All of lore.kernel.org
 help / color / mirror / Atom feed
From: Rob Herring <robh@kernel.org>
To: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>,
	Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>,
	Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@kernel.org>,
	Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com>
Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org,
	Alexander Shishkin <alexander.shishkin@linux.intel.com>,
	Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org>,
	Raphael Gault <raphael.gault@arm.com>,
	Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>,
	Jonathan Cameron <Jonathan.Cameron@huawei.com>,
	Ian Rogers <irogers@google.com>,
	honnappa.nagarahalli@arm.com
Subject: [PATCH v3 07/10] libperf: Add support for user space counter access
Date: Fri, 11 Sep 2020 15:51:15 -0600	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20200911215118.2887710-8-robh@kernel.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20200911215118.2887710-1-robh@kernel.org>

x86 and arm64 can both support direct access of event counters in
userspace. The access sequence is less than trivial and currently exists
in perf test code (tools/perf/arch/x86/tests/rdpmc.c) with copies in
projects such as PAPI and libpfm4.

In order to support usersapce access, an event must be mmapped first
with perf_evsel__mmap(). Then subsequent calls to perf_evsel__read()
will use the fast path (assuming the arch supports it).

Signed-off-by: Rob Herring <robh@kernel.org>
---
v3:
 - Split out perf_evsel__mmap() to separate patch
---
 tools/lib/perf/evsel.c                 |  3 +
 tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h |  3 +
 tools/lib/perf/mmap.c                  | 90 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c      | 63 ++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 159 insertions(+)

diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c b/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c
index 99fa53dc0887..4164e6524453 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c
@@ -222,6 +222,9 @@ int perf_evsel__read(struct perf_evsel *evsel, int cpu, int thread,
 	if (FD(evsel, cpu, thread) < 0)
 		return -EINVAL;
 
+	if (evsel->mmap && !perf_mmap__read_self(evsel->mmap, count))
+		return 0;
+
 	if (readn(FD(evsel, cpu, thread), count->values, size) <= 0)
 		return -errno;
 
diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h b/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h
index be7556e0a2b2..5e3422f40ed5 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 #define PERF_SAMPLE_MAX_SIZE (1 << 16)
 
 struct perf_mmap;
+struct perf_counts_values;
 
 typedef void (*libperf_unmap_cb_t)(struct perf_mmap *map);
 
@@ -52,4 +53,6 @@ void perf_mmap__put(struct perf_mmap *map);
 
 u64 perf_mmap__read_head(struct perf_mmap *map);
 
+int perf_mmap__read_self(struct perf_mmap *map, struct perf_counts_values *count);
+
 #endif /* __LIBPERF_INTERNAL_MMAP_H */
diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c b/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c
index 79d5ed6c38cc..cb07969cfdbf 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c
@@ -8,9 +8,11 @@
 #include <linux/perf_event.h>
 #include <perf/mmap.h>
 #include <perf/event.h>
+#include <perf/evsel.h>
 #include <internal/mmap.h>
 #include <internal/lib.h>
 #include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/math64.h>
 #include "internal.h"
 
 void perf_mmap__init(struct perf_mmap *map, struct perf_mmap *prev,
@@ -273,3 +275,91 @@ union perf_event *perf_mmap__read_event(struct perf_mmap *map)
 
