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* [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching
@ 2020-07-09  4:03 Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 1/5] powerpc/mm: Introduce temporary mm Christopher M. Riedl
                   ` (4 more replies)
  0 siblings, 5 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-07-09  4:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening

When compiled with CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX, the kernel must create
temporary mappings when patching itself. These mappings temporarily
override the strict RWX text protections to permit a write. Currently,
powerpc allocates a per-CPU VM area for patching. Patching occurs as
follows:

	1. Map page of text to be patched to per-CPU VM area w/
	   PAGE_KERNEL protection
	2. Patch text
	3. Remove the temporary mapping

While the VM area is per-CPU, the mapping is actually inserted into the
kernel page tables. Presumably, this could allow another CPU to access
the normally write-protected text - either malicously or accidentally -
via this same mapping if the address of the VM area is known. Ideally,
the mapping should be kept local to the CPU doing the patching (or any
other sensitive operations requiring temporarily overriding memory
protections) [0].

x86 introduced "temporary mm" structs which allow the creation of
mappings local to a particular CPU [1]. This series intends to bring the
notion of a temporary mm to powerpc and harden powerpc by using such a
mapping for patching a kernel with strict RWX permissions.

The first patch introduces the temporary mm struct and API for powerpc
along with a new function to retrieve a current hw breakpoint.

The second patch uses the `poking_init` init hook added by the x86
patches to initialize a temporary mm and patching address. The patching
address is randomized between 0 and DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW-PAGE_SIZE. The
upper limit is necessary due to how the hash MMU operates - by default
the space above DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW is not available. For now, both hash
and radix randomize inside this range. The number of possible random
addresses is dependent on PAGE_SIZE and limited by DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW.

Bits of entropy with 64K page size on BOOK3S_64:

	bits of entropy = log2(DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW_USER64 / PAGE_SIZE)

	PAGE_SIZE=64K, DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW_USER64=128TB
	bits of entropy = log2(128TB / 64K)
	bits of entropy = 31

Randomization occurs only once during initialization at boot.

The third patch replaces the VM area with the temporary mm in the
patching code. The page for patching has to be mapped PAGE_SHARED with
the hash MMU since hash prevents the kernel from accessing userspace
pages with PAGE_PRIVILEGED bit set. On the radix MMU the page is mapped with
PAGE_KERNEL which has the added benefit that we can skip KUAP. 

The fourth and fifth patches implement an LKDTM test "proof-of-concept" which
exploits the previous vulnerability (ie. the mapping during patching is exposed
in kernel page tables and accessible by other CPUS). The LKDTM test is somewhat
"rough" in that it uses a brute-force approach - I am open to any suggestions
and/or ideas to improve this. Currently, the LKDTM test passes with this series
on POWER8 (hash) and POWER9 (radix, hash) and fails without this series (ie.
the temporary mapping for patching is exposed to CPUs other than the patching
CPU).

The test can be applied to a tree without this new series by applying
the last two patches of this series, and then fixing up in
/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c:

 #ifdef CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX
 static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct vm_struct *, text_poke_area);

+#ifdef CONFIG_LKDTM
+unsigned long read_cpu_patching_addr(unsigned int cpu)
+{
+       return (unsigned long)(per_cpu(text_poke_area, cpu))->addr;
+}
+#endif
+
 static int text_area_cpu_up(unsigned int cpu)
 {
        struct vm_struct *area;

I also have a tree with just linuxppc/next and the LKDTM test here:
https://github.com/cmr-informatik/linux/commits/percpu-lkdtm-only

Tested on Blackbird (8-core POWER9) w/ Hash (`disable_radix`) and Radix
MMUs.

v2:	* Rebase on linuxppc/next:
	  commit 105fb38124a4 ("powerpc/8xx: Modify ptep_get()")
	* Always dirty pte when mapping patch
	* Use `ppc_inst_len` instead of `sizeof` on instructions
	* Declare LKDTM patching addr accessor in header where it
	  belongs	

v1:	* Rebase on linuxppc/next (4336b9337824)
	* Save and restore second hw watchpoint
	* Use new ppc_inst_* functions for patching check and in LKDTM
	  test

rfc-v2:	* Many fixes and improvements mostly based on extensive feedback and
          testing by Christophe Leroy (thanks!).
	* Make patching_mm and patching_addr static and mode '__ro_after_init'
	  to after the variable name (more common in other parts of the kernel)
	* Use 'asm/debug.h' header instead of 'asm/hw_breakpoint.h' to fix
	  PPC64e compile
	* Add comment explaining why we use BUG_ON() during the init call to
	  setup for patching later
	* Move ptep into patch_mapping to avoid walking page tables a second
	  time when unmapping the temporary mapping
	* Use KUAP under non-radix, also manually dirty the PTE for patch
	  mapping on non-BOOK3S_64 platforms
	* Properly return any error from __patch_instruction
	* Do not use 'memcmp' where a simple comparison is appropriate
	* Simplify expression for patch address by removing pointer maths
	* Add LKDTM test


[0]: https://github.com/linuxppc/issues/issues/224
[1]: https://lore.kernel.org/kernel-hardening/20190426232303.28381-1-nadav.amit@gmail.com/

Christopher M. Riedl (5):
  powerpc/mm: Introduce temporary mm
  powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching
  powerpc/lib: Use a temporary mm for code patching
  powerpc/lib: Add LKDTM accessor for patching addr
  powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping

 arch/powerpc/include/asm/code-patching.h |   4 +
 arch/powerpc/include/asm/debug.h         |   1 +
 arch/powerpc/include/asm/mmu_context.h   |  64 +++++++++
 arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c            |   5 +
 arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c         | 176 +++++++++++------------
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c                |   1 +
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h               |   1 +
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c               |  99 +++++++++++++
 8 files changed, 261 insertions(+), 90 deletions(-)

-- 
2.27.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2 1/5] powerpc/mm: Introduce temporary mm
  2020-07-09  4:03 [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-09  4:03 ` Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 2/5] powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching Christopher M. Riedl
                   ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  4 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-07-09  4:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening

x86 supports the notion of a temporary mm which restricts access to
temporary PTEs to a single CPU. A temporary mm is useful for situations
where a CPU needs to perform sensitive operations (such as patching a
STRICT_KERNEL_RWX kernel) requiring temporary mappings without exposing
said mappings to other CPUs. A side benefit is that other CPU TLBs do
not need to be flushed when the temporary mm is torn down.

Mappings in the temporary mm can be set in the userspace portion of the
address-space.

Interrupts must be disabled while the temporary mm is in use. HW
breakpoints, which may have been set by userspace as watchpoints on
addresses now within the temporary mm, are saved and disabled when
loading the temporary mm. The HW breakpoints are restored when unloading
the temporary mm. All HW breakpoints are indiscriminately disabled while
the temporary mm is in use.

Based on x86 implementation:

commit cefa929c034e
("x86/mm: Introduce temporary mm structs")

Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
---
 arch/powerpc/include/asm/debug.h       |  1 +
 arch/powerpc/include/asm/mmu_context.h | 64 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c          |  5 ++
 3 files changed, 70 insertions(+)

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/debug.h b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/debug.h
index ec57daf87f40..827350c9bcf3 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/debug.h
+++ b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/debug.h
@@ -46,6 +46,7 @@ static inline int debugger_fault_handler(struct pt_regs *regs) { return 0; }
 #endif
 
 void __set_breakpoint(int nr, struct arch_hw_breakpoint *brk);
+void __get_breakpoint(int nr, struct arch_hw_breakpoint *brk);
 bool ppc_breakpoint_available(void);
 #ifdef CONFIG_PPC_ADV_DEBUG_REGS
 extern void do_send_trap(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long address,
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/mmu_context.h b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/mmu_context.h
index 1a474f6b1992..9269c7c7b04e 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/mmu_context.h
+++ b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/mmu_context.h
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 #include <asm/mmu.h>	
 #include <asm/cputable.h>
 #include <asm/cputhreads.h>
+#include <asm/debug.h>
 
 /*
  * Most if the context management is out of line
@@ -300,5 +301,68 @@ static inline int arch_dup_mmap(struct mm_struct *oldmm,
 	return 0;
 }
 
