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* [PATCH] ARM: decompressor: Avoid UNPREDICTABLE NOP encoding
@ 2021-09-08 16:26 Andre Przywara
  2021-09-09 10:48 ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2021-09-13 22:43 ` Linus Walleij
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Andre Przywara @ 2021-09-08 16:26 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Russell King, Ard Biesheuvel
  Cc: linux-efi, linux-arm-kernel, linux-kernel, Linus Walleij,
	Catalin Marinas, Adam Lackorzynski, Peter Maydell

In the decompressor's head.S we need to start with an instruction that
is some kind of NOP, but also mimics as the PE/COFF header, when the
kernel is linked as an UEFI application. The clever solution here is
"tstne r0, #0x4d000", which in the worst case just clobbers the
condition flags, and bears the magic "MZ" signature in the lowest 16 bits.

However the encoding used (0x13105a4d) is actually not valid, since bits
[15:12] are supposed to be 0 (written as "(0)" in the ARM ARM).
Violating this is UNPREDICTABLE, and *can* trigger an UNDEFINED
exception. Common Cortex cores seem to ignore those bits, but QEMU
chooses to trap, so the code goes fishing because of a missing exception
handler at this point. We are just saved by the fact that commonly (with
-kernel or when running from U-Boot) the "Z" bit is set, so the
instruction is never executed. See [0] for more details.

To make things more robust and avoid UNPREDICTABLE behaviour in the
kernel code, lets replace this with a "two-instruction NOP":
The first instruction is an exclusive OR, the effect of which the second
instruction reverts. This does not leave any trace, neither in a
register nor in the condition flags. Also it's a perfectly valid
encoding. Kudos to Peter Maydell for coming up with this gem.

[0] https://lore.kernel.org/qemu-devel/YTPIdbUCmwagL5%2FD@os.inf.tu-dresden.de/T/

Signed-off-by: Andre Przywara <andre.przywara@arm.com>
Reported-by: Adam Lackorzynski <adam@l4re.org>
Suggested-by: Peter Maydell <peter.maydell@linaro.org>
---
 arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S | 22 ++++++++++++++--------
 arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S       |  3 ++-
 2 files changed, 16 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S
index c0e7a745103e..230030c13085 100644
--- a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S
+++ b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S
@@ -9,16 +9,22 @@
 #include <linux/sizes.h>
 
 		.macro	__nop
-#ifdef CONFIG_EFI_STUB
-		@ This is almost but not quite a NOP, since it does clobber the
-		@ condition flags. But it is the best we can do for EFI, since
-		@ PE/COFF expects the magic string "MZ" at offset 0, while the
-		@ ARM/Linux boot protocol expects an executable instruction
-		@ there.
-		.inst	MZ_MAGIC | (0x1310 << 16)	@ tstne r0, #0x4d000
-#else
  AR_CLASS(	mov	r0, r0		)
   M_CLASS(	nop.w			)
+		.endm
+
+		.macro __initial_nops
+#ifdef CONFIG_EFI_STUB
+		@ This is a two-instruction NOP, which happens to bear the
+		@ PE/COFF signature "MZ" in the first two bytes, so the kernel
+		@ is accepted as an EFI binary. Booting via the UEFI stub
+		@ will not execute those instructions, but the ARM/Linux
+		@ boot protocol does, so we need some NOPs here.
+		.inst	MZ_MAGIC | (0xe225 << 16)	@ eor r5, r5, 0x4d000
+		eor	r5, r5, 0x4d000			@ undo previous insn
+#else
+		__nop
+		__nop
 #endif
 		.endm
 
diff --git a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S
index b1cb1972361b..bf79f2f78d23 100644
--- a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S
+++ b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S
@@ -203,7 +203,8 @@ start:
 		 * were patching the initial instructions of the kernel, i.e
 		 * had started to exploit this "patch area".
 		 */
-		.rept	7
+		__initial_nops
+		.rept	5
 		__nop
 		.endr
 #ifndef CONFIG_THUMB2_KERNEL
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] ARM: decompressor: Avoid UNPREDICTABLE NOP encoding
  2021-09-08 16:26 [PATCH] ARM: decompressor: Avoid UNPREDICTABLE NOP encoding Andre Przywara
@ 2021-09-09 10:48 ` Ard Biesheuvel
  2021-09-13 22:43 ` Linus Walleij
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Ard Biesheuvel @ 2021-09-09 10:48 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andre Przywara
  Cc: Russell King, linux-efi, Linux ARM, Linux Kernel Mailing List,
	Linus Walleij, Catalin Marinas, Adam Lackorzynski, Peter Maydell

On Wed, 8 Sept 2021 at 18:26, Andre Przywara <andre.przywara@arm.com> wrote:
>
> In the decompressor's head.S we need to start with an instruction that
> is some kind of NOP, but also mimics as the PE/COFF header, when the
> kernel is linked as an UEFI application. The clever solution here is
> "tstne r0, #0x4d000", which in the worst case just clobbers the
> condition flags, and bears the magic "MZ" signature in the lowest 16 bits.
>
> However the encoding used (0x13105a4d) is actually not valid, since bits
> [15:12] are supposed to be 0 (written as "(0)" in the ARM ARM).
> Violating this is UNPREDICTABLE, and *can* trigger an UNDEFINED
> exception. Common Cortex cores seem to ignore those bits, but QEMU
> chooses to trap, so the code goes fishing because of a missing exception
> handler at this point. We are just saved by the fact that commonly (with
> -kernel or when running from U-Boot) the "Z" bit is set, so the
> instruction is never executed. See [0] for more details.
>
> To make things more robust and avoid UNPREDICTABLE behaviour in the
> kernel code, lets replace this with a "two-instruction NOP":
> The first instruction is an exclusive OR, the effect of which the second
> instruction reverts. This does not leave any trace, neither in a
> register nor in the condition flags. Also it's a perfectly valid
> encoding. Kudos to Peter Maydell for coming up with this gem.
>
> [0] https://lore.kernel.org/qemu-devel/YTPIdbUCmwagL5%2FD@os.inf.tu-dresden.de/T/
>
> Signed-off-by: Andre Przywara <andre.przywara@arm.com>
> Reported-by: Adam Lackorzynski <adam@l4re.org>
> Suggested-by: Peter Maydell <peter.maydell@linaro.org>

Thanks a lot for fixing this! I had no idea the encoding was invalid.

Reviewed-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ardb@kernel.org>

> ---
>  arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S | 22 ++++++++++++++--------
>  arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S       |  3 ++-
>  2 files changed, 16 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S
> index c0e7a745103e..230030c13085 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S
> +++ b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/efi-header.S
> @@ -9,16 +9,22 @@
>  #include <linux/sizes.h>
>
>                 .macro  __nop
> -#ifdef CONFIG_EFI_STUB
> -               @ This is almost but not quite a NOP, since it does clobber the
> -               @ condition flags. But it is the best we can do for EFI, since
> -               @ PE/COFF expects the magic string "MZ" at offset 0, while the
> -               @ ARM/Linux boot protocol expects an executable instruction
> -               @ there.
> -               .inst   MZ_MAGIC | (0x1310 << 16)       @ tstne r0, #0x4d000
> -#else
>   AR_CLASS(     mov     r0, r0          )
>    M_CLASS(     nop.w                   )
> +               .endm
> +
> +               .macro __initial_nops
> +#ifdef CONFIG_EFI_STUB
> +               @ This is a two-instruction NOP, which happens to bear the
> +               @ PE/COFF signature "MZ" in the first two bytes, so the kernel
> +               @ is accepted as an EFI binary. Booting via the UEFI stub
> +               @ will not execute those instructions, but the ARM/Linux
> +               @ boot protocol does, so we need some NOPs here.
> +               .inst   MZ_MAGIC | (0xe225 << 16)       @ eor r5, r5, 0x4d000
> +               eor     r5, r5, 0x4d000                 @ undo previous insn
> +#else
> +               __nop
> +               __nop
>  #endif
>                 .endm
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S
> index b1cb1972361b..bf79f2f78d23 100644
> --- a/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S
> +++ b/arch/arm/boot/compressed/head.S
> @@ -203,7 +203,8 @@ start:
>                  * were patching the initial instructions of the kernel, i.e
>                  * had started to exploit this "patch area".
>                  */
> -               .rept   7
> +               __initial_nops
> +               .rept   5
>                 __nop
>                 .endr
>  #ifndef CONFIG_THUMB2_KERNEL
> --
> 2.17.1
>

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] ARM: decompressor: Avoid UNPREDICTABLE NOP encoding
  2021-09-08 16:26 [PATCH] ARM: decompressor: Avoid UNPREDICTABLE NOP encoding Andre Przywara
  2021-09-09 10:48 ` Ard Biesheuvel
@ 2021-09-13 22:43 ` Linus Walleij
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 3+ messages in thread
From: Linus Walleij @ 2021-09-13 22:43 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Andre Przywara
  Cc: Russell King, Ard Biesheuvel, linux-efi, Linux ARM, linux-kernel,
	Catalin Marinas, Adam Lackorzynski, Peter Maydell

On Wed, Sep 8, 2021 at 6:26 PM Andre Przywara <andre.przywara@arm.com> wrote:

> In the decompressor's head.S we need to start with an instruction that
> is some kind of NOP, but also mimics as the PE/COFF header, when the
> kernel is linked as an UEFI application. The clever solution here is
> "tstne r0, #0x4d000", which in the worst case just clobbers the
> condition flags, and bears the magic "MZ" signature in the lowest 16 bits.
>
> However the encoding used (0x13105a4d) is actually not valid, since bits
> [15:12] are supposed to be 0 (written as "(0)" in the ARM ARM).
> Violating this is UNPREDICTABLE, and *can* trigger an UNDEFINED
> exception. Common Cortex cores seem to ignore those bits, but QEMU
> chooses to trap, so the code goes fishing because of a missing exception
> handler at this point. We are just saved by the fact that commonly (with
> -kernel or when running from U-Boot) the "Z" bit is set, so the
> instruction is never executed. See [0] for more details.
>
> To make things more robust and avoid UNPREDICTABLE behaviour in the
> kernel code, lets replace this with a "two-instruction NOP":
> The first instruction is an exclusive OR, the effect of which the second
> instruction reverts. This does not leave any trace, neither in a
> register nor in the condition flags. Also it's a perfectly valid
> encoding. Kudos to Peter Maydell for coming up with this gem.
>
> [0] https://lore.kernel.org/qemu-devel/YTPIdbUCmwagL5%2FD@os.inf.tu-dresden.de/T/
>
> Signed-off-by: Andre Przywara <andre.przywara@arm.com>
> Reported-by: Adam Lackorzynski <adam@l4re.org>
> Suggested-by: Peter Maydell <peter.maydell@linaro.org>

Looks like a correct and clever solution to me!
Reviewed-by: Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>

Yours,
Linus Walleij

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 3+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2021-09-13 23:01 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 3+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
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2021-09-08 16:26 [PATCH] ARM: decompressor: Avoid UNPREDICTABLE NOP encoding Andre Przywara
2021-09-09 10:48 ` Ard Biesheuvel
2021-09-13 22:43 ` Linus Walleij

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