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From: Julien Grall <julien@xen.org>
To: Hongyan Xia <hx242@xen.org>, xen-devel@lists.xenproject.org
Cc: dwmw2@infradead.org, paul@xen.org, raphning@amazon.com,
	maghul@amazon.com, Julien Grall <jgrall@amazon.com>,
	Andrew Cooper <andrew.cooper3@citrix.com>,
	George Dunlap <george.dunlap@citrix.com>,
	Ian Jackson <iwj@xenproject.org>, Jan Beulich <jbeulich@suse.com>,
	Stefano Stabellini <sstabellini@kernel.org>, Wei Liu <wl@xen.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH RFC 1/2] docs/design: Add a design document for Live Update
Date: Fri, 7 May 2021 11:00:02 +0100	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <e5d53be2-7533-c1d6-98c1-7a310fd85e07@xen.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <288e5af69a356060b9fce6c6fa77324950dac2c2.camel@xen.org>


Hi Hongyan,

On 07/05/2021 10:18, Hongyan Xia wrote:
> On Thu, 2021-05-06 at 11:42 +0100, Julien Grall wrote:
>> From: Julien Grall <jgrall@amazon.com>
>>
>> Administrators often require updating the Xen hypervisor to address
>> security vulnerabilities, introduce new features, or fix software
>> defects.
>> Currently, we offer the following methods to perform the update:
>>
>>      * Rebooting the guests and the host: this is highly disrupting to
>> running
>>        guests.
>>      * Migrating off the guests, rebooting the host: this currently
>> requires
>>        the guest to cooperate (see [1] for a non-cooperative solution)
>> and it
>>        may not always be possible to migrate it off (i.e lack of
>> capacity, use
>>        of local storage...).
>>      * Live patching: This is the less disruptive of the existing
>> methods.
>>        However, it can be difficult to prepare the livepatch if the
>> change is
>>        large or there are data structures to update.
> 
> Might want to mention that live patching slowly consumes memory and
> fragments the Xen image and degrades performance (especially when the
> patched code is on the critical path).
My goal wasn't to list all the drawbacks for each existign methods. 
Instead, I wanted to give a simple important reason for each for them.

I would prefer to keep the list as it is unless someone needs more 
arguments about introducing a new approach.

> >>
>> This patch will introduce a new proposal called "Live Update" which
>> will
>> activate new software without noticeable downtime (i.e no - or
>> minimal -
>> customer).
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Julien Grall <jgrall@amazon.com>
>> ---
>>   docs/designs/liveupdate.md | 254
>> +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>   1 file changed, 254 insertions(+)
>>   create mode 100644 docs/designs/liveupdate.md
>>
>> diff --git a/docs/designs/liveupdate.md b/docs/designs/liveupdate.md
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 000000000000..32993934f4fe
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/docs/designs/liveupdate.md
>> @@ -0,0 +1,254 @@
>> +# Live Updating Xen
>> +
>> +## Background
>> +
>> +Administrators often require updating the Xen hypervisor to address
>> security
>> +vulnerabilities, introduce new features, or fix software
>> defects.  Currently,
>> +we offer the following methods to perform the update:
>> +
>> +    * Rebooting the guests and the host: this is highly disrupting
>> to running
>> +      guests.
>> +    * Migrating off the guests, rebooting the host: this currently
>> requires
>> +      the guest to cooperate (see [1] for a non-cooperative
>> solution) and it
>> +      may not always be possible to migrate it off (i.e lack of
>> capacity, use
>> +      of local storage...).
>> +    * Live patching: This is the less disruptive of the existing
>> methods.
>> +      However, it can be difficult to prepare the livepatch if the
>> change is
>> +      large or there are data structures to update.
>> +
>> +This document will present a new approach called "Live Update" which
>> will
>> +activate new software without noticeable downtime (i.e no - or
>> minimal -
>> +customer pain).
>> +
>> +## Terminology
>> +
>> +xen#1: Xen version currently active and running on a droplet.  This
>> is the
>> +“source” for the Live Update operation.  This version can actually
>> be newer
>> +than xen#2 in case of a rollback operation.
>> +
>> +xen#2: Xen version that's the “target” of the Live Update operation.
>> This
>> +version will become the active version after successful Live
>> Update.  This
>> +version of Xen can actually be older than xen#1 in case of a
>> rollback
>> +operation.
> 
> A bit redundant since it was mentioned in Xen 1 already.