+struct temp_mm {
+	struct mm_struct *temp;
+	struct mm_struct *prev;
+	bool is_kernel_thread;
+	struct arch_hw_breakpoint brk[HBP_NUM_MAX];
+};
+
+static inline void init_temp_mm(struct temp_mm *temp_mm, struct mm_struct *mm)
+{
+	temp_mm->temp = mm;
+	temp_mm->prev = NULL;
+	temp_mm->is_kernel_thread = false;
+	memset(&temp_mm->brk, 0, sizeof(temp_mm->brk));
+}
+
+static inline void use_temporary_mm(struct temp_mm *temp_mm)
+{
+	lockdep_assert_irqs_disabled();
+
+	temp_mm->is_kernel_thread = current->mm == NULL;
+	if (temp_mm->is_kernel_thread)
+		temp_mm->prev = current->active_mm;
+	else
+		temp_mm->prev = current->mm;
+
+	/*
+	 * Hash requires a non-NULL current->mm to allocate a userspace address
+	 * when handling a page fault. Does not appear to hurt in Radix either.
+	 */
+	current->mm = temp_mm->temp;
+	switch_mm_irqs_off(NULL, temp_mm->temp, current);
+
+	if (ppc_breakpoint_available()) {
+		struct arch_hw_breakpoint null_brk = {0};
+		int i = 0;
+
+		for (; i < nr_wp_slots(); ++i) {
+			__get_breakpoint(i, &temp_mm->brk[i]);
+			if (temp_mm->brk[i].type != 0)
+				__set_breakpoint(i, &null_brk);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+static inline void unuse_temporary_mm(struct temp_mm *temp_mm)
+{
+	lockdep_assert_irqs_disabled();
+
+	if (temp_mm->is_kernel_thread)
+		current->mm = NULL;
+	else
+		current->mm = temp_mm->prev;
+	switch_mm_irqs_off(NULL, temp_mm->prev, current);
+
+	if (ppc_breakpoint_available()) {
+		int i = 0;
+
+		for (; i < nr_wp_slots(); ++i)
+			if (temp_mm->brk[i].type != 0)
+				__set_breakpoint(i, &temp_mm->brk[i]);
+	}
+}
+
 #endif /* __KERNEL__ */
 #endif /* __ASM_POWERPC_MMU_CONTEXT_H */
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c
index 4650b9bb217f..b6c123bf5edd 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c
@@ -824,6 +824,11 @@ static inline int set_breakpoint_8xx(struct arch_hw_breakpoint *brk)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+void __get_breakpoint(int nr, struct arch_hw_breakpoint *brk)
+{
+	memcpy(brk, this_cpu_ptr(&current_brk[nr]), sizeof(*brk));
+}
+
 void __set_breakpoint(int nr, struct arch_hw_breakpoint *brk)
 {
 	memcpy(this_cpu_ptr(&current_brk[nr]), brk, sizeof(*brk));
-- 
2.27.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2 2/5] powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching
  2020-07-09  4:03 [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 1/5] powerpc/mm: Introduce temporary mm Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-09  4:03 ` Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-17  8:57   ` kernel test robot
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 3/5] powerpc/lib: Use " Christopher M. Riedl
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  4 siblings, 1 reply; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-07-09  4:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening

When code patching a STRICT_KERNEL_RWX kernel the page containing the
address to be patched is temporarily mapped with permissive memory
protections. Currently, a per-cpu vmalloc patch area is used for this
purpose. While the patch area is per-cpu, the temporary page mapping is
inserted into the kernel page tables for the duration of the patching.
The mapping is exposed to CPUs other than the patching CPU - this is
undesirable from a hardening perspective.

Use the `poking_init` init hook to prepare a temporary mm and patching
address. Initialize the temporary mm by copying the init mm. Choose a
randomized patching address inside the temporary mm userspace address
portion. The next patch uses the temporary mm and patching address for
code patching.

Based on x86 implementation:

commit 4fc19708b165
("x86/alternatives: Initialize temporary mm for patching")

Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
---
 arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c | 33 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 33 insertions(+)

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
index 0a051dfeb177..8ae1a9e5fe6e 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
@@ -11,6 +11,8 @@
 #include <linux/cpuhotplug.h>
 #include <linux/slab.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/sched/task.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
 
 #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
 #include <asm/page.h>
@@ -44,6 +46,37 @@ int raw_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
 }
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX
+
+static struct mm_struct *patching_mm __ro_after_init;
+static unsigned long patching_addr __ro_after_init;
+
+void __init poking_init(void)
+{
+	spinlock_t *ptl; /* for protecting pte table */
+	pte_t *ptep;
+
+	/*
+	 * Some parts of the kernel (static keys for example) depend on
+	 * successful code patching. Code patching under STRICT_KERNEL_RWX
+	 * requires this setup - otherwise we cannot patch at all. We use
+	 * BUG_ON() here and later since an early failure is preferred to
+	 * buggy behavior and/or strange crashes later.
+	 */
+	patching_mm = copy_init_mm();
+	BUG_ON(!patching_mm);
+
+	/*
+	 * In hash we cannot go above DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW easily.
+	 * XXX: Do we want additional bits of entropy for radix?
+	 */
+	patching_addr = (get_random_long() & PAGE_MASK) %
+		(DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW - PAGE_SIZE);
+
+	ptep = get_locked_pte(patching_mm, patching_addr, &ptl);
+	BUG_ON(!ptep);
+	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
+}
+
 static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct vm_struct *, text_poke_area);
 
 static int text_area_cpu_up(unsigned int cpu)
-- 
2.27.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2 3/5] powerpc/lib: Use a temporary mm for code patching
  2020-07-09  4:03 [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 1/5] powerpc/mm: Introduce temporary mm Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 2/5] powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-09  4:03 ` Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  7:02   ` Christophe Leroy
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 4/5] powerpc/lib: Add LKDTM accessor for patching addr Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 5/5] powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping Christopher M. Riedl
  4 siblings, 1 reply; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-07-09  4:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening

Currently, code patching a STRICT_KERNEL_RWX exposes the temporary
mappings to other CPUs. These mappings should be kept local to the CPU
doing the patching. Use the pre-initialized temporary mm and patching
address for this purpose. Also add a check after patching to ensure the
patch succeeded.

Use the KUAP functions on non-BOOKS3_64 platforms since the temporary
mapping for patching uses a userspace address (to keep the mapping
local). On BOOKS3_64 platforms hash does not implement KUAP and on radix
the use of PAGE_KERNEL sets EAA[0] for the PTE which means the AMR
(KUAP) protection is ignored (see PowerISA v3.0b, Fig, 35).

Based on x86 implementation:

commit b3fd8e83ada0
("x86/alternatives: Use temporary mm for text poking")

Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
---
 arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c | 152 +++++++++++--------------------
 1 file changed, 54 insertions(+), 98 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
index 8ae1a9e5fe6e..80fe3864f377 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
 #include <asm/code-patching.h>
 #include <asm/setup.h>
 #include <asm/inst.h>
+#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
 
 static int __patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *exec_addr, struct ppc_inst instr,
 			       struct ppc_inst *patch_addr)
@@ -77,106 +78,57 @@ void __init poking_init(void)
 	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
 }
 
-static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct vm_struct *, text_poke_area);
-
-static int text_area_cpu_up(unsigned int cpu)
-{
-	struct vm_struct *area;
-
-	area = get_vm_area(PAGE_SIZE, VM_ALLOC);
-	if (!area) {
-		WARN_ONCE(1, "Failed to create text area for cpu %d\n",
-			cpu);
-		return -1;
-	}
-	this_cpu_write(text_poke_area, area);
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int text_area_cpu_down(unsigned int cpu)
-{
-	free_vm_area(this_cpu_read(text_poke_area));
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- * Run as a late init call. This allows all the boot time patching to be done
- * simply by patching the code, and then we're called here prior to
- * mark_rodata_ro(), which happens after all init calls are run. Although
- * BUG_ON() is rude, in this case it should only happen if ENOMEM, and we judge
- * it as being preferable to a kernel that will crash later when someone tries
- * to use patch_instruction().
- */
-static int __init setup_text_poke_area(void)
-{
-	BUG_ON(!cpuhp_setup_state(CPUHP_AP_ONLINE_DYN,
-		"powerpc/text_poke:online", text_area_cpu_up,
-		text_area_cpu_down));
-
-	return 0;
-}
-late_initcall(setup_text_poke_area);
+struct patch_mapping {
+	spinlock_t *ptl; /* for protecting pte table */
+	pte_t *ptep;
+	struct temp_mm temp_mm;
+};
 