 	return event;
 }
+
+#if defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__)
+static u64 read_perf_counter(unsigned int counter)
+{
+	unsigned int low, high;
+
+	asm volatile("rdpmc" : "=a" (low), "=d" (high) : "c" (counter));
+
+	return low | ((u64)high) << 32;
+}
+
+static u64 read_timestamp(void)
+{
+	unsigned int low, high;
+
+	asm volatile("rdtsc" : "=a" (low), "=d" (high));
+
+	return low | ((u64)high) << 32;
+}
+#else
+static u64 read_perf_counter(unsigned int counter) { return 0; }
+static u64 read_timestamp(void) { return 0; }
+#endif
+
+int perf_mmap__read_self(struct perf_mmap *map, struct perf_counts_values *count)
+{
+	struct perf_event_mmap_page *pc = map->base;
+	u32 seq, idx, time_mult = 0, time_shift = 0;
+	u64 cnt, cyc = 0, time_offset = 0, time_cycles = 0, time_mask = ~0ULL;
+
+	BUG_ON(!pc);
+
+	if (!pc->cap_user_rdpmc)
+		return -1;
+
+	do {
+		seq = READ_ONCE(pc->lock);
+		barrier();
+
+		count->ena = READ_ONCE(pc->time_enabled);
+		count->run = READ_ONCE(pc->time_running);
+
+		if (pc->cap_user_time && count->ena != count->run) {
+			cyc = read_timestamp();
+			time_mult = READ_ONCE(pc->time_mult);
+			time_shift = READ_ONCE(pc->time_shift);
+			time_offset = READ_ONCE(pc->time_offset);
+
+			if (pc->cap_user_time_short) {
+				time_cycles = READ_ONCE(pc->time_cycles);
+				time_mask = READ_ONCE(pc->time_mask);
+			}
+		}
+
+		idx = READ_ONCE(pc->index);
+		cnt = READ_ONCE(pc->offset);
+		if (pc->cap_user_rdpmc && idx) {
+			u64 evcnt = read_perf_counter(idx - 1);
+			u16 width = READ_ONCE(pc->pmc_width);
+
+			evcnt <<= 64 - width;
+			evcnt >>= 64 - width;
+			cnt += evcnt;
+		} else
+			return -1;
+
+		barrier();
+	} while (READ_ONCE(pc->lock) != seq);
+
+	if (count->ena != count->run) {
+		u64 delta;
+
+		/* Adjust for cap_usr_time_short, a nop if not */
+		cyc = time_cycles + ((cyc - time_cycles) & time_mask);
+
+		delta = time_offset + mul_u64_u32_shr(cyc, time_mult, time_shift);
+
+		count->ena += delta;
+		if (idx)
+			count->run += delta;
+
+		cnt = mul_u64_u64_div64(cnt, count->ena, count->run);
+	}
+
+	count->val = cnt;
+
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c b/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c
index 135722ac965b..a88c12a95e92 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c
@@ -120,6 +120,67 @@ static int test_stat_thread_enable(void)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int test_stat_user_read(int event)
+{
+	struct perf_counts_values counts = { .val = 0 };
+	struct perf_thread_map *threads;
+	struct perf_evsel *evsel;
+	struct perf_event_mmap_page *pc;
+	struct perf_event_attr attr = {
+		.type	= PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE,
+		.config	= event,
+	};
+	int err, i;
+
+	threads = perf_thread_map__new_dummy();
+	__T("failed to create threads", threads);
+
+	perf_thread_map__set_pid(threads, 0, 0);
+
+	evsel = perf_evsel__new(&attr);
+	__T("failed to create evsel", evsel);
+
+	err = perf_evsel__open(evsel, NULL, threads);
+	__T("failed to open evsel", err == 0);
+
+	pc = perf_evsel__mmap(evsel, 0x1000);
+	__T("failed to mmap evsel", pc);
+
+#if defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__) || defined(__aarch64__)
+	__T("userspace counter access not supported", pc->cap_user_rdpmc);
+	__T("userspace counter access not enabled", pc->index);
+	__T("userspace counter width not set", pc->pmc_width >= 32);
+#endif
+
+	perf_evsel__read(evsel, 0, 0, &counts);
+	__T("failed to read value for evsel", counts.val != 0);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
+		volatile int count = 0x10000 << i;
+		__u64 start, end, last = 0;
+
+		__T_VERBOSE("\tloop = %u, ", count);
+
+		perf_evsel__read(evsel, 0, 0, &counts);
+		start = counts.val;
+
+		while (count--) ;
+
+		perf_evsel__read(evsel, 0, 0, &counts);
+		end = counts.val;
+
+		__T("invalid counter data", (end - start) > last);
+		last = end - start;
+		__T_VERBOSE("count = %llu\n", end - start);
+	}
+
+	perf_evsel__close(evsel);
+	perf_evsel__delete(evsel);
+
+	perf_thread_map__put(threads);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 int main(int argc, char **argv)
 {
 	__T_START;
@@ -129,6 +190,8 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
 	test_stat_cpu();
 	test_stat_thread();
 	test_stat_thread_enable();
+	test_stat_user_read(PERF_COUNT_HW_INSTRUCTIONS);
+	test_stat_user_read(PERF_COUNT_HW_CPU_CYCLES);
 