Definitions tends to be redundant. So I would prefer to keep like that.

> 
>> +
>> +## High-level overview
>> +
>> +Xen has a framework to bring a new image of the Xen hypervisor in
>> memory using
>> +kexec.  The existing framework does not meet the baseline
>> functionality for
>> +Live Update, since kexec results in a restart for the hypervisor,
>> host, Dom0,
>> +and all the guests.
>> +
>> +The operation can be divided in roughly 4 parts:
>> +
>> +    1. Trigger: The operation will by triggered from outside the
>> hypervisor
>> +       (e.g. dom0 userspace).
>> +    2. Save: The state will be stabilized by pausing the domains and
>> +       serialized by xen#1.
>> +    3. Hand-over: xen#1 will pass the serialized state and transfer
>> control to
>> +       xen#2.
>> +    4. Restore: The state will be deserialized by xen#2.
>> +
>> +All the domains will be paused before xen#1 is starting to save the
>> states,
>> +and any domain that was running before Live Update will be unpaused
>> after
>> +xen#2 has finished to restore the states.  This is to prevent a
>> domain to try
>> +to modify the state of another domain while it is being
>> saved/restored.
>> +
>> +The current approach could be seen as non-cooperative migration with
>> a twist:
>> +all the domains (including dom0) are not expected be involved in the
>> Live
>> +Update process.
>> +
>> +The major differences compare to live migration are:
>> +
>> +    * The state is not transferred to another host, but instead
>> locally to
>> +      xen#2.
>> +    * The memory content or device state (for passthrough) does not
>> need to
>> +      be part of the stream. Instead we need to preserve it.
>> +    * PV backends, device emulators, xenstored are not recreated but
>> preserved
>> +      (as these are part of dom0).
>> +
>> +
>> +Domains in process of being destroyed (*XEN\_DOMCTL\_destroydomain*)
>> will need
>> +to be preserved because another entity may have mappings (e.g
>> foreign, grant)
>> +on them.
>> +
>> +## Trigger
>> +
>> +Live update is built on top of the kexec interface to prepare the
>> command line,
>> +load xen#2 and trigger the operation.  A new kexec type has been
>> introduced
>> +(*KEXEC\_TYPE\_LIVE\_UPDATE*) to notify Xen to Live Update.
>> +
>> +The Live Update will be triggered from outside the hypervisor (e.g.
>> dom0
>> +userspace).  Support for the operation has been added in kexec-tools
>> 2.0.21.
>> +
>> +All the domains will be paused before xen#1 is starting to save the
>> states.
>> +In Xen, *domain\_pause()* will pause the vCPUs as soon as they can
>> be re-
>> +scheduled.  In other words, a pause request will not wait for
>> asynchronous
>> +requests (e.g. I/O) to finish.  For Live Update, this is not an
>> ideal time to
>> +pause because it will require more xen#1 internal state to be
>> transferred.
>> +Therefore, all the domains will be paused at an architectural
>> restartable
>> +boundary.
>> +
>> +Live update will not happen synchronously to the request but when
>> all the
>> +domains are quiescent.  As domains running device emulators (e.g
>> Dom0) will
>> +be part of the process to quiesce HVM domains, we will need to let
>> them run
>> +until xen#1 is actually starting to save the state.  HVM vCPUs will
>> be paused
>> +as soon as any pending asynchronous request has finished.
>> +
>> +In the current implementation, all PV domains will continue to run
>> while the
>> +rest will be paused as soon as possible.  Note this approach is
>> assuming that
>> +device emulators are only running in PV domains.
>> +
>> +It should be easy to extend to PVH domains not requiring device
>> emulations.
>> +It will require more thought if we need to run device models in HVM
>> domains as
>> +there might be inter-dependency.
>> +
>> +## Save
>> +
>> +xen#1 will be responsible to preserve and serialize the state of
>> each existing
>> +domain and any system-wide state (e.g M2P).
>> +
>> +Each domain will be serialized independently using a modified
>> migration stream,
>> +if there is any dependency between domains (such as for IOREQ
>> server) they will
>> +be recorded using a domid. All the complexity of resolving the
>> dependencies are
>> +left to the restore path in xen#2 (more in the *Restore* section).
>> +
>> +At the moment, the domains are saved one by one in a single thread,
>> but it
>> +would be possible to consider multi-threading if it takes too long.
>> Although
>> +this may require some adjustment in the stream format.
>> +
>> +As we want to be able to Live Update between major versions of Xen
>> (e.g Xen
>> +4.11 -> Xen 4.15), the states preserved should not be a dump of Xen
>> internal
>> +structure but instead the minimal information that allow us to
>> recreate the
>> +domains.
>> +
>> +For instance, we don't want to preserve the frametable (and
>> therefore
>> +*struct page\_info*) as-is because the refcounting may be different
>> across
>> +between xen#1 and xen#2 (see XSA-299). Instead, we want to be able
>> to recreate
>> +*struct page\_info* based on minimal information that are considered
>> stable
>> +(such as the page type).
>> +
>> +Note that upgrading between version of Xen will also require all the
>> hypercalls
>> +to be stable. This will not be covered by this document.
>> +
>> +## Hand over
>> +
>> +### Memory usage restrictions
>> +
>> +xen#2 must take care not to use any memory pages which already
>> belong to
>> +guests.  To facilitate this, a number of contiguous region of memory
>> are
>> +reserved for the boot allocator, known as *live update bootmem*.
>> +
>> +xen#1 will always reserve a region just below Xen (the size is
>> controlled by
>> +the Xen command line parameter liveupdate) to allow Xen growing and
>> provide
>> +information about LiveUpdate (see the section *Breadcrumb*).  The
>> region will be
>> +passed to xen#2 using the same command line option but with the base
>> address
>> +specified.
> 
> The size of the command line option may not be the same depending on
> the size of Xen #2.