 /*
  * This can be called for kernel text or a module.
  */
-static int map_patch_area(void *addr, unsigned long text_poke_addr)
+static int map_patch(const void *addr, struct patch_mapping *patch_mapping)
 {
-	unsigned long pfn;
-	int err;
+	struct page *page;
+	pte_t pte;
+	pgprot_t pgprot;
 
 	if (is_vmalloc_addr(addr))
-		pfn = vmalloc_to_pfn(addr);
+		page = vmalloc_to_page(addr);
 	else
-		pfn = __pa_symbol(addr) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+		page = virt_to_page(addr);
 
-	err = map_kernel_page(text_poke_addr, (pfn << PAGE_SHIFT), PAGE_KERNEL);
+	if (radix_enabled())
+		pgprot = PAGE_KERNEL;
+	else
+		pgprot = PAGE_SHARED;
 
-	pr_devel("Mapped addr %lx with pfn %lx:%d\n", text_poke_addr, pfn, err);
-	if (err)
+	patch_mapping->ptep = get_locked_pte(patching_mm, patching_addr,
+					     &patch_mapping->ptl);
+	if (unlikely(!patch_mapping->ptep)) {
+		pr_warn("map patch: failed to allocate pte for patching\n");
 		return -1;
+	}
+
+	pte = mk_pte(page, pgprot);
+	pte = pte_mkdirty(pte);
+	set_pte_at(patching_mm, patching_addr, patch_mapping->ptep, pte);
+
+	init_temp_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm, patching_mm);
+	use_temporary_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm);
 
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static inline int unmap_patch_area(unsigned long addr)
+static void unmap_patch(struct patch_mapping *patch_mapping)
 {
-	pte_t *ptep;
-	pmd_t *pmdp;
-	pud_t *pudp;
-	p4d_t *p4dp;
-	pgd_t *pgdp;
-
-	pgdp = pgd_offset_k(addr);
-	if (unlikely(!pgdp))
-		return -EINVAL;
-
-	p4dp = p4d_offset(pgdp, addr);
-	if (unlikely(!p4dp))
-		return -EINVAL;
-
-	pudp = pud_offset(p4dp, addr);
-	if (unlikely(!pudp))
-		return -EINVAL;
-
-	pmdp = pmd_offset(pudp, addr);
-	if (unlikely(!pmdp))
-		return -EINVAL;
-
-	ptep = pte_offset_kernel(pmdp, addr);
-	if (unlikely(!ptep))
-		return -EINVAL;
+	/* In hash, pte_clear flushes the tlb */
+	pte_clear(patching_mm, patching_addr, patch_mapping->ptep);
+	unuse_temporary_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm);
 
-	pr_devel("clearing mm %p, pte %p, addr %lx\n", &init_mm, ptep, addr);
-
-	/*
-	 * In hash, pte_clear flushes the tlb, in radix, we have to
-	 */
-	pte_clear(&init_mm, addr, ptep);
-	flush_tlb_kernel_range(addr, addr + PAGE_SIZE);
-
-	return 0;
+	/* In radix, we have to explicitly flush the tlb (no-op in hash) */
+	local_flush_tlb_mm(patching_mm);
+	pte_unmap_unlock(patch_mapping->ptep, patch_mapping->ptl);
 }
 
 static int do_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
@@ -184,32 +136,36 @@ static int do_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
 	int err;
 	struct ppc_inst *patch_addr = NULL;
 	unsigned long flags;
-	unsigned long text_poke_addr;
-	unsigned long kaddr = (unsigned long)addr;
+	struct patch_mapping patch_mapping;
 
 	/*
-	 * During early early boot patch_instruction is called
-	 * when text_poke_area is not ready, but we still need
-	 * to allow patching. We just do the plain old patching
+	 * The patching_mm is initialized before calling mark_rodata_ro. Prior
+	 * to this, patch_instruction is called when we don't have (and don't
+	 * need) the patching_mm so just do plain old patching.
 	 */
-	if (!this_cpu_read(text_poke_area))
+	if (!patching_mm)
 		return raw_patch_instruction(addr, instr);
 
 	local_irq_save(flags);
 
-	text_poke_addr = (unsigned long)__this_cpu_read(text_poke_area)->addr;
-	if (map_patch_area(addr, text_poke_addr)) {
-		err = -1;
+	err = map_patch(addr, &patch_mapping);
+	if (err)
 		goto out;
-	}
 
-	patch_addr = (struct ppc_inst *)(text_poke_addr + (kaddr & ~PAGE_MASK));
+	patch_addr = (struct ppc_inst *)(patching_addr | offset_in_page(addr));
 
-	__patch_instruction(addr, instr, patch_addr);
+	if (!radix_enabled())
+		allow_write_to_user(patch_addr, ppc_inst_len(instr));
+	err = __patch_instruction(addr, instr, patch_addr);
+	if (!radix_enabled())
+		prevent_write_to_user(patch_addr, ppc_inst_len(instr));
 
-	err = unmap_patch_area(text_poke_addr);
-	if (err)
-		pr_warn("failed to unmap %lx\n", text_poke_addr);
+	unmap_patch(&patch_mapping);
+	/*
+	 * Something is wrong if what we just wrote doesn't match what we
+	 * think we just wrote.
+	 */
+	WARN_ON(!ppc_inst_equal(ppc_inst_read(addr), instr));
 
 out:
 	local_irq_restore(flags);
-- 
2.27.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2 4/5] powerpc/lib: Add LKDTM accessor for patching addr
  2020-07-09  4:03 [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching Christopher M. Riedl
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 3/5] powerpc/lib: Use " Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-09  4:03 ` Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 5/5] powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping Christopher M. Riedl
  4 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-07-09  4:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening

When live patching a STRICT_RWX kernel, a mapping is installed at a
"patching address" with temporary write permissions. Provide a
LKDTM-only accessor function for this address in preparation for a LKDTM
test which attempts to "hijack" this mapping by writing to it from
another CPU.

Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
---
 arch/powerpc/include/asm/code-patching.h | 4 ++++
 arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c         | 7 +++++++
 2 files changed, 11 insertions(+)

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/code-patching.h b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/code-patching.h
index eacc9102c251..ffc6dfdbbf8e 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/include/asm/code-patching.h
+++ b/arch/powerpc/include/asm/code-patching.h
@@ -187,4 +187,8 @@ static inline unsigned long ppc_kallsyms_lookup_name(const char *name)
 				 ___PPC_RA(__REG_R1) | PPC_LR_STKOFF)
 #endif /* CONFIG_PPC64 */
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_LKDTM
+unsigned long read_cpu_patching_addr(unsigned int cpu);
+#endif
+
 #endif /* _ASM_POWERPC_CODE_PATCHING_H */
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
index 80fe3864f377..a12db2092947 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
@@ -51,6 +51,13 @@ int raw_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
 static struct mm_struct *patching_mm __ro_after_init;
 static unsigned long patching_addr __ro_after_init;
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_LKDTM
+unsigned long read_cpu_patching_addr(unsigned int cpu)
+{
+	return patching_addr;
+}
+#endif
+
 void __init poking_init(void)
 {
 	spinlock_t *ptl; /* for protecting pte table */
-- 
2.27.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2 5/5] powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping
  2020-07-09  4:03 [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching Christopher M. Riedl
                   ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 4/5] powerpc/lib: Add LKDTM accessor for patching addr Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-09  4:03 ` Christopher M. Riedl
  2020-07-14 21:24   ` Kees Cook
  4 siblings, 1 reply; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-07-09  4:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening

When live patching with STRICT_KERNEL_RWX, the CPU doing the patching
must use a temporary mapping which allows for writing to kernel text.
During the entire window of time when this temporary mapping is in use,
another CPU could write to the same mapping and maliciously alter kernel
text. Implement a LKDTM test to attempt to exploit such a openings when
a CPU is patching under STRICT_KERNEL_RWX. The test is only implemented
on powerpc for now.

The LKDTM "hijack" test works as follows:

	1. A CPU executes an infinite loop to patch an instruction.
	   This is the "patching" CPU.
	2. Another CPU attempts to write to the address of the temporary
	   mapping used by the "patching" CPU. This other CPU is the
	   "hijacker" CPU. The hijack either fails with a segfault or
	   succeeds, in which case some kernel text is now overwritten.