 	__T_END;
 	return 0;
-- 
2.25.1


WARNING: multiple messages have this Message-ID
From: Rob Herring <robh@kernel.org>
To: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>,
	Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>,
	Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@kernel.org>,
	Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>,
	Ian Rogers <irogers@google.com>,
	Alexander Shishkin <alexander.shishkin@linux.intel.com>,
	linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, honnappa.nagarahalli@arm.com,
	Raphael Gault <raphael.gault@arm.com>,
	Jonathan Cameron <Jonathan.Cameron@huawei.com>,
	Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org>,
	linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
Subject: [PATCH v3 07/10] libperf: Add support for user space counter access
Date: Fri, 11 Sep 2020 15:51:15 -0600	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20200911215118.2887710-8-robh@kernel.org> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20200911215118.2887710-1-robh@kernel.org>

x86 and arm64 can both support direct access of event counters in
userspace. The access sequence is less than trivial and currently exists
in perf test code (tools/perf/arch/x86/tests/rdpmc.c) with copies in
projects such as PAPI and libpfm4.

In order to support usersapce access, an event must be mmapped first
with perf_evsel__mmap(). Then subsequent calls to perf_evsel__read()
will use the fast path (assuming the arch supports it).

Signed-off-by: Rob Herring <robh@kernel.org>
---
v3:
 - Split out perf_evsel__mmap() to separate patch
---
 tools/lib/perf/evsel.c                 |  3 +
 tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h |  3 +
 tools/lib/perf/mmap.c                  | 90 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c      | 63 ++++++++++++++++++
 4 files changed, 159 insertions(+)

diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c b/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c
index 99fa53dc0887..4164e6524453 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/evsel.c
@@ -222,6 +222,9 @@ int perf_evsel__read(struct perf_evsel *evsel, int cpu, int thread,
 	if (FD(evsel, cpu, thread) < 0)
 		return -EINVAL;
 
+	if (evsel->mmap && !perf_mmap__read_self(evsel->mmap, count))
+		return 0;
+
 	if (readn(FD(evsel, cpu, thread), count->values, size) <= 0)
 		return -errno;
 
diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h b/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h
index be7556e0a2b2..5e3422f40ed5 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/include/internal/mmap.h
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 #define PERF_SAMPLE_MAX_SIZE (1 << 16)
 
 struct perf_mmap;
+struct perf_counts_values;
 
 typedef void (*libperf_unmap_cb_t)(struct perf_mmap *map);
 
@@ -52,4 +53,6 @@ void perf_mmap__put(struct perf_mmap *map);
 
 u64 perf_mmap__read_head(struct perf_mmap *map);
 
+int perf_mmap__read_self(struct perf_mmap *map, struct perf_counts_values *count);
+
 #endif /* __LIBPERF_INTERNAL_MMAP_H */
diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c b/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c
index 79d5ed6c38cc..cb07969cfdbf 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/mmap.c
@@ -8,9 +8,11 @@
 #include <linux/perf_event.h>
 #include <perf/mmap.h>
 #include <perf/event.h>
+#include <perf/evsel.h>
 #include <internal/mmap.h>
 #include <internal/lib.h>
 #include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/math64.h>
 #include "internal.h"
 
 void perf_mmap__init(struct perf_mmap *map, struct perf_mmap *prev,
@@ -273,3 +275,91 @@ union perf_event *perf_mmap__read_event(struct perf_mmap *map)
 