Good point I will update it.

> 
>> +
>> +For simplicity, additional regions will be provided in the
>> stream.  They will
>> +consist of region that could be re-used by xen#2 during boot (such
>> as the
>> +xen#1's frametable memory).
>> +
>> +xen#2 must not use any pages outside those regions until it has
>> consumed the
>> +Live Update data stream and determined which pages are already in
>> use by
>> +running domains or need to be re-used as-is by Xen (e.g M2P).
>> +
>> +At run time, Xen may use memory from the reserved region for any
>> purpose that
>> +does not require preservation over a Live Update; in particular it
>> __must__ not be
>> +mapped to a domain or used by any Xen state requiring to be
>> preserved (e.g
>> +M2P).  In other word, the xenheap pages could be allocated from the
>> reserved
>> +regions if we remove the concept of shared xenheap pages.
>> +
>> +The xen#2's binary may be bigger (or smaller) compare to xen#1's
>> binary.  So
>> +for the purpose of loading xen#2 binary, kexec should treat the
>> reserved memory
>> +right below xen#1 and its region as a single contiguous space. xen#2
>> will be
>> +loaded right at the top of the contiguous space and the rest of the
>> memory will
>> +be the new reserved memory (this may shrink or grow).  For that
>> reason, freed
>> +init memory from xen#1 image is also treated as reserved liveupdate
>> update
> 
> s/update//
> 
> This is explained quite well actually, but I wonder if we can move this
> part closer to the liveupdate command line section (they both talk
> about the initial bootmem region and Xen size changes). After that, we
> then talk about multiple regions and how we should use them.

Just for clarification, do you mean moving after "The region will be 
passed to xen#2 using the same command line option but with the base 
address specified."?

>> +bootmem.
>> +
>> +### Live Update data stream
>> +
>> +During handover, xen#1 creates a Live Update data stream containing
>> all the
>> +information required by the new Xen#2 to restore all the domains.
>> +
>> +Data pages for this stream may be allocated anywhere in physical
>> memory outside
>> +the *live update bootmem* regions.
>> +
>> +As calling __vmap()__/__vunmap()__ has a cost on the downtime.  We
>> want to reduce the
>> +number of call to __vmap()__ when restoring the stream.  Therefore
>> the stream
>> +will be contiguously virtually mapped in xen#2.  xen#1 will create
>> an array of
> 
> Using vmap during restore for a contiguous range sounds more like
> implementation and optimisation detail to me rather than an ABI
> requirement, so I would s/the stream will be/the stream can be/.

I will do.