How to run the test:

	mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
	(echo HIJACK_PATCH > /sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT)

Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
---
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c  |  1 +
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h |  1 +
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c | 99 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 101 insertions(+)

diff --git a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c
index a5e344df9166..482e72f6a1e1 100644
--- a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c
+++ b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c
@@ -145,6 +145,7 @@ static const struct crashtype crashtypes[] = {
 	CRASHTYPE(WRITE_RO),
 	CRASHTYPE(WRITE_RO_AFTER_INIT),
 	CRASHTYPE(WRITE_KERN),
+	CRASHTYPE(HIJACK_PATCH),
 	CRASHTYPE(REFCOUNT_INC_OVERFLOW),
 	CRASHTYPE(REFCOUNT_ADD_OVERFLOW),
 	CRASHTYPE(REFCOUNT_INC_NOT_ZERO_OVERFLOW),
diff --git a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h
index 601a2156a0d4..bfcf3542370d 100644
--- a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h
+++ b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h
@@ -62,6 +62,7 @@ void lkdtm_EXEC_USERSPACE(void);
 void lkdtm_EXEC_NULL(void);
 void lkdtm_ACCESS_USERSPACE(void);
 void lkdtm_ACCESS_NULL(void);
+void lkdtm_HIJACK_PATCH(void);
 
 /* lkdtm_refcount.c */
 void lkdtm_REFCOUNT_INC_OVERFLOW(void);
diff --git a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c
index 62f76d506f04..b7149daaeb6f 100644
--- a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c
+++ b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
 #include <linux/vmalloc.h>
 #include <linux/mman.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/kthread.h>
 #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
 
 /* Whether or not to fill the target memory area with do_nothing(). */
@@ -213,6 +214,104 @@ void lkdtm_ACCESS_NULL(void)
 	*ptr = tmp;
 }
 
+#if defined(CONFIG_PPC) && defined(CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX)
+#include <include/asm/code-patching.h>
+
+static struct ppc_inst * const patch_site = (struct ppc_inst *)&do_nothing;
+
+static int lkdtm_patching_cpu(void *data)
+{
+	int err = 0;
+	struct ppc_inst insn = ppc_inst(0xdeadbeef);
+
+	pr_info("starting patching_cpu=%d\n", smp_processor_id());
+	do {
+		err = patch_instruction(patch_site, insn);
+	} while (ppc_inst_equal(ppc_inst_read(READ_ONCE(patch_site)), insn) &&
+			!err && !kthread_should_stop());
+
+	if (err)
+		pr_warn("patch_instruction returned error: %d\n", err);
+
+	set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
+	while (!kthread_should_stop()) {
+		schedule();
+		set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+void lkdtm_HIJACK_PATCH(void)
+{
+	struct task_struct *patching_kthrd;
+	struct ppc_inst original_insn;
+	int patching_cpu, hijacker_cpu, attempts;
+	unsigned long addr;
+	bool hijacked;
+
+	if (num_online_cpus() < 2) {
+		pr_warn("need at least two cpus\n");
+		return;
+	}
+
+	original_insn = ppc_inst_read(READ_ONCE(patch_site));
+
+	hijacker_cpu = smp_processor_id();
+	patching_cpu = cpumask_any_but(cpu_online_mask, hijacker_cpu);
+
+	patching_kthrd = kthread_create_on_node(&lkdtm_patching_cpu, NULL,
+						cpu_to_node(patching_cpu),
+						"lkdtm_patching_cpu");
+	kthread_bind(patching_kthrd, patching_cpu);
+	wake_up_process(patching_kthrd);
+
+	addr = offset_in_page(patch_site) | read_cpu_patching_addr(patching_cpu);
+
+	pr_info("starting hijacker_cpu=%d\n", hijacker_cpu);
+	for (attempts = 0; attempts < 100000; ++attempts) {
+		/* Use __put_user to catch faults without an Oops */
+		hijacked = !__put_user(0xbad00bad, (unsigned int *)addr);
+
+		if (hijacked) {
+			if (kthread_stop(patching_kthrd))
+				goto out;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	pr_info("hijack attempts: %d\n", attempts);
+
+	if (hijacked) {
+		if (*(unsigned int *)READ_ONCE(patch_site) == 0xbad00bad)
+			pr_err("overwrote kernel text\n");
+		/*
+		 * There are window conditions where the hijacker cpu manages to
+		 * write to the patch site but the site gets overwritten again by
+		 * the patching cpu. We still consider that a "successful" hijack
+		 * since the hijacker cpu did not fault on the write.
+		 */
+		pr_err("FAIL: wrote to another cpu's patching area\n");
+	} else {
+		kthread_stop(patching_kthrd);
+	}
+
+out:
+	/* Restore the original insn for any future lkdtm tests */
+	patch_instruction(patch_site, original_insn);
+}
+
+#else
+
+void lkdtm_HIJACK_PATCH(void)
+{
+	if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_PPC))
+		pr_err("XFAIL: this test is powerpc-only\n");
+	if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX))
+		pr_err("XFAIL: this test requires CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX\n");
+}
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_PPC && CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX */
+
 void __init lkdtm_perms_init(void)
 {
 	/* Make sure we can write to __ro_after_init values during __init */
-- 
2.27.0


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2 3/5] powerpc/lib: Use a temporary mm for code patching
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 3/5] powerpc/lib: Use " Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-09  7:02   ` Christophe Leroy
  2020-07-14 19:43     ` Christopher M. Riedl
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christophe Leroy @ 2020-07-09  7:02 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Christopher M. Riedl, linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening



Le 09/07/2020 à 06:03, Christopher M. Riedl a écrit :
> Currently, code patching a STRICT_KERNEL_RWX exposes the temporary
> mappings to other CPUs. These mappings should be kept local to the CPU
> doing the patching. Use the pre-initialized temporary mm and patching
> address for this purpose. Also add a check after patching to ensure the
> patch succeeded.

While trying the LKDTM test, I realised that this is useless for non SMP.
Is it worth applying that change to non SMP systems ?

