool to another". Or
> perhaps what you said is what your script does, and you weren't sure at
> what stage it explodes.
>
> Well, let me tell you: it's when you move a CPU between pools that have
> schedulers that remaps the scheduler locks (such as Credit2-->RTDS and
> vice versa).

Thanks Dario for the explanation!
Yes, I looked into the cpu_switch things before and found the bug is
triggered by the lock remapping.

>
>> > However, the system triggers the bug as below. I guess this is some
>> > kind of bug that are known to us,  and Dario had some uncommitted
>> > patch to fix it, IIRC?
>> In the context of this patch the most relevant question is: Is this
>> an issue with the patch, or one that existed already before?
>>
> Exactly!
>
> And the answer is:
>  - it's pre-existing
>  - it's an even bigger issue than that ASSERT triggering (i.e., there
>    are potential races even when things works)

Ah-ha, I didn't know this before. :-)

>  - I'm taking care of it.

Thank you so much! I'm looking forward to it. :-D

Thanks and Best Regards,

Meng

-----------
Meng Xu
PhD Student in Computer and Information Science
University of Pennsylvania
http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~mengxu/

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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model
  2016-03-17 16:06 [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model Tianyang Chen
  2016-03-17 18:27 ` Dario Faggioli
  2016-03-18  4:09 ` Meng Xu
@ 2016-03-18 14:25 ` Meng Xu
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Meng Xu @ 2016-03-18 14:25 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tianyang Chen; +Cc: xen-devel, Dario Faggioli, George Dunlap, Dagaen Golomb

On Thu, Mar 17, 2016 at 12:06 PM, Tianyang Chen <tiche@seas.upenn.edu> wrote:
> The current RTDS code has several problems:
>  - the scheduler, although the algorithm is event driven by
>    nature, follows a time driven model (is invoked periodically!),
>    making the code look unnatural;
>  - budget replenishment logic, budget enforcement logic and scheduling
>    decisions are mixed and entangled, making the code hard to understand;
>  - the various queues of vcpus are scanned various times, making the
>    code inefficient;
>
> This patch separates budget replenishment and enforcement. It does that
> by handling the former with a dedicated timer, and a queue of pending
> replenishment events.
>
> A replenishment queue has been added to keep track of all vcpus that
> are runnable.
>
> We also make sure that the main scheduling function is called when a
> scheduling decision is necessary, such as when the currently running
> vcpu runs out of budget.
>
> Finally, when waking up a vcpu, it is now enough to tickle the various
> CPUs appropriately, like all other schedulers also do.
>
> Signed-off-by: Tianyang Chen <tiche@seas.upenn.edu>
> Signed-off-by: Meng Xu <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu>
> Signed-off-by: Dagaen Golomb <dgolomb@seas.upenn.edu>

Great job, Tianyang! Thanks for your effort on this! :-D
Let's grab some drink during the weekend.

Reviewed-by: Meng Xu <mengxu@cis.upenn.edu>

Cheers,

Meng

-----------
Meng Xu
PhD Student in Computer and Information Science
University of Pennsylvania
http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~mengxu/

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^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2016-03-22 23:04 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 11+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2016-03-17 16:06 [PATCH v11]xen: sched: convert RTDS from time to event driven model Tianyang Chen
2016-03-17 18:27 ` Dario Faggioli
2016-03-17 20:12   ` Chen, Tianyang
2016-03-18  1:45     ` Meng Xu
2016-03-18  4:09 ` Meng Xu
2016-03-18  7:45   ` Jan Beulich
2016-03-18  9:23     ` Dario Faggioli
2016-03-18 14:23       ` Meng Xu
2016-03-18 14:19     ` Meng Xu
2016-03-18  9:24   ` Dario Faggioli
2016-03-18 14:25 ` Meng Xu

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