> 
>> +MFNs of the allocated data pages, suitable for passing to
>> __vmap()__.  The
>> +array will be physically contiguous but the MFNs don't need to be
>> physically
>> +contiguous.
>> +
>> +### Breadcrumb
>> +
>> +Since the Live Update data stream is created during the final
>> **kexec\_exec**
>> +hypercall, its address cannot be passed on the command line to the
>> new Xen
>> +since the command line needs to have been set up by **kexec(8)** in
>> userspace
>> +long beforehand.
>> +
>> +Thus, to allow the new Xen to find the data stream, xen#1 places a
>> breadcrumb
>> +in the first words of the Live Update bootmem, containing the number
>> of data
>> +pages, and the physical address of the contiguous MFN array.
>> +
>> +### IOMMU
>> +
>> +Where devices are passed through to domains, it may not be possible
>> to quiesce
>> +those devices for the purpose of performing the update.
>> +
>> +If performing Live Update with assigned devices, xen#1 will leave
>> the IOMMU
>> +mappings active during the handover (thus implying that IOMMU page
>> tables may
>> +not be allocated in the *live update bootmem* region either).
>> +
>> +xen#2 must take control of the IOMMU without causing those mappings
>> to become
>> +invalid even for a short period of time.  In other words, xen#2
>> should not
>> +re-setup the IOMMUs.  On hardware which does not support Posted
>> Interrupts,
>> +interrupts may need to be generated on resume.
>> +
>> +## Restore
>> +
>> +After xen#2 initialized itself and map the stream, it will be
>> responsible to
>> +restore the state of the system and each domain.
>> +
>> +Unlike the save part, it is not possible to restore a domain in a
>> single pass.
>> +There are dependencies between:
>> +
>> +    1. different states of a domain.  For instance, the event
>> channels ABI
>> +       used (2l vs fifo) requires to be restored before restoring
>> the event
>> +       channels.
>> +    2. the same "state" within a domain.  For instance, in case of
>> PV domain,
>> +       the pages' ownership requires to be restored before restoring
>> the type
>> +       of the page (e.g is it an L4, L1... table?).
>> +
>> +    3. domains.  For instance when restoring the grant mapping, it
>> will be
>> +       necessary to have the page's owner in hand to do proper
>> refcounting.
>> +       Therefore the pages' ownership have to be restored first.
>> +
>> +Dependencies will be resolved using either multiple passes (for
>> dependency
>> +type 2 and 3) or using a specific ordering between records (for
>> dependency
>> +type 1).
>> +
>> +Each domain will be restored in 3 passes:
>> +
>> +    * Pass 0: Create the domain and restore the P2M for HVM. This
>> can be broken
>> +      down in 3 parts:
>> +      * Allocate a domain via _domain\_create()_ but skip part that
>> requires
>> +        extra records (e.g HAP, P2M).
>> +      * Restore any parts which needs to be done before create the
>> vCPUs. This
>> +        including restoring the P2M and whether HAP is used.
>> +      * Create the vCPUs. Note this doesn't restore the state of the
>> vCPUs.
>> +    * Pass 1: It will restore the pages' ownership and the grant-
>> table frames
>> +    * Pass 2: This steps will restore any domain states (e.g vCPU
>> state, event
>> +      channels) that wasn't
> 
> Sentence seems incomplete.

I can add 'already restored' if that clarifies it?

Cheers,

-- 
Julien Grall


  reply	other threads:[~2021-05-07 10:00 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 14+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-05-06 10:42 [PATCH RFC 0/2] Add a design document for Live Updating Xen Julien Grall
2021-05-06 10:42 ` [PATCH RFC 1/2] docs/design: Add a design document for Live Update Julien Grall
2021-05-06 14:43   ` Paul Durrant
2021-05-07  9:18   ` Hongyan Xia
2021-05-07 10:00     ` Julien Grall [this message]
2021-05-07  9:52   ` Jan Beulich
2021-05-07 11:44     ` Julien Grall
2021-05-07 12:15       ` Jan Beulich
2021-05-07 14:59         ` Xia, Hongyan
2021-05-07 15:28           ` Jan Beulich
2021-05-06 10:42 ` [PATCH RFC 2/2] xen/kexec: Reserve KEXEC_TYPE_LIVEUPDATE and KEXEC_RANGE_MA_LIVEUPDATE Julien Grall
2021-05-07  7:59   ` Paul Durrant
2021-05-07  8:24   ` Hongyan Xia
2021-05-07  8:30     ` Jan Beulich

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