 	return event;
 }
+
+#if defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__)
+static u64 read_perf_counter(unsigned int counter)
+{
+	unsigned int low, high;
+
+	asm volatile("rdpmc" : "=a" (low), "=d" (high) : "c" (counter));
+
+	return low | ((u64)high) << 32;
+}
+
+static u64 read_timestamp(void)
+{
+	unsigned int low, high;
+
+	asm volatile("rdtsc" : "=a" (low), "=d" (high));
+
+	return low | ((u64)high) << 32;
+}
+#else
+static u64 read_perf_counter(unsigned int counter) { return 0; }
+static u64 read_timestamp(void) { return 0; }
+#endif
+
+int perf_mmap__read_self(struct perf_mmap *map, struct perf_counts_values *count)
+{
+	struct perf_event_mmap_page *pc = map->base;
+	u32 seq, idx, time_mult = 0, time_shift = 0;
+	u64 cnt, cyc = 0, time_offset = 0, time_cycles = 0, time_mask = ~0ULL;
+
+	BUG_ON(!pc);
+
+	if (!pc->cap_user_rdpmc)
+		return -1;
+
+	do {
+		seq = READ_ONCE(pc->lock);
+		barrier();
+
+		count->ena = READ_ONCE(pc->time_enabled);
+		count->run = READ_ONCE(pc->time_running);
+
+		if (pc->cap_user_time && count->ena != count->run) {
+			cyc = read_timestamp();
+			time_mult = READ_ONCE(pc->time_mult);
+			time_shift = READ_ONCE(pc->time_shift);
+			time_offset = READ_ONCE(pc->time_offset);
+
+			if (pc->cap_user_time_short) {
+				time_cycles = READ_ONCE(pc->time_cycles);
+				time_mask = READ_ONCE(pc->time_mask);
+			}
+		}
+
+		idx = READ_ONCE(pc->index);
+		cnt = READ_ONCE(pc->offset);
+		if (pc->cap_user_rdpmc && idx) {
+			u64 evcnt = read_perf_counter(idx - 1);
+			u16 width = READ_ONCE(pc->pmc_width);
+
+			evcnt <<= 64 - width;
+			evcnt >>= 64 - width;
+			cnt += evcnt;
+		} else
+			return -1;
+
+		barrier();
+	} while (READ_ONCE(pc->lock) != seq);
+
+	if (count->ena != count->run) {
+		u64 delta;
+
+		/* Adjust for cap_usr_time_short, a nop if not */
+		cyc = time_cycles + ((cyc - time_cycles) & time_mask);
+
+		delta = time_offset + mul_u64_u32_shr(cyc, time_mult, time_shift);
+
+		count->ena += delta;
+		if (idx)
+			count->run += delta;
+
+		cnt = mul_u64_u64_div64(cnt, count->ena, count->run);
+	}
+
+	count->val = cnt;
+
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c b/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c
index 135722ac965b..a88c12a95e92 100644
--- a/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c
+++ b/tools/lib/perf/tests/test-evsel.c
@@ -120,6 +120,67 @@ static int test_stat_thread_enable(void)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int test_stat_user_read(int event)
+{
+	struct perf_counts_values counts = { .val = 0 };
+	struct perf_thread_map *threads;
+	struct perf_evsel *evsel;
+	struct perf_event_mmap_page *pc;
+	struct perf_event_attr attr = {
+		.type	= PERF_TYPE_HARDWARE,
+		.config	= event,
+	};
+	int err, i;
+
+	threads = perf_thread_map__new_dummy();
+	__T("failed to create threads", threads);
+
+	perf_thread_map__set_pid(threads, 0, 0);
+
+	evsel = perf_evsel__new(&attr);
+	__T("failed to create evsel", evsel);
+
+	err = perf_evsel__open(evsel, NULL, threads);
+	__T("failed to open evsel", err == 0);
+
+	pc = perf_evsel__mmap(evsel, 0x1000);
+	__T("failed to mmap evsel", pc);
+
+#if defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__) || defined(__aarch64__)
+	__T("userspace counter access not supported", pc->cap_user_rdpmc);
+	__T("userspace counter access not enabled", pc->index);
+	__T("userspace counter width not set", pc->pmc_width >= 32);
+#endif
+
+	perf_evsel__read(evsel, 0, 0, &counts);
+	__T("failed to read value for evsel", counts.val != 0);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
+		volatile int count = 0x10000 << i;
+		__u64 start, end, last = 0;
+
+		__T_VERBOSE("\tloop = %u, ", count);
+
+		perf_evsel__read(evsel, 0, 0, &counts);
+		start = counts.val;
+
+		while (count--) ;
+
+		perf_evsel__read(evsel, 0, 0, &counts);
+		end = counts.val;
+
+		__T("invalid counter data", (end - start) > last);
+		last = end - start;
+		__T_VERBOSE("count = %llu\n", end - start);
+	}
+
+	perf_evsel__close(evsel);
+	perf_evsel__delete(evsel);
+
+	perf_thread_map__put(threads);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 int main(int argc, char **argv)
 {
 	__T_START;
@@ -129,6 +190,8 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
 	test_stat_cpu();
 	test_stat_thread();
 	test_stat_thread_enable();
+	test_stat_user_read(PERF_COUNT_HW_INSTRUCTIONS);
+	test_stat_user_read(PERF_COUNT_HW_CPU_CYCLES);
 