Christophe

> 
> Use the KUAP functions on non-BOOKS3_64 platforms since the temporary
> mapping for patching uses a userspace address (to keep the mapping
> local). On BOOKS3_64 platforms hash does not implement KUAP and on radix
> the use of PAGE_KERNEL sets EAA[0] for the PTE which means the AMR
> (KUAP) protection is ignored (see PowerISA v3.0b, Fig, 35).
> 
> Based on x86 implementation:
> 
> commit b3fd8e83ada0
> ("x86/alternatives: Use temporary mm for text poking")
> 
> Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
> ---
>   arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c | 152 +++++++++++--------------------
>   1 file changed, 54 insertions(+), 98 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
> index 8ae1a9e5fe6e..80fe3864f377 100644
> --- a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
> +++ b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
> @@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
>   #include <asm/code-patching.h>
>   #include <asm/setup.h>
>   #include <asm/inst.h>
> +#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
>   
>   static int __patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *exec_addr, struct ppc_inst instr,
>   			       struct ppc_inst *patch_addr)
> @@ -77,106 +78,57 @@ void __init poking_init(void)
>   	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
>   }
>   
> -static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct vm_struct *, text_poke_area);
> -
> -static int text_area_cpu_up(unsigned int cpu)
> -{
> -	struct vm_struct *area;
> -
> -	area = get_vm_area(PAGE_SIZE, VM_ALLOC);
> -	if (!area) {
> -		WARN_ONCE(1, "Failed to create text area for cpu %d\n",
> -			cpu);
> -		return -1;
> -	}
> -	this_cpu_write(text_poke_area, area);
> -
> -	return 0;
> -}
> -
> -static int text_area_cpu_down(unsigned int cpu)
> -{
> -	free_vm_area(this_cpu_read(text_poke_area));
> -	return 0;
> -}
> -
> -/*
> - * Run as a late init call. This allows all the boot time patching to be done
> - * simply by patching the code, and then we're called here prior to
> - * mark_rodata_ro(), which happens after all init calls are run. Although
> - * BUG_ON() is rude, in this case it should only happen if ENOMEM, and we judge
> - * it as being preferable to a kernel that will crash later when someone tries
> - * to use patch_instruction().
> - */
> -static int __init setup_text_poke_area(void)
> -{
> -	BUG_ON(!cpuhp_setup_state(CPUHP_AP_ONLINE_DYN,
> -		"powerpc/text_poke:online", text_area_cpu_up,
> -		text_area_cpu_down));
> -
> -	return 0;
> -}
> -late_initcall(setup_text_poke_area);
> +struct patch_mapping {
> +	spinlock_t *ptl; /* for protecting pte table */
> +	pte_t *ptep;
> +	struct temp_mm temp_mm;
> +};
>   
>   /*
>    * This can be called for kernel text or a module.
>    */
> -static int map_patch_area(void *addr, unsigned long text_poke_addr)
> +static int map_patch(const void *addr, struct patch_mapping *patch_mapping)
>   {
> -	unsigned long pfn;
> -	int err;
> +	struct page *page;
> +	pte_t pte;
> +	pgprot_t pgprot;
>   
>   	if (is_vmalloc_addr(addr))
> -		pfn = vmalloc_to_pfn(addr);
> +		page = vmalloc_to_page(addr);
>   	else
> -		pfn = __pa_symbol(addr) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
> +		page = virt_to_page(addr);
>   
> -	err = map_kernel_page(text_poke_addr, (pfn << PAGE_SHIFT), PAGE_KERNEL);
> +	if (radix_enabled())
> +		pgprot = PAGE_KERNEL;
> +	else
> +		pgprot = PAGE_SHARED;
>   
> -	pr_devel("Mapped addr %lx with pfn %lx:%d\n", text_poke_addr, pfn, err);
> -	if (err)
> +	patch_mapping->ptep = get_locked_pte(patching_mm, patching_addr,
> +					     &patch_mapping->ptl);
> +	if (unlikely(!patch_mapping->ptep)) {
> +		pr_warn("map patch: failed to allocate pte for patching\n");
>   		return -1;
> +	}
> +
> +	pte = mk_pte(page, pgprot);
> +	pte = pte_mkdirty(pte);
> +	set_pte_at(patching_mm, patching_addr, patch_mapping->ptep, pte);
> +
> +	init_temp_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm, patching_mm);
> +	use_temporary_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm);
>   
>   	return 0;
>   }
>   
> -static inline int unmap_patch_area(unsigned long addr)
> +static void unmap_patch(struct patch_mapping *patch_mapping)
>   {
> -	pte_t *ptep;
> -	pmd_t *pmdp;
> -	pud_t *pudp;
> -	p4d_t *p4dp;
> -	pgd_t *pgdp;
> -
> -	pgdp = pgd_offset_k(addr);
> -	if (unlikely(!pgdp))
> -		return -EINVAL;
> -
> -	p4dp = p4d_offset(pgdp, addr);
> -	if (unlikely(!p4dp))
> -		return -EINVAL;
> -
> -	pudp = pud_offset(p4dp, addr);
> -	if (unlikely(!pudp))
> -		return -EINVAL;
> -
> -	pmdp = pmd_offset(pudp, addr);
> -	if (unlikely(!pmdp))
> -		return -EINVAL;
> -
> -	ptep = pte_offset_kernel(pmdp, addr);
> -	if (unlikely(!ptep))
> -		return -EINVAL;
> +	/* In hash, pte_clear flushes the tlb */
> +	pte_clear(patching_mm, patching_addr, patch_mapping->ptep);
> +	unuse_temporary_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm);
>   
> -	pr_devel("clearing mm %p, pte %p, addr %lx\n", &init_mm, ptep, addr);
> -
> -	/*
> -	 * In hash, pte_clear flushes the tlb, in radix, we have to
> -	 */
> -	pte_clear(&init_mm, addr, ptep);
> -	flush_tlb_kernel_range(addr, addr + PAGE_SIZE);
> -
> -	return 0;
> +	/* In radix, we have to explicitly flush the tlb (no-op in hash) */
> +	local_flush_tlb_mm(patching_mm);
> +	pte_unmap_unlock(patch_mapping->ptep, patch_mapping->ptl);
>   }
>   
>   static int do_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
> @@ -184,32 +136,36 @@ static int do_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
>   	int err;
>   	struct ppc_inst *patch_addr = NULL;
>   	unsigned long flags;
> -	unsigned long text_poke_addr;
> -	unsigned long kaddr = (unsigned long)addr;
> +	struct patch_mapping patch_mapping;
>   
>   	/*
> -	 * During early early boot patch_instruction is called
> -	 * when text_poke_area is not ready, but we still need
> -	 * to allow patching. We just do the plain old patching
> +	 * The patching_mm is initialized before calling mark_rodata_ro. Prior
> +	 * to this, patch_instruction is called when we don't have (and don't
> +	 * need) the patching_mm so just do plain old patching.
>   	 */
> -	if (!this_cpu_read(text_poke_area))
> +	if (!patching_mm)
>   		return raw_patch_instruction(addr, instr);
>   
>   	local_irq_save(flags);
>   
> -	text_poke_addr = (unsigned long)__this_cpu_read(text_poke_area)->addr;
> -	if (map_patch_area(addr, text_poke_addr)) {
> -		err = -1;
> +	err = map_patch(addr, &patch_mapping);
> +	if (err)
>   		goto out;
> -	}
>   
> -	patch_addr = (struct ppc_inst *)(text_poke_addr + (kaddr & ~PAGE_MASK));
> +	patch_addr = (struct ppc_inst *)(patching_addr | offset_in_page(addr));
>   
> -	__patch_instruction(addr, instr, patch_addr);
> +	if (!radix_enabled())
> +		allow_write_to_user(patch_addr, ppc_inst_len(instr));
> +	err = __patch_instruction(addr, instr, patch_addr);
> +	if (!radix_enabled())
> +		prevent_write_to_user(patch_addr, ppc_inst_len(instr));
>   
> -	err = unmap_patch_area(text_poke_addr);
> -	if (err)
> -		pr_warn("failed to unmap %lx\n", text_poke_addr);
> +	unmap_patch(&patch_mapping);
> +	/*
> +	 * Something is wrong if what we just wrote doesn't match what we
> +	 * think we just wrote.
> +	 */
> +	WARN_ON(!ppc_inst_equal(ppc_inst_read(addr), instr));
>   
>   out:
>   	local_irq_restore(flags);
> 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2 3/5] powerpc/lib: Use a temporary mm for code patching
  2020-07-09  7:02   ` Christophe Leroy
@ 2020-07-14 19:43     ` Christopher M. Riedl
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-07-14 19:43 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Christophe Leroy, linuxppc-dev; +Cc: kernel-hardening

On Thu Jul 9, 2020 at 4:02 AM CDT, Christophe Leroy wrote:
>
>
> Le 09/07/2020 à 06:03, Christopher M. Riedl a écrit :
> > Currently, code patching a STRICT_KERNEL_RWX exposes the temporary
> > mappings to other CPUs. These mappings should be kept local to the CPU
> > doing the patching. Use the pre-initialized temporary mm and patching
> > address for this purpose. Also add a check after patching to ensure the
> > patch succeeded.
>
> While trying the LKDTM test, I realised that this is useless for non
> SMP.
> Is it worth applying that change to non SMP systems ?
>
> Christophe
>

Hmm, I would say it's probably preferable to maintain a single
implementation of code-patching under STRICT_KERNEL_RWX instead of
two versions for SMP and non-SMP.

> > 
> > Use the KUAP functions on non-BOOKS3_64 platforms since the temporary
> > mapping for patching uses a userspace address (to keep the mapping
> > local). On BOOKS3_64 platforms hash does not implement KUAP and on radix
> > the use of PAGE_KERNEL sets EAA[0] for the PTE which means the AMR
> > (KUAP) protection is ignored (see PowerISA v3.0b, Fig, 35).
> > 
> > Based on x86 implementation:
> > 
> > commit b3fd8e83ada0
> > ("x86/alternatives: Use temporary mm for text poking")
> > 
> > Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
> > ---
> >   arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c | 152 +++++++++++--------------------
> >   1 file changed, 54 insertions(+), 98 deletions(-)
> > 
> > diff --git a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
> > index 8ae1a9e5fe6e..80fe3864f377 100644
> > --- a/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
> > +++ b/arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c
> > @@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
> >   #include <asm/code-patching.h>
> >   #include <asm/setup.h>
> >   #include <asm/inst.h>
> > +#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
> >   
> >   static int __patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *exec_addr, struct ppc_inst instr,
> >   			       struct ppc_inst *patch_addr)
> > @@ -77,106 +78,57 @@ void __init poking_init(void)
> >   	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
> >   }
> >   
> > -static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct vm_struct *, text_poke_area);
> > -
> > -static int text_area_cpu_up(unsigned int cpu)
> > -{
> > -	struct vm_struct *area;
> > -
> > -	area = get_vm_area(PAGE_SIZE, VM_ALLOC);
> > -	if (!area) {
> > -		WARN_ONCE(1, "Failed to create text area for cpu %d\n",
> > -			cpu);
> > -		return -1;
> > -	}
> > -	this_cpu_write(text_poke_area, area);
> > -
> > -	return 0;
> > -}
> > -
> > -static int text_area_cpu_down(unsigned int cpu)
> > -{
> > -	free_vm_area(this_cpu_read(text_poke_area));
> > -	return 0;
> > -}
> > -
> > -/*
> > - * Run as a late init call. This allows all the boot time patching to be done
> > - * simply by patching the code, and then we're called here prior to
> > - * mark_rodata_ro(), which happens after all init calls are run. Although
> > - * BUG_ON() is rude, in this case it should only happen if ENOMEM, and we judge
> > - * it as being preferable to a kernel that will crash later when someone tries
> > - * to use patch_instruction().
> > - */
> > -static int __init setup_text_poke_area(void)
> > -{
> > -	BUG_ON(!cpuhp_setup_state(CPUHP_AP_ONLINE_DYN,
> > -		"powerpc/text_poke:online", text_area_cpu_up,
> > -		text_area_cpu_down));
> > -
> > -	return 0;
> > -}
> > -late_initcall(setup_text_poke_area);
> > +struct patch_mapping {
> > +	spinlock_t *ptl; /* for protecting pte table */
> > +	pte_t *ptep;
> > +	struct temp_mm temp_mm;
> > +};
> >   
> >   /*
> >    * This can be called for kernel text or a module.
> >    */
> > -static int map_patch_area(void *addr, unsigned long text_poke_addr)
> > +static int map_patch(const void *addr, struct patch_mapping *patch_mapping)
> >   {
> > -	unsigned long pfn;
> > -	int err;
> > +	struct page *page;
> > +	pte_t pte;
> > +	pgprot_t pgprot;
> >   
> >   	if (is_vmalloc_addr(addr))
> > -		pfn = vmalloc_to_pfn(addr);
> > +		page = vmalloc_to_page(addr);
> >   	else
> > -		pfn = __pa_symbol(addr) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
> > +		page = virt_to_page(addr);
> >   
> > -	err = map_kernel_page(text_poke_addr, (pfn << PAGE_SHIFT), PAGE_KERNEL);
> > +	if (radix_enabled())
> > +		pgprot = PAGE_KERNEL;
> > +	else
> > +		pgprot = PAGE_SHARED;
> >   
> > -	pr_devel("Mapped addr %lx with pfn %lx:%d\n", text_poke_addr, pfn, err);
> > -	if (err)
> > +	patch_mapping->ptep = get_locked_pte(patching_mm, patching_addr,
> > +					     &patch_mapping->ptl);
> > +	if (unlikely(!patch_mapping->ptep)) {
> > +		pr_warn("map patch: failed to allocate pte for patching\n");
> >   		return -1;
> > +	}
> > +
> > +	pte = mk_pte(page, pgprot);
> > +	pte = pte_mkdirty(pte);
> > +	set_pte_at(patching_mm, patching_addr, patch_mapping->ptep, pte);
> > +
> > +	init_temp_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm, patching_mm);
> > +	use_temporary_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm);
> >   
> >   	return 0;
> >   }
> >   
> > -static inline int unmap_patch_area(unsigned long addr)
> > +static void unmap_patch(struct patch_mapping *patch_mapping)
> >   {
> > -	pte_t *ptep;
> > -	pmd_t *pmdp;
> > -	pud_t *pudp;
> > -	p4d_t *p4dp;
> > -	pgd_t *pgdp;
> > -
> > -	pgdp = pgd_offset_k(addr);
> > -	if (unlikely(!pgdp))
> > -		return -EINVAL;
> > -
> > -	p4dp = p4d_offset(pgdp, addr);
> > -	if (unlikely(!p4dp))
> > -		return -EINVAL;
> > -
> > -	pudp = pud_offset(p4dp, addr);
> > -	if (unlikely(!pudp))
> > -		return -EINVAL;
> > -
> > -	pmdp = pmd_offset(pudp, addr);
> > -	if (unlikely(!pmdp))
> > -		return -EINVAL;
> > -
> > -	ptep = pte_offset_kernel(pmdp, addr);
> > -	if (unlikely(!ptep))
> > -		return -EINVAL;
> > +	/* In hash, pte_clear flushes the tlb */
> > +	pte_clear(patching_mm, patching_addr, patch_mapping->ptep);
> > +	unuse_temporary_mm(&patch_mapping->temp_mm);
> >   
> > -	pr_devel("clearing mm %p, pte %p, addr %lx\n", &init_mm, ptep, addr);
> > -
> > -	/*
> > -	 * In hash, pte_clear flushes the tlb, in radix, we have to
> > -	 */
> > -	pte_clear(&init_mm, addr, ptep);
> > -	flush_tlb_kernel_range(addr, addr + PAGE_SIZE);
> > -
> > -	return 0;
> > +	/* In radix, we have to explicitly flush the tlb (no-op in hash) */
> > +	local_flush_tlb_mm(patching_mm);
> > +	pte_unmap_unlock(patch_mapping->ptep, patch_mapping->ptl);
> >   }
> >   
> >   static int do_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
> > @@ -184,32 +136,36 @@ static int do_patch_instruction(struct ppc_inst *addr, struct ppc_inst instr)
> >   	int err;
> >   	struct ppc_inst *patch_addr = NULL;
> >   	unsigned long flags;
> > -	unsigned long text_poke_addr;
> > -	unsigned long kaddr = (unsigned long)addr;
> > +	struct patch_mapping patch_mapping;
> >   
> >   	/*
> > -	 * During early early boot patch_instruction is called
> > -	 * when text_poke_area is not ready, but we still need
> > -	 * to allow patching. We just do the plain old patching
> > +	 * The patching_mm is initialized before calling mark_rodata_ro. Prior
> > +	 * to this, patch_instruction is called when we don't have (and don't
> > +	 * need) the patching_mm so just do plain old patching.
> >   	 */
> > -	if (!this_cpu_read(text_poke_area))
> > +	if (!patching_mm)
> >   		return raw_patch_instruction(addr, instr);
> >   
> >   	local_irq_save(flags);
> >   
> > -	text_poke_addr = (unsigned long)__this_cpu_read(text_poke_area)->addr;
> > -	if (map_patch_area(addr, text_poke_addr)) {
> > -		err = -1;
> > +	err = map_patch(addr, &patch_mapping);
> > +	if (err)
> >   		goto out;
> > -	}
> >   
> > -	patch_addr = (struct ppc_inst *)(text_poke_addr + (kaddr & ~PAGE_MASK));
> > +	patch_addr = (struct ppc_inst *)(patching_addr | offset_in_page(addr));
> >   
> > -	__patch_instruction(addr, instr, patch_addr);
> > +	if (!radix_enabled())
> > +		allow_write_to_user(patch_addr, ppc_inst_len(instr));
> > +	err = __patch_instruction(addr, instr, patch_addr);
> > +	if (!radix_enabled())
> > +		prevent_write_to_user(patch_addr, ppc_inst_len(instr));
> >   
> > -	err = unmap_patch_area(text_poke_addr);
> > -	if (err)
> > -		pr_warn("failed to unmap %lx\n", text_poke_addr);
> > +	unmap_patch(&patch_mapping);
> > +	/*
> > +	 * Something is wrong if what we just wrote doesn't match what we
> > +	 * think we just wrote.
> > +	 */
> > +	WARN_ON(!ppc_inst_equal(ppc_inst_read(addr), instr));
> >   
> >   out:
> >   	local_irq_restore(flags);
> > 


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2 5/5] powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 5/5] powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-14 21:24   ` Kees Cook
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Kees Cook @ 2020-07-14 21:24 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Christopher M. Riedl; +Cc: linuxppc-dev, kernel-hardening

On Wed, Jul 08, 2020 at 11:03:16PM -0500, Christopher M. Riedl wrote:
> When live patching with STRICT_KERNEL_RWX, the CPU doing the patching
> must use a temporary mapping which allows for writing to kernel text.
> During the entire window of time when this temporary mapping is in use,
> another CPU could write to the same mapping and maliciously alter kernel
> text. Implement a LKDTM test to attempt to exploit such a openings when
> a CPU is patching under STRICT_KERNEL_RWX. The test is only implemented
> on powerpc for now.
> 
> The LKDTM "hijack" test works as follows:
> 
> 	1. A CPU executes an infinite loop to patch an instruction.
> 	   This is the "patching" CPU.
> 	2. Another CPU attempts to write to the address of the temporary
> 	   mapping used by the "patching" CPU. This other CPU is the
> 	   "hijacker" CPU. The hijack either fails with a segfault or
> 	   succeeds, in which case some kernel text is now overwritten.
> 
> How to run the test:
> 
> 	mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
> 	(echo HIJACK_PATCH > /sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT)
> 
> Signed-off-by: Christopher M. Riedl <cmr@informatik.wtf>
> ---
>  drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c  |  1 +
>  drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h |  1 +
>  drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c | 99 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  3 files changed, 101 insertions(+)
> 
> diff --git a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c
> index a5e344df9166..482e72f6a1e1 100644
> --- a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c
> +++ b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c
> @@ -145,6 +145,7 @@ static const struct crashtype crashtypes[] = {
>  	CRASHTYPE(WRITE_RO),
>  	CRASHTYPE(WRITE_RO_AFTER_INIT),
>  	CRASHTYPE(WRITE_KERN),
> +	CRASHTYPE(HIJACK_PATCH),
>  	CRASHTYPE(REFCOUNT_INC_OVERFLOW),
>  	CRASHTYPE(REFCOUNT_ADD_OVERFLOW),
>  	CRASHTYPE(REFCOUNT_INC_NOT_ZERO_OVERFLOW),
> diff --git a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h
> index 601a2156a0d4..bfcf3542370d 100644
> --- a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h
> +++ b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h
> @@ -62,6 +62,7 @@ void lkdtm_EXEC_USERSPACE(void);
>  void lkdtm_EXEC_NULL(void);
>  void lkdtm_ACCESS_USERSPACE(void);
>  void lkdtm_ACCESS_NULL(void);
> +void lkdtm_HIJACK_PATCH(void);
>  
>  /* lkdtm_refcount.c */
>  void lkdtm_REFCOUNT_INC_OVERFLOW(void);
> diff --git a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c
> index 62f76d506f04..b7149daaeb6f 100644
> --- a/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c
> +++ b/drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c
> @@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
>  #include <linux/vmalloc.h>
>  #include <linux/mman.h>
>  #include <linux/uaccess.h>
> +#include <linux/kthread.h>
>  #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
>  
>  /* Whether or not to fill the target memory area with do_nothing(). */
> @@ -213,6 +214,104 @@ void lkdtm_ACCESS_NULL(void)
>  	*ptr = tmp;
>  }
>  
> +#if defined(CONFIG_PPC) && defined(CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX)
> +#include <include/asm/code-patching.h>
> +
> +static struct ppc_inst * const patch_site = (struct ppc_inst *)&do_nothing;

While this is probably fine, I'd prefer a new target instead of re-using
do_nothing.

> +
> +static int lkdtm_patching_cpu(void *data)
> +{
> +	int err = 0;
> +	struct ppc_inst insn = ppc_inst(0xdeadbeef);
> +
> +	pr_info("starting patching_cpu=%d\n", smp_processor_id());
> +	do {
> +		err = patch_instruction(patch_site, insn);
> +	} while (ppc_inst_equal(ppc_inst_read(READ_ONCE(patch_site)), insn) &&
> +			!err && !kthread_should_stop());
> +
> +	if (err)
> +		pr_warn("patch_instruction returned error: %d\n", err);
> +
> +	set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
> +	while (!kthread_should_stop()) {
> +		schedule();
> +		set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
> +	}
> +
> +	return err;
> +}
> +
> +void lkdtm_HIJACK_PATCH(void)
> +{
> +	struct task_struct *patching_kthrd;
> +	struct ppc_inst original_insn;
> +	int patching_cpu, hijacker_cpu, attempts;
> +	unsigned long addr;
> +	bool hijacked;
> +
> +	if (num_online_cpus() < 2) {
> +		pr_warn("need at least two cpus\n");
> +		return;
> +	}
> +
> +	original_insn = ppc_inst_read(READ_ONCE(patch_site));
> +
> +	hijacker_cpu = smp_processor_id();
> +	patching_cpu = cpumask_any_but(cpu_online_mask, hijacker_cpu);
> +
> +	patching_kthrd = kthread_create_on_node(&lkdtm_patching_cpu, NULL,
> +						cpu_to_node(patching_cpu),
> +						"lkdtm_patching_cpu");
> +	kthread_bind(patching_kthrd, patching_cpu);
> +	wake_up_process(patching_kthrd);
> +
> +	addr = offset_in_page(patch_site) | read_cpu_patching_addr(patching_cpu);
> +
> +	pr_info("starting hijacker_cpu=%d\n", hijacker_cpu);
> +	for (attempts = 0; attempts < 100000; ++attempts) {
> +		/* Use __put_user to catch faults without an Oops */
> +		hijacked = !__put_user(0xbad00bad, (unsigned int *)addr);
> +
> +		if (hijacked) {
> +			if (kthread_stop(patching_kthrd))
> +				goto out;
> +			break;
> +		}
> +	}
> +	pr_info("hijack attempts: %d\n", attempts);
> +
> +	if (hijacked) {
> +		if (*(unsigned int *)READ_ONCE(patch_site) == 0xbad00bad)
> +			pr_err("overwrote kernel text\n");
> +		/*
> +		 * There are window conditions where the hijacker cpu manages to
> +		 * write to the patch site but the site gets overwritten again by
> +		 * the patching cpu. We still consider that a "successful" hijack
> +		 * since the hijacker cpu did not fault on the write.
> +		 */
> +		pr_err("FAIL: wrote to another cpu's patching area\n");
> +	} else {
> +		kthread_stop(patching_kthrd);
> +	}
> +
> +out:
> +	/* Restore the original insn for any future lkdtm tests */
> +	patch_instruction(patch_site, original_insn);

Can this test be done for x86's instruction patching too?

> +}
> +
> +#else
> +
> +void lkdtm_HIJACK_PATCH(void)
> +{
> +	if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_PPC))
> +		pr_err("XFAIL: this test is powerpc-only\n");
> +	if (!IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX))
> +		pr_err("XFAIL: this test requires CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX\n");
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_PPC && CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX */
> +
>  void __init lkdtm_perms_init(void)
>  {
>  	/* Make sure we can write to __ro_after_init values during __init */
> -- 
> 2.27.0

Otherwise, looks good!

-- 
Kees Cook

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH v2 2/5] powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching
  2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 2/5] powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching Christopher M. Riedl
@ 2020-07-17  8:57   ` kernel test robot
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: kernel test robot @ 2020-07-17  8:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Christopher M. Riedl, linuxppc-dev
  Cc: kbuild-all, clang-built-linux, kernel-hardening


[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 2895 bytes --]

Hi "Christopher,

Thank you for the patch! Perhaps something to improve:

[auto build test WARNING on powerpc/next]
[also build test WARNING on char-misc/char-misc-testing v5.8-rc5 next-20200716]
[If your patch is applied to the wrong git tree, kindly drop us a note.
And when submitting patch, we suggest to use '--base' as documented in
https://git-scm.com/docs/git-format-patch]

url:    https://github.com/0day-ci/linux/commits/Christopher-M-Riedl/Use-per-CPU-temporary-mappings-for-patching/20200709-123827
base:   https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/powerpc/linux.git next
config: powerpc-randconfig-r013-20200717 (attached as .config)
compiler: clang version 12.0.0 (https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project ed6b578040a85977026c93bf4188f996148f3218)
reproduce (this is a W=1 build):
        wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/intel/lkp-tests/master/sbin/make.cross -O ~/bin/make.cross
        chmod +x ~/bin/make.cross
        # install powerpc cross compiling tool for clang build
        # apt-get install binutils-powerpc-linux-gnu
        # save the attached .config to linux build tree
        COMPILER_INSTALL_PATH=$HOME/0day COMPILER=clang make.cross ARCH=powerpc 

If you fix the issue, kindly add following tag as appropriate
Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>

All warnings (new ones prefixed by >>):

>> arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c:53:13: warning: no previous prototype for function 'poking_init' [-Wmissing-prototypes]
   void __init poking_init(void)
               ^
   arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c:53:1: note: declare 'static' if the function is not intended to be used outside of this translation unit
   void __init poking_init(void)
   ^
   static 
   1 warning generated.

vim +/poking_init +53 arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c

    52	
  > 53	void __init poking_init(void)
    54	{
    55		spinlock_t *ptl; /* for protecting pte table */
    56		pte_t *ptep;
    57	
    58		/*
    59		 * Some parts of the kernel (static keys for example) depend on
    60		 * successful code patching. Code patching under STRICT_KERNEL_RWX
    61		 * requires this setup - otherwise we cannot patch at all. We use
    62		 * BUG_ON() here and later since an early failure is preferred to
    63		 * buggy behavior and/or strange crashes later.
    64		 */
    65		patching_mm = copy_init_mm();
    66		BUG_ON(!patching_mm);
    67	
    68		/*
    69		 * In hash we cannot go above DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW easily.
    70		 * XXX: Do we want additional bits of entropy for radix?
    71		 */
    72		patching_addr = (get_random_long() & PAGE_MASK) %
    73			(DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW - PAGE_SIZE);
    74	
    75		ptep = get_locked_pte(patching_mm, patching_addr, &ptl);
    76		BUG_ON(!ptep);
    77		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
    78	}
    79	

---
0-DAY CI Kernel Test Service, Intel Corporation
https://lists.01.org/hyperkitty/list/kbuild-all@lists.01.org

[-- Attachment #2: .config.gz --]
[-- Type: application/gzip, Size: 30733 bytes --]

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching
@ 2020-06-03  5:19 Christopher M. Riedl
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 11+ messages in thread
From: Christopher M. Riedl @ 2020-06-03  5:19 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: linuxppc-dev, kernel-hardening

When compiled with CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX, the kernel must create
temporary mappings when patching itself. These mappings temporarily
override the strict RWX text protections to permit a write. Currently,
powerpc allocates a per-CPU VM area for patching. Patching occurs as
follows:

	1. Map page of text to be patched to per-CPU VM area w/
	   PAGE_KERNEL protection
	2. Patch text
	3. Remove the temporary mapping

While the VM area is per-CPU, the mapping is actually inserted into the
kernel page tables. Presumably, this could allow another CPU to access
the normally write-protected text - either malicously or accidentally -
via this same mapping if the address of the VM area is known. Ideally,
the mapping should be kept local to the CPU doing the patching (or any
other sensitive operations requiring temporarily overriding memory
protections) [0].

x86 introduced "temporary mm" structs which allow the creation of
mappings local to a particular CPU [1]. This series intends to bring the
notion of a temporary mm to powerpc and harden powerpc by using such a
mapping for patching a kernel with strict RWX permissions.

The first patch introduces the temporary mm struct and API for powerpc
along with a new function to retrieve a current hw breakpoint.

The second patch uses the `poking_init` init hook added by the x86
patches to initialize a temporary mm and patching address. The patching
address is randomized between 0 and DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW-PAGE_SIZE. The
upper limit is necessary due to how the hash MMU operates - by default
the space above DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW is not available. For now, both hash
and radix randomize inside this range. The number of possible random
addresses is dependent on PAGE_SIZE and limited by DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW.

Bits of entropy with 64K page size on BOOK3S_64:

	bits of entropy = log2(DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW_USER64 / PAGE_SIZE)

	PAGE_SIZE=64K, DEFAULT_MAP_WINDOW_USER64=128TB
	bits of entropy = log2(128TB / 64K)
	bits of entropy = 31

Randomization occurs only once during initialization at boot.

The third patch replaces the VM area with the temporary mm in the
patching code. The page for patching has to be mapped PAGE_SHARED with
the hash MMU since hash prevents the kernel from accessing userspace
pages with PAGE_PRIVILEGED bit set. On the radix MMU the page is mapped with
PAGE_KERNEL which has the added benefit that we can skip KUAP. 

The fourth and fifth patches implement an LKDTM test "proof-of-concept" which
exploits the previous vulnerability (ie. the mapping during patching is exposed
in kernel page tables and accessible by other CPUS). The LKDTM test is somewhat
"rough" in that it uses a brute-force approach - I am open to any suggestions
and/or ideas to improve this. Currently, the LKDTM test passes with this series
on POWER8 (hash) and POWER9 (radix, hash) and fails without this series (ie.
the temporary mapping for patching is exposed to CPUs other than the patching
CPU).

The test can be applied to a tree without this new series by first
adding this in /arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c:

 #ifdef CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX
 static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct vm_struct *, text_poke_area);

+#ifdef CONFIG_LKDTM
+unsigned long read_cpu_patching_addr(unsigned int cpu)
+{
+       return (unsigned long)(per_cpu(text_poke_area, cpu))->addr;
+}
+#endif
+
 static int text_area_cpu_up(unsigned int cpu)
 {
        struct vm_struct *area;

And then applying the last patch of this series which adds the LKDTM test,
(powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping).

Tested on QEMU (POWER8, POWER9), POWER8 VM, and a Blackbird (8-core POWER9).

v1:	* Rebase on linuxppc/next (4336b9337824)
	* Save and restore second hw watchpoint
	* Use new ppc_inst_* functions for patching check and in LKDTM
	  test

rfc-v2:	* Many fixes and improvements mostly based on extensive feedback and
          testing by Christophe Leroy (thanks!).
	* Make patching_mm and patching_addr static and mode '__ro_after_init'
	  to after the variable name (more common in other parts of the kernel)
	* Use 'asm/debug.h' header instead of 'asm/hw_breakpoint.h' to fix
	  PPC64e compile
	* Add comment explaining why we use BUG_ON() during the init call to
	  setup for patching later
	* Move ptep into patch_mapping to avoid walking page tables a second
	  time when unmapping the temporary mapping
	* Use KUAP under non-radix, also manually dirty the PTE for patch
	  mapping on non-BOOK3S_64 platforms
	* Properly return any error from __patch_instruction
	* Do not use 'memcmp' where a simple comparison is appropriate
	* Simplify expression for patch address by removing pointer maths
	* Add LKDTM test


[0]: https://github.com/linuxppc/issues/issues/224
[1]: https://lore.kernel.org/kernel-hardening/20190426232303.28381-1-nadav.amit@gmail.com/


Christopher M. Riedl (5):
  powerpc/mm: Introduce temporary mm
  powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching
  powerpc/lib: Use a temporary mm for code patching
  powerpc/lib: Add LKDTM accessor for patching addr
  powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping

 arch/powerpc/include/asm/debug.h       |   1 +
 arch/powerpc/include/asm/mmu_context.h |  64 +++++++++
 arch/powerpc/kernel/process.c          |   5 +
 arch/powerpc/lib/code-patching.c       | 172 +++++++++++++------------
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/core.c              |   1 +
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/lkdtm.h             |   1 +
 drivers/misc/lkdtm/perms.c             | 101 +++++++++++++++
 7 files changed, 260 insertions(+), 85 deletions(-)

-- 
2.26.2


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 11+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 11+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-07-09  4:03 [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching Christopher M. Riedl
2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 1/5] powerpc/mm: Introduce temporary mm Christopher M. Riedl
2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 2/5] powerpc/lib: Initialize a temporary mm for code patching Christopher M. Riedl
2020-07-17  8:57   ` kernel test robot
2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 3/5] powerpc/lib: Use " Christopher M. Riedl
2020-07-09  7:02   ` Christophe Leroy
2020-07-14 19:43     ` Christopher M. Riedl
2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 4/5] powerpc/lib: Add LKDTM accessor for patching addr Christopher M. Riedl
2020-07-09  4:03 ` [PATCH v2 5/5] powerpc: Add LKDTM test to hijack a patch mapping Christopher M. Riedl
2020-07-14 21:24   ` Kees Cook
  -- strict thread matches above, loose matches on Subject: below --
2020-06-03  5:19 [PATCH 0/5] Use per-CPU temporary mappings for patching Christopher M. Riedl

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