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From: Dennis Zhou <>
To: Tejun Heo <>, Christoph Lameter <>
	Dennis Zhou <>,
	kernel test robot <>
Subject: [PATCH] percpu: fix clang modpost warning in pcpu_build_alloc_info()
Date: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 21:28:52 +0000	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <> (raw)

This is an unusual situation so I thought it best to explain it in a
separate patch.

"percpu: reduce the number of cpu distance comparisons" introduces a
dependency on cpumask helper functions in __init code. This code
references a struct cpumask annotated __initdata. When the function is
inlined (gcc), everything is fine, but clang decides not to inline these
function calls. This causes modpost to warn about an __initdata access
by a function not annotated with __init [1].

Ways I thought about fixing it:
1. figure out why clang thinks this inlining is too costly.
2. create a wrapper function annotated __init (this).
3. annotate cpumask with __refdata.

Ultimately it comes down to if it's worth saving the cpumask memory and
allowing it to be freed. IIUC, __refdata won't be freed, so option 3 is
just a little wasteful. 1 is out of my depth, leaving 2. I don't feel
great about this behavior being dependent on inlining semantics, but
cpumask helpers are small and probably should be inlined.

modpost complaint:
  WARNING: modpost: vmlinux.o(.text+0x735425): Section mismatch in reference from the function cpumask_clear_cpu() to the variable
  The function cpumask_clear_cpu() references
  the variable __initdata pcpu_build_alloc_info.mask.
  This is often because cpumask_clear_cpu lacks a __initdata
  annotation or the annotation of pcpu_build_alloc_info.mask is wrong.

clang output:
  mm/percpu.c:2724:5: remark: cpumask_clear_cpu not inlined into pcpu_build_alloc_info because too costly to inline (cost=725, threshold=325) [-Rpass-missed=inline]


Reported-by: kernel test robot <>
Signed-off-by: Dennis Zhou <>
This is on top of percpu#for-5.12.

 mm/percpu.c | 16 ++++++++++++++--
 1 file changed, 14 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/percpu.c b/mm/percpu.c
index 80f8f885a990..357977c4cb00 100644
--- a/mm/percpu.c
+++ b/mm/percpu.c
@@ -2642,6 +2642,18 @@ early_param("percpu_alloc", percpu_alloc_setup);
 /* pcpu_build_alloc_info() is used by both embed and page first chunk */
+ * This wrapper is to avoid a warning where cpumask_clear_cpu() is not inlined
+ * when compiling with clang causing modpost to warn about accessing __initdata
+ * from a non __init function.  By doing this, we allow the struct cpumask to be
+ * freed instead of it taking space by annotating with __refdata.
+ */
+static void __init pcpu_cpumask_clear_cpu(int cpu, struct cpumask *mask)
+	cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, mask);
  * pcpu_build_alloc_info - build alloc_info considering distances between CPUs
  * @reserved_size: the size of reserved percpu area in bytes
@@ -2713,7 +2725,7 @@ static struct pcpu_alloc_info * __init pcpu_build_alloc_info(
 		cpu = cpumask_first(&mask);
 		group_map[cpu] = group;
-		cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, &mask);
+		pcpu_cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, &mask);
 		for_each_cpu(tcpu, &mask) {
 			if (!cpu_distance_fn ||
@@ -2721,7 +2733,7 @@ static struct pcpu_alloc_info * __init pcpu_build_alloc_info(
 			     cpu_distance_fn(tcpu, cpu) == LOCAL_DISTANCE)) {
 				group_map[tcpu] = group;
-				cpumask_clear_cpu(tcpu, &mask);
+				pcpu_cpumask_clear_cpu(tcpu, &mask);

             reply	other threads:[~2020-12-31 21:47 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 9+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-12-31 21:28 Dennis Zhou [this message]
2021-01-04 23:46 ` Nathan Chancellor
2021-01-05  0:55   ` Dennis Zhou
2021-01-25 11:07     ` Arnd Bergmann
2021-01-25 18:27       ` Nick Desaulniers
2021-01-26  5:11         ` Dennis Zhou
2021-01-26  5:04       ` Dennis Zhou

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