 	__T_END;
 	return 0;
-- 
2.25.1


_______________________________________________
linux-arm-kernel mailing list
linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/linux-arm-kernel

  parent reply	other threads:[~2020-09-11 21:52 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 46+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-09-11 21:51 [PATCH v3 0/10] libperf and arm64 userspace counter access support Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 01/10] arm64: pmu: Add hook to handle pmu-related undefined instructions Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-28 18:26   ` Will Deacon
2020-09-28 18:26     ` Will Deacon
2020-09-29 13:46     ` Rob Herring
2020-09-29 13:46       ` Rob Herring
2020-09-29 17:49       ` Will Deacon
2020-09-29 17:49         ` Will Deacon
2020-09-29 20:46         ` Rob Herring
2020-09-29 20:46           ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 02/10] arm64: pmu: Add function implementation to update event index in userpage Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 03/10] arm64: perf: Enable pmu counter direct access for perf event on armv8 Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 04/10] tools/include: Add an initial math64.h Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 05/10] libperf: Add libperf_evsel__mmap() Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-18 14:33   ` Jiri Olsa
2020-09-18 14:33     ` Jiri Olsa
2020-09-22 15:28     ` Rob Herring
2020-09-22 15:28       ` Rob Herring
2020-09-22 18:32       ` Jiri Olsa
2020-09-22 18:32         ` Jiri Olsa
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 06/10] libperf: tests: Add support for verbose printing Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` Rob Herring [this message]
2020-09-11 21:51   ` [PATCH v3 07/10] libperf: Add support for user space counter access Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 08/10] libperf: Add arm64 support to perf_mmap__read_self() Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 09/10] perf: arm64: Add test for userspace counter access on heterogeneous systems Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51 ` [PATCH v3 10/10] Documentation: arm64: Document PMU counters access from userspace Rob Herring
2020-09-11 21:51   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-12 20:53 ` [PATCH v3 0/10] libperf and arm64 userspace counter access support Jiri Olsa
2020-09-12 20:53   ` Jiri Olsa
2020-09-14 14:21   ` Rob Herring
2020-09-14 14:21     ` Rob Herring
     [not found]     ` <CANW9uytmafiNb_8oua9QY7L9O5BQTBFQBOMS3ZgjQ7aWj8CD2Q@mail.gmail.com>
2020-09-16  2:50       ` Rob Herring
2020-09-16  2:50         ` Rob Herring
2020-09-19  7:22         ` Itaru Kitayama
2020-09-19  7:22           ` Itaru Kitayama
2020-09-22 15:23           ` Rob Herring
2020-09-22 15:23             ` Rob Herring

Reply instructions:

You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=20200911215118.2887710-8-robh@kernel.org \
    --to=robh@kernel.org \
    --cc=Jonathan.Cameron@huawei.com \
    --cc=acme@kernel.org \
    --cc=alexander.shishkin@linux.intel.com \
    --cc=catalin.marinas@arm.com \
    --cc=honnappa.nagarahalli@arm.com \
    --cc=irogers@google.com \
    --cc=jolsa@redhat.com \
    --cc=linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org \
    --cc=linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=mark.rutland@arm.com \
    --cc=mingo@redhat.com \
    --cc=namhyung@kernel.org \
    --cc=peterz@infradead.org \
    --cc=raphael.gault@arm.com \
    --cc=will@kernel.org \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link
Be sure your reply has a Subject: header at the top and a blank line before the message body.
This is an external index of several public inboxes,
see mirroring instructions on how to clone and mirror
all data and code used by this